Publications by authors named "Travis J Dekker"

80 Publications

Glenoid retroversion does not impact clinical outcomes or implant survivorship after total shoulder arthroplasty with minimal, noncorrective reaming.

JSES Int 2022 Jul 18;6(4):596-603. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA.

Hypothesis: Both clinical outcomes and early rates of failure will not be associated with glenoid retroversion.

Methods: All patients who underwent an anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with minimal, noncorrective reaming between 2006 and 2016 with minimum 2-year follow-up were reviewed. Measurements for retroversion, inclination, and posterior subluxation were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. A regression analysis was performed to assess the association between retroversion, inclination and subluxation, and their effect on patient reported outcomes (PROs). Clinical failures and complications were reported.

Results: One hundred fifty-one anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties (90% follow-up) with a mean follow-up of 4.6 years (range, 2-12 years) were assessed. The mean preoperative retroversion was 15.6° (range, 0.2-42.1), the mean posterior subluxation was 15.1% (range, -3.6 to 44.1%), and the mean glenoid inclination was 13.9° (range, -11.3 to 44.3). All median outcome scores improved significantly from pre- to post-operatively ( < .001). The median satisfaction was 10/10 (1st quartile = 7 and 3rd quartile = 10). Linear regression analysis found no significant association between retroversion and any postoperative PRO. A total of 5 (3.3%) failures occurred due to glenoid implant loosening (3 patients) and Cutibacterium acnes infection (2 patients) with no association between failure causation and increased retroversion or inclination. No correlation could be found between the Walch classification and postoperative PROs.

Conclusion: Anatomic total shoulder replacement with minimal and noncorrective glenoid reaming demonstrates reliable increases in patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes at a mean of 4.6-year follow-up in patients with up to 40° of native retroversion. Higher values of retroversion were not associated with early deterioration of clinical outcomes, revisions, or failures. Long-term studies are needed to see if survivorship and outcomes hold up over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2022.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9264025PMC
July 2022

SLAP Repair Versus Subpectoral Biceps Tenodesis for Isolated SLAP Type 2 Lesions in Overhead Athletes Younger Than 35 Years: Comparison of Minimum 2-Year Outcomes.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Jun 21;10(6):23259671221105239. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: It remains unclear if young overhead athletes with isolated superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) type 2 lesions benefit more from SLAP repair or subpectoral biceps tenodesis.

Purpose: To evaluate clinical outcomes and return to sport in overhead athletes with symptomatic SLAP type 2 lesions who underwent either biceps tenodesis or SLAP repair.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed in patients who underwent subpectoral biceps tenodesis (n = 14) or SLAP repair (n = 24) for the treatment of isolated type 2 SLAP lesions. All patients were aged <35 years at time of surgery, participated in overhead sports, and were at least 2 years out from surgery. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score; Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) score; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score; and the 12-Item Short Form (SF-12) physical component score. Return to sport and patient satisfaction were documented. Clinical failures requiring revision surgery and complications were reported.

Results: Preoperative baseline scores in both the tenodesis and SLAP repair groups were similar. There were no significant differences between the groups on any postoperative outcome measure: For biceps tenodesis versus SLAP repair, the ASES score was 92.7 ± 10.4 versus 89.1 ± 16.7, the SANE score was 86.2 ± 13.7 versus 83.0 ± 24.1, the QuickDASH score was 10.0 ± 12.7 versus 9.0 ± 14.3, and SF-12 was 51.2 ± 7.5 versus 52.8 ± 7.7. No group difference in return-to-sports rate (85% vs 79%; = .640) was noted. More patients in the tenodesis group (80%) reported modifying their sporting/recreational activity postoperatively because of weakness compared with patients in the SLAP repair group (15%; = .022). One patient in each group progressed to surgery for persistent postoperative stiffness, and 1 patient in the tenodesis group had a postoperative complication related to the index surgery.

Conclusion: Both subpectoral biceps tenodesis and SLAP repair provided excellent clinical results for the treatment of isolated SLAP type 2 lesions, with a high rate of return to overhead sports and a low failure rate, in a young and high-demanding patient cohort. More patients reported modifying their sporting/recreational activity because of weakness after subpectoral tenodesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221105239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218463PMC
June 2022

Concomitant Glenolabral Articular Disruption (GLAD) Lesion is Not Associated With Inferior Clinical Outcomes After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair for Shoulder Instability: A Retrospective Comparative Study.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 31;4(3):e1015-e1022. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between anterior shoulder instability patients with and without glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) lesions after undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair and to evaluate potential risk factors for inferior outcomes and recurrent instability.

Methods: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with and without GLAD lesions at a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Consecutive patients were matched by age, sex, and number of anchors. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were evaluated before and after surgery, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, Short Form-12 score, and satisfaction. Recurrent dislocation, subjective instability, and reoperation were analyzed. Additionally, PROs were assessed on the basis of GLAD lesion characteristics.

Results: A total of 54 patients (27 GLAD, 27 control) with a mean age of 28.9 ± 11.6 years were analyzed at mean 4.5 ± 1.9 years (range, 2-9 years) follow-up. Thirty-eight (70.3%) of the participants were male. Patients in both groups experienced significant improvements in all PROs ( ≤ .006 for all measures) and reported high median satisfaction (scale 1-10: 10 vs 10,  = .290) at final follow-up. Two patients in the GLAD cohort and 1 in the control cohort underwent reoperation ( = .588). Four (14.8%) patients in each group reported recurrent dislocation ( = 1.0). Additionally, 2 (7.4%) GLAD patients and 1 (3.7%) control patient reported subjective shoulder instability after surgery ( = 1.0). No significant differences in PROs were observed based on anchor/labral advancement or treatment with microfracture, nor were significant correlations observed between GLAD lesion size and PROs ( > .05 for all).

Conclusion: Arthroscopic Bankart repair in patients with GLAD lesions resulted in significantly improved outcomes with high satisfaction, which was no different when compared with those without GLAD lesions.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2022.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210388PMC
June 2022

Characterization of Cartilage Injury and Associated Treatment at the Time of Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

J Knee Surg 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Orthopedics, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears with concomitant cartilage injuries resulting in ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with cartilaginous procedures are common in the young, high-demand population. The purpose of this study was to report and characterize cartilage treatments performed at the time of index ACLR reconstruction and to determine if those treatments are associated with revision surgery (of any kind) in the 4-year follow-up. We performed a consecutive series of active duty service members in the Military Health System Data Repository with ACLR with and without concomitant cartilage procedures done at military facilities between October 2008 and September 2011. Patients were continuously enrolled with no history of knee surgeries for 2 years prior to primary ACLR. ACLR failure was defined as revision ACLR within 4 years following the primary ACLR. Of the 2,735 primary ACLRs included in the study, 5.3% (143/2,735) underwent isolated ACLR with a cartilage procedure. Of these patients, 23.07% (33/143) experienced ACLR failure within 4 years after ACLR with cartilage procedures, including 33.33% (11/33) undergoing revision ACLR. We found concomitant cartilage procedures at time of index ACLR to have the following rates of revision 35.59% (21/59) for microfracture, 14.63% (6/41) for chondroplasty, and 13.95% (6/43) for osteochondral grafts. The overall clinical failure rate of service members with ACLR plus concomitant cartilage procedure is 23.07% with minimum 4-year follow-up. Further research should be done to identify modifiable demographic and surgical factors associated with failure. This is a retrospective case-control study that reflects level of evidence III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-1748173DOI Listing
June 2022

Improved Accuracy of Coronal Alignment Can Be Attained Using 3D Printed PSI for Knee Osteotomies: A Systemic Review of Level III and IV Studies.

Arthroscopy 2022 Mar 2. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Eglin Air Force Base, Eglin, Florida, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of postoperative coronal plane alignment using 3D-printed patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) in the setting of proximal tibial or distal femoral osteotomies.

Methods: A systematic review evaluating the accuracy of 3D-printed PSI for coronal plane alignment correcting knee osteotomies was performed. The primary outcomes were accuracy of coronal plane limb alignment correction and number of correction outliers. Secondary variables were duration of surgery, number of intraoperative fluoroscopic images, complications, cost, and clinical outcomes (as applicable).

Results: Ninety-three studies were identified, and 14 were included in the final analysis. Overall, mean postoperative deviation from target correction ranged from 0.3° to 1° for all studies using hip-knee angle measurements and 2.3% to 4.9% for all studies using weight-bearing line measurements. The incidence of correction outliers was assessed in 8 total studies and ranged from 0 to 25% (total n = 10 knees) of patients corrected with 3D-printed PSI. Osteotomies performed with 3D-printed cutting guides or wedges demonstrated significantly shorter operative times (P < .05) and fewer intraoperative fluoroscopic images (P < .05) than control groups in four case control studies.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing distal femoral osteotomy or proximal tibial osteotomy procedures with 3D-printed patient-specific cutting guides and wedges had highly accurate coronal plane alignment with a low rate of outliers. Patients treated with 3D printed PSI also demonstrated significantly shorter operative times and decreased intraoperative fluoroscopy when compared to conventional techniques.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review of Level III-IV studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.02.023DOI Listing
March 2022

Acute Intervention With Selective Interleukin-1 Inhibitor Therapy May Reduce the Progression of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence.

Arthroscopy 2022 Aug 19;38(8):2543-2556. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Eglin Air Force Base, Eglin, Florida, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of selective interleukin (IL)-1 inhibitor therapy in the reduction of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) progression following knee ligament or meniscal injury.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted evaluating the disease-modifying efficacy of selective IL-1 inhibition in the setting of knee PTOA.

Results: The literature search identified 364 articles and 11 studies were included (n = 10 preclinical, n = 1 clinical). Drug delivery in preclinical studies was administered using IL-1Ra-encoded helper-dependent adenovirus particles (n = 3), synovial cells transfected with an IL-1Ra-encoded retroviral vector (n = 3), or varying chemical compositions of nonviral microcapsule gene carriers (n = 4). Intervention with selective IL-1 inhibitor therapy within 2 weeks of injury provided the greatest protective benefits in reducing the progression of PTOA regardless of drug delivery methodology in preclinical models. The majority of studies reported significantly better cartilage integrity and reduction in lesion size in animals treated with gene therapy with the greatest effects seen in those treated within 5 to 7 days of injury.

Conclusions: Early intervention with selective IL-1 inhibitor therapy were effective in reducing proinflammatory IL-1β levels in the acute and subacute phases following traumatic knee injury in preclinical animal model studies, while significantly reducing cartilage damage, lesion size, and PTOA progression at short-term follow-up. However, it was found that the effect of these therapies diminished over time.

Clinical Relevance: Acute, intra-articular injection of selective IL-1 inhibitors may reduce PTOA progression, supporting the need for additional basic and clinical investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.02.009DOI Listing
August 2022

Comparative Outcomes Occur After Superficial Medial Collateral Ligament Augmented Repair vs Reconstruction: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial.

Am J Sports Med 2022 03 2;50(4):968-976. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopaedics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Although previous studies have reported good short-term results for superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) reconstruction, whether an augmented MCL repair is clinically equivalent remains unclear.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes between randomized groups that underwent sMCL augmentation repair and sMCL autograft reconstruction. The hypothesis was that there would be no significant differences in objective or subjective outcomes between groups.

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

Methods: Patients were prospectively enrolled between 2013 and 2019 from 3 centers. Grade III sMCL injuries were confirmed via stress radiography. Patients were randomized to anatomic sMCL reconstruction versus augmented repair with surgical treatment, determined after examination under anesthesia confirmed sMCL incompetence. Postoperative visits occurred at 6 weeks and 6 months for repeat evaluation, with repeat stress radiography at final follow-up. Patient-reported outcome measures were obtained pre- and postoperatively at 6 months, 1 year, and final follow-up. The primary outcome measure was side-to-side difference on valgus stress radiographs at a minimum follow-up of 1 year. The two 1-sided test procedure was used to test clinical equivalence for side-to-side difference in valgus gapping, and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare postoperative patient-reported outcome measures between groups.

Results: A total of 54 patients were prospectively enrolled into this study. Of these, 50 patients had 6-month stress radiograph data, while 40 had 1-year postoperative valgus stress radiograph data. The mean (SD) patient age was 38.0 years (14.2), and body mass index was 25.0 (3.6). Preoperative valgus stress radiographs demonstrated 3.74 mm (1.1 mm) of increased side-to-side gapping overall, while it was 4.10 mm (1.46 mm) in the MCL augmentation group and 3.42 mm (0.55 mm) in the MCL reconstruction group. Postoperative valgus stress radiographs at an average of 6 months were obtained in 50 patients after surgery, which showed 0.21 mm (0.81 mm) for the MCL augmentation group and 0.19 mm (0.67 mm) for the MCL reconstruction group ( = .940). At final follow-up (minimum 1 year), median (interquartile range) Lysholm scores were significantly higher in the reconstruction group (90 [83-99]) as compared with the repair group (80 [67-92]) ( = .031). Final International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also significantly higher for the reconstruction group (85 [68-89]) versus the repair group (72 [60-78] ( = .039). Postoperative Tegner scores were not significantly different between the repair group (5 [3.5-6]) and the reconstruction group (5.5 [4-7]) ( = .123). Patient satisfaction was also not significantly different between repair (7.5 [5.75-9.25]) and reconstruction groups (9.0 [7-10]) ( = .184).

Conclusion: This study found no difference in objective outcomes between an sMCL augmentation repair and a complete sMCL reconstruction at 1 year postoperatively, indicating equivalence between these procedures. Patient-reported clinical outcomes favored the reconstruction over a repair. In addition, this study demonstrated that anatomic-based treatment of MCL tears with an early knee motion program had a very low risk of graft attenuation and a low risk of arthrofibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211069373DOI Listing
March 2022

Autograft Versus Allograft: The Evidence in Hip Labral Reconstruction and Augmentation.

Am J Sports Med 2021 11 19;49(13):3575-3581. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Labral augmentation and labral reconstruction have emerged as essential procedures for restoring the anatomic and functional characteristics of the hip joint in patients with a deficient hip labrum or irreparable labral tear.

Hypothesis/purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare allograft and autograft hip labral reconstruction and augmentation. We hypothesized that autografts would entail fewer revision arthroscopic procedures.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients were identified who underwent labral reconstruction or labral augmentation using iliotibial band (ITB) allograft or ITB autograft performed by a single surgeon between 2011 and 2017. Patient-reported outcome measures collected before surgery and at minimum 2-year follow-up included the following: Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living and Hip Outcome Score Sports-Specific Subscale and, at follow-up, patient satisfaction (range, 1-10, with 10 being very satisfied). Patients followed a standardized rehabilitation protocol after surgery with relative individualization to address each patient's needs. For continuous variables, comparisons between allografts and autografts were made using Student tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Categorical comparisons were assessed using chi-square or Fisher exact test. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the influence of graft choice on risk of revision or THA.

Results: A total of 205 hips met 2-year inclusion criteria. ITB allografts were used for 55 patients (37 augmentations, 18 reconstructions) and ITB autografts for 150 patients (34 augmentations, 116 reconstructions). Females represented a greater proportion of allograft versus autograft patients (71% vs 46%, respectively; = .001). Overall, autograft patients had larger alpha angles (66.6° vs 59.1°; = .001) and longer grafts (46 vs 41 mm; = .03) compared with allograft patients. A total of 13 (23.6%) patients required revision surgery in the allograft group compared with 11 (7.3%) in the autograft group ( < .001). After controlling for sex, procedure (reconstruction vs augmentation), and previous surgery, the odds of revision were higher for allograft patients (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.5-11.6). No significant differences in conversion to THA were observed between groups (allograft = 9%; autograft = 6%; = .50), even after adjustment for the above covariates (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.6-7.9). No differences in postoperative patient-reported outcome measures or patient satisfaction were observed between groups.

Conclusion: Labral augmentation or reconstruction with autograft has a significantly lower revision rate than labral augmentation or reconstruction with allograft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211042633DOI Listing
November 2021

A High-Sensitivity International Knee Documentation Committee Survey Index From the PROMIS System: The Next-Generation Patient-Reported Outcome for a Knee Injury Population.

Am J Sports Med 2021 11 6;49(13):3561-3568. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Maryland, USA.

Background: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure progression and quality of care. While legacy PROs such as the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) survey are well-validated, a lengthy PRO creates a time burden on patients, decreasing adherence. In recent years, PROs such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function and Pain Interference surveys were developed as computer adaptive tests, reducing time to completion. Previous studies have examined correlation between legacy PROs and PROMIS; however, no studies have developed effective prediction models utilizing PROMIS to create an IKDC index. While the IKDC is the standard knee PRO, computer adaptive PROs offer numerous practical advantages.

Purpose: To develop a nonlinear predictive model utilizing PROMIS Physical Function and Pain Interference to estimate IKDC survey scores and examine algorithm sensitivity and validity.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: The MOTION (Military Orthopaedics Tracking Injuries and Outcomes Network) database is a prospectively collected repository of PROs and intraoperative variables. Patients undergoing knee surgery completed the IKDC and PROMIS surveys at varying time points. Nonlinear multivariable predictive models using Gaussian and beta distributions were created to establish an IKDC index score, which was then validated using leave-one-out techniques and minimal clinically important difference analysis.

Results: A total of 1011 patients completed the IKDC and PROMIS Physical Function and Pain Interference, providing 1618 complete observations. The algorithms for the Gaussian and beta distribution were validated to predict the IKDC (Pearson = 0.84-0.86; = 0.71-0.74; root mean square error = 9.3-10.0).

Conclusion: The publicly available predictive models can approximate the IKDC score. The results can be used to compare PROMIS Physical Function and Pain Interference against historical IKDC scores by creating an IKDC index score. Serial use of the IKDC index allows for a lower minimal clinically important difference than the conventional IKDC. PROMIS can be substituted to reduce patient burden, increase completion rates, and produce orthopaedic-specific survey analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211041593DOI Listing
November 2021

Superior Capsule Reconstruction With a 3 mm-Thick Dermal Allograft Partially Restores Glenohumeral Stability in Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Deficiency: A Dynamic Robotic Shoulder Model.

Am J Sports Med 2021 07 3;49(8):2056-2063. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) has been shown to improve shoulder function and reduce pain in patients with isolated irreparable supraspinatus tendon tears. However, the effects of SCR on biomechanics in a shoulder with an extensive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear pattern remain unknown.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to (1) establish a dynamic robotic shoulder model, (2) assess the influence of rotator cuff tear patterns, and (3) assess the effects of SCR on superior humeral head translation after a posterosuperior rotator cuff tear. It was hypothesized that a posterosuperior rotator cuff tear would increase superior humeral head translation when compared with the intact and supraspinatus tendon-deficient state and that SCR would reduce superior humeral head translation in shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested using a robotic arm. Kinematic testing was performed in 4 conditions: (1) intact, (2) simulated irreparable supraspinatus tendon tear, (3) simulated irreparable supra- and infraspinatus tendon tear, and (4) SCR using a 3 mm-thick dermal allograft (DA). Kinematic testing consisted of static 40-N superior force tests at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of abduction and dynamic flexion, abduction, and scaption motions. In each test, the superior translation of the humeral head was reported.

Results: In static testing, SCR significantly reduced humeral superior translation compared with rotator cuff tear at all abduction angles. SCR restored the superior stability back to native at 60° and 90° of abduction, but the humeral head remained significantly and superiorly translated at neutral position and at 30° of abduction. The results of dynamic testing showed a significantly increased superior translation in the injured state at lower elevation angles, which diminished at higher elevation, becoming nonsignificant at elevation >75°. SCR reduced the magnitude of superior translation across all elevation angles, but translation remained significantly different from the intact state up to 60° of elevation.

Conclusion: Massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears increased superior glenohumeral translation when compared with the intact and supraspinatus tendon-insufficient rotator cuff states. SCR using a 3-mm DA partially restored the superior stability of the glenohumeral joint even in the presence of a simulated massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear in a static and dynamic robotic shoulder model.

Clinical Relevance: The biomechanical performance concerning glenohumeral stability after SCR in shoulders with large posterosuperior rotator cuff tears is unclear and may affect clinical outcomes in daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211013364DOI Listing
July 2021

An Acute Osteochondral Defect Secondary to Fabella Impaction: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):e2000513

1The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado 2Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado.

Case: A healthy 37-year-old man sustained a knee injury after performing a deep flexion maneuver while skiing and noted immediate knee pain and swelling. Because of persistent inability to fully extend his knee and persistent posterolateral knee pain, he was evaluated and noted to have an acute osteochondral defect of the posterolateral femoral condyle directly adjacent to his fabella. After a trial of nonoperative interventions, he elected to undergo an arthroscopic-assisted open excision of the fabella and a chondroplasty of the posterolateral femoral condyle defect.

Conclusion: A traumatic osteochondral defect secondary to a lateral fabella impaction is a rare pathology but must be evaluated in patients performing deep flexion maneuvers who have persistent knee pain and mechanical symptoms. When there is a focal defect with increased edema of both the fabella and posterolateral femoral condyle, an arthroscopic chondroplasty and fabella excision is a valid treatment to return the patient back to desired activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00513DOI Listing
April 2022

Mobilized Peripheral Blood Stem Cells are Pluripotent and Can Be Safely Harvested and Stored for Cartilage Repair.

Arthroscopy 2021 11 30;37(11):3347-3356. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Kuala Lumpur Sports Medicine Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to reproduce and validate the harvest, processing and storage of peripheral blood stem cells for a subsequent cartilage repair trial, evaluating safety, reliability, and potential to produce viable, sterile stem cells.

Methods: Ten healthy subjects (aged 19-44 years) received 3 consecutive daily doses of filgrastim followed by an apheresis harvest of mononuclear cells on a fourth day. In a clean room, the apheresis product was prepared for cryopreservation and processed into 4 mL aliquots. Sterility and qualification testing were performed pre-processing and post-processing at multiple time points out to 2 years. Eight samples were shipped internationally to validate cell transport potential. One sample from all participants was cultured to test proliferative potential with colony forming unit (CFU) assay. Five samples, from 5 participants were tested for differentiation potential, including chondrogenic, adipogenic, osteogenic, endoderm, and ectoderm assays.

Results: Fresh aliquots contained an average of 532.9 ± 166. × 10 total viable cells/4 mL vial and 2.1 ± 1.0 × 10 CD34+ cells/4 mL vial. After processing for cryopreservation, the average cell count decreased to 331.3 ± 79. × 10 total viable cells /4 mL vial and 1.5 ± 0.7 × 10 CD34+ cells/4 mL vial CD34+ cells. Preprocessing viability averaged 99% and postprocessing 88%. Viability remained constant after cryopreservation at all subsequent time points. All sterility testing was negative. All samples showed proliferative potential, with average CFU count 301.4 ± 63.9. All samples were pluripotent.

Conclusions: Peripheral blood stem cells are pluripotent and can be safely harvested/stored with filgrastim, apheresis, clean-room processing, and cryopreservation. These cells can be stored for 2 years and shipped without loss of viability.

Clinical Relevance: This method represents an accessible stem cell therapy in development to augment cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.04.036DOI Listing
November 2021

Sex and Age Comparisons in Neuromuscular And Biomechanical Characteristics of the Knee in Young Athletes.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Apr 1;16(2):438-449. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Atrium Health Musculoskeletal Institute.

Background: The identification of risk factors for injury is a key step for musculoskeletal injury prevention in youth sports. Not identifying and correcting for injury risk factors may result in lost opportunity for athletic development. Physical maturation and sex affect these characteristics, which may indicate the need for both age and sex-based injury prevention programs.

Hypothesis/purpose: This study examined age and sex differences in knee strength, static balance, jump height, and lower extremity landing biomechanics in school- and high school-age athletes.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Methods: Forty healthy school aged (10.8±0.8 yrs) and forty high school (16.8±0.8 yrs) athletes completed isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength tests, single-leg static balance and single-leg vertical stop jump tasks.

Results: High school athletes were significantly stronger (~67% and 35% stronger for males and females, respectively) and jumped higher (regardless of sex) compared to school age athletes. High school males had worse balance (~28%) compared to their younger counterparts. High school females had lower strength (~23%) compared to males but had better balance (~46%). Conclusion: Maturation had different effects on the variables analyzed and sex differences were mainly observed after maturation. These differences may be minimized through appropriate age and sex specific training programs.

Levels Of Evidence: 3a.

Clinical Relevance: Neuromuscular and biomechanical differences between sex and age groups should be accounted for in injury prevention and rehabilitation. Inadequate training may be a primary factor contributing to injuries in a young athletic population. When designing training programs for long term athlete development, programs should be dependent on decrements seen at specific time points throughout maturation.What is known about the subject: Generally, both males and females get stronger and jump higher as they get older but the results comparing balance and biomechanics between genders or across age groups have been mixed.What this study adds to existing knowledge: The current study looks at multiple neuromuscular and biomechanical variables in male and female participants at different maturation statuses. The current data supports the significant changes observed in strength and jump height, as both genders age, but the data also demonstrates significant differences in balance between age groups in males and between genders in balance and knee flexion angles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26603/001c.21358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016419PMC
April 2021

Preventative and Disease-Modifying Investigations for Osteoarthritis Management Are Significantly Under-represented in the Clinical Trial Pipeline: A 2020 Review.

Arthroscopy 2021 08 31;37(8):2627-2639. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Twin Cities Orthopedics, Edina, Minnesota, U.S.A. Electronic address:

Purpose: To conduct a review of active United States-based clinical trials investigating preventative, symptom resolution, and disease-modifying therapies for osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: We conducted a review of currently active clinical trials for OA using data obtained from the ClinicalTrials.gov database as of August 2020. The inclusion criteria were active studies registered in the United States that involved the prevention, symptom resolution, or disease modification of OA. Descriptive statistics were recorded and summarized.

Results: A total of 3,859 clinical trials were identified, and 310 were included in the final analysis. Of the currently active trials, 89% (n = 275) targeted symptom resolution in patients with existing OA, 6% (n = 19) targeted OA disease-modifying therapeutics, and 5% (n = 16) targeted the prevention of OA in high-risk patients (P < .001). Primary interventions included medical devices (44%, n = 137), pharmaceutical drugs (14%, n = 42), surgical procedures (14%, n = 42), cellular biologics (13%, n = 41), and behavioral therapies (13%, n = 41). There was a significantly higher number of disease-modifying therapeutics for cellular biologics than pharmaceutical drugs (30% vs 14%) (P = .015). Most trials targeted the knee joint (63%, P = .042), with 38% of all trials evaluating joint arthroplasty. There were no significant differences between private sector and government funding sources (43% and 49%, respectively) (P = .288), yet there was a significantly lower rate of funding from industry (8%) (P = .026).

Conclusions: There was a significantly higher number of clinical trials investigating symptomatic resolution therapy (89%) for existing OA in comparison to preventative (5%) and disease-modifying (6%) therapies. The most common interventions involved medical devices and joint replacement surgery, with the knee joint accounting for more than 60% of the current clinical trials for OA. There was a significantly higher number of disease-modifying therapeutics for cellular biologics than pharmaceutical drugs. Funding of clinical trials was split between the private sector and government, with a low rate of reported funding from industry partners.

Clinical Relevance: Identifying existing needs in the current market may help increase rates of research funding or optimize current funding pathways, in this study, specifically for targeting unaddressed focus areas in OA research. Our systematic review highlights the potential need for additional research and development regarding OA preventative and disease-modifying therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.03.050DOI Listing
August 2021

Chondral Lesions of the Knee: An Evidence-Based Approach.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 04;103(7):629-645

Twin Cities Orthopedics, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

: Management of chondral lesions of the knee is challenging and requires assessment of several factors including the size and location of the lesion, limb alignment and rotation, and the physical and mental health of the individual patient.

: There are a multitude of options to address chondral pathologies of the knee that allow individualized treatment for the specific needs and demands of the patient.

: Osteochondral autograft transfer remains a durable and predictable graft option in smaller lesions (<2 cm2) in the young and active patient population.

: Both mid-term and long-term results for large chondral lesions (≥3 cm2) of the knee have demonstrated favorable results with the use of osteochondral allograft or matrix-associated chondrocyte implantation.

: Treatment options for small lesions (<2 cm2) include osteochondral autograft transfer and marrow stimulation and/or microfracture with biologic adjunct, while larger lesions (≥2 cm2) are typically treated with osteochondral allograft transplantation, particulated juvenile articular cartilage, or matrix-associated chondrocyte implantation.

: Emerging technologies, such as allograft scaffolds and cryopreserved allograft, are being explored for different graft sources to address complex knee chondral pathology; however, further study is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01161DOI Listing
April 2021

Meniscal Repair Techniques for Middle- and Posterior-Third Tears.

Arthroscopy 2021 03 14;37(3):792-794. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Eglin Air Force Base, Eglin AFB, Florida, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Technical advancements in meniscal repairs have greatly contributed to the ability to repair a variety of meniscal tears that were once thought untreatable. The gold-standard treatment for arthroscopic meniscal body repair remains an inside-out technique. The advantages of this technique are innate to the low-profile nature of the suture-passing construct, which allows for perpendicular access to tears with the benefit of multiple fixation points, in contrast to often bulkier all-inside repair devices. This technique requires a posteromedial or posterolateral incision for safe suture passing and needle retrieval and necessitates a surgical team experienced in this method of repair. However, the newest generation of all-inside devices has allowed for more facile placement of a variety of suture types. The all-inside repair technique includes both capsular-based and meniscal-based fixation, is not limited by a need for additional experienced surgical personnel to pass and retrieve needles, and does not require additional incisions. Regardless of fixation type, meniscal repair has been shown to improve long-term functional scores when compared with meniscectomy. Additionally, biological adjuncts have been introduced into the repair algorithm to improve healing rates when performing isolated meniscal repairs. Preparing the healing site with abrasion or trephination creates vascular channels that can facilitate repair. Intercondylar-notch marrow venting attempts to replicate the environment created by anterior cruciate ligament drilling for which healing rates are notably higher than those with isolated meniscal repairs. The use of fibrin clots in inside-out meniscal repairs with suturing of the clot to the area of the tear has also shown promising early healing rates on both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy. Finally, biological adjuncts such as platelet-rich plasma and concentrated bone marrow aspirate have shown both early clinical and radiographic improvements in Level IV case series, but further research is needed to more definitively measure their utility in the setting of meniscal repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.01.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Limited Predictive Value of the Instability Severity Index Score: Evaluation of 217 Consecutive Cases of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability.

Arthroscopy 2021 05 17;37(5):1381-1391. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To review the existing variables and their ability to predict recurrence of shoulder instability as it relates to the Instability Severity Index Score (ISIS), as well as evaluate any other pertinent imaging and patient history variables that may impact risk of recurrent anterior instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair.

Methods: All consecutive patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and who had arthroscopic instability repair were identified. Exclusion criteria were prior surgery on the shoulder, posterior or multidirectional instability, instability caused by seizure disorder, or a rotator cuff tear. All ISIS variables were recorded (age <20 years, sport type and level, hyperlaxity, Hill-Sachs on anteroposterior external rotation radiograph, loss of glenoid contour on anteroposterior radiograph), as well as additional variables: (1) number of instability events; (2) total time of instability; (3) glenoid bone loss (GBL) percent; and (4) Hill-Sachs measures (H/L/W/D/Volume). Postoperative outcomes were assessed based on the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and recurrent anterior instability. Regression analysis was used to determine preoperative variables that predicted outcomes and failures.

Results: There were 217 consecutive patients (209 male patients [96.5%], 8 female patients [3.5%]) who met the inclusion criteria and were all treated with a primary arthroscopic shoulder stabilization during a 3.5-year period (2007-2011), with a mean follow-up time of 42 months (range, 26-58). The mean age at first instability event was 23.9 years (range, 16-48 years) and the mean cumulative ISIS score for the overall group was 3.6 (range, 1-6). Outcomes were improved from mean preoperative (WOSI = 1,050/2,100; ASES = 61.0; SANE = 52.5) to postoperative (WOSI = 305/2,100; ASES = 93.5; SANE = 95.5). A total of 11.5% (25/217) of patients had evidence of recurrent instability (subluxation or dislocation). Additionally, all 25 patients who failed postoperatively also had consistently inferior ASES, SANE, and WOSI outcome scores when compared with successfully treated patients. Factors associated with failure were GBL greater than 14.5% (P < .001), total time of instability symptoms greater than 3 months (P = .03), Hill-Sachs volume greater than 1.3 cm (P = .02), contact sports participation (P = .05), and age 20 years or younger (P < .01). There was no correlation in outcomes with Hill-Sachs on presence of glenoid contour loss on radiograph (P = .07), participation sports, or ISIS (mean = 3.4 success vs 3.9 failure, P > .05).

Conclusions: At a mean follow-up of 42 months was an 11.5% failure rate after arthroscopic Bankart stabilization surgery. This study shows no correlation between treatment outcome and the ISIS measure, given a mean score of 3.4 for the overall cohort with little difference identified in those who failed. However, several important parameters previously unidentified were detected including, GBL greater than 14.5%, Hill-Sachs volume greater than 1.3 cm, and duration of instability symptoms (>3 months). The ISIS may need to be redesigned to incorporate variables that more accurately portray the actual risk of failure after arthroscopic stabilization, including quantification of both glenoid and humeral head bone loss.

Level Of Evidence: III (Retrospective Case Series).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.12.185DOI Listing
May 2021

Anterior Shoulder Instability in the Professional Athlete: Return to Competition, Time to Return, and Career Length.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Nov 4;8(11):2325967120959728. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

United States Air Force, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA.

Background: Anterior shoulder instability is a common condition in professional athletes, yet little is known about the success of surgery. Return to competition (RTC) is a metric indicative of a successful outcome for professional athletes who undergo anterior shoulder stabilization surgery.

Purpose: To determine the rate of RTC, time to RTC, recurrence rate, and length of career after surgery in professional athletes who had undergone surgical treatment for anterior shoulder instability.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: We evaluated professional athletes who underwent surgical treatment for anterior shoulder instability by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2018. Data from patients' medical records, a patient data registry, basic search engines, sports websites, and individual team websites were used to determine length of professional play before injury, duration of career after surgery, and RTC level.

Results: Overall, 23 professional athletes (25 shoulders from 12 contact and 13 noncontact athletes) were identified. The mean age at the time of surgery was 24.3 ± 4.9 years (range, 16-35 years). Primary procedures included arthroscopic Bankart repair (76%; 19/25), open Latarjet (20%; 5/25), and bony Bankart repair (4%; 1/25). Of the 23 athletes, 22 returned to their previous level of competition (96%; 95% CI, 78%-100%). The mean time between surgery and RTC was 4.5 months (range, 3-8 months). There was no difference in time to RTC between contact and noncontact athletes (4.1 vs 4.4 months). There was no difference in RTC rates and time to return for players who received a Bankart repair versus a Latarjet procedure (4.6 vs 4.2 months). A total of 12 participants were still actively engaged in their respective sport at an average of 4.3 years since surgery, while 11 athletes went on to retire at an average of 4.8 years. Duration of play after surgery was 3.8 years for contact athletes and 5.8 years for noncontact athletes ( > .05).

Conclusion: In this series, professional athletes who underwent surgical shoulder stabilization for the treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability returned to their presurgical levels of competition at a high rate. No differences in RTC rate or time to RTC were observed for contact versus noncontact athletes or for those who received arthroscopic Bankart repair versus open Latarjet. However, contact athletes had shorter careers after surgery than did noncontact athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120959728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645762PMC
November 2020

Fibular Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Graft Options: Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Autograft Versus Allograft.

Arthroscopy 2021 03 27;37(3):944-950. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Twin Cities Orthopaedics, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare varus knee stability and clinical outcomes between patients who underwent fibular collateral ligament reconstruction (FCLR) or lateral collateral ligament (LCL) reconstruction with autografts versus allografts when undergoing concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

Methods: All patients who underwent primary ACLR and concomitant FCLR from 2010 to 2017 performed by a single surgeon (R.F.L.) were retrospectively identified. Clinical characteristics and graft choices for FCLR were collected. Patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up for clinical outcome scores and 6-month stress radiographs were included. Patients with any other ligamentous procedure or revision ACLR were excluded.

Results: We identified 69 primary ACLR with concomitant FCLR patients who met the inclusion criteria. Fifty patients underwent FCLR with semitendinosus autografts, and 19 with allografts. There were no significant side-to-side differences (SSDs) in lateral compartment gapping on varus stress x-rays between the 2 cohorts (allograft, 0.49 mm; autograft, 0.15 mm, P = .22), and no FCLR failures. There were no significant differences between autograft and allograft groups at minimum 2-year outcomes for 12-Item Short Form mental or physical composite score (SF12 MCS, P = .134; SF12 PCS, P = .642), WOMAC total (P = .158), pain (P = .116), stiffness (P = .061), or activity (P = .252); International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) (P = .337), Tegner (P = .601), Lysholm (P = .622), or patient satisfaction (P = .218). There were no significant differences in clinical knee stability between groups at an average follow-up of 3.6 years (P = 1.0).

Conclusion: There were no differences in varus stress laxity 6 months postoperatively or clinical outcome scores at ≥2 years postoperatively between patients having FCL reconstructions with either autograft or allograft. This study demonstrates that both hamstring autografts and allografts for FCL reconstructions offer reliable and similar radiographic and clinical results at short-term follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: III, retrospective comparative trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.10.034DOI Listing
March 2021

Biologics to Improve Healing in Large and Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: A Critical Review.

Orthop Res Rev 2020 13;12:151-160. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Steadman-Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO 81657, USA.

Large and massive rotator cuff tears have the highest risk of retear. Common biologic modalities that can potentially reduce the retear rate and improve healing include platelet-rich plasma (PRP), scaffolds, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). PRP has been studied for its role in improving rotator cuff healing and results of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses show mixed results. Most studies in large and massivge tears show that PRP decreases the retear rate, but the connection between structural integrity and clinical outcomes is still unknown. Extracellular matrix (ECM) and synthetic scaffolds can increase healing in augmentation and bridging repair. Acellular dermal allografts have shown better healing rates and outcomes than xenografts in meta-analyses. Synthetic scaffolds augmented with bone marrow-derived stem cells have only been studied in vitro but are promising for the combination of mechanical stability and induction of a biological response. Superior capsule reconstruction is an exciting type of interposition graft reconstruction that has shown favorable early clinical outcomes for large and massive tears. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells improve the biomechanical characteristics of tendon repair and enhance the histological findings of the healing process in animal studies. However, evidence from human studies is lacking, especially in patients with large and massive tears. In summary, there are many biological options to augment rotator cuff repair in patients with large and massive tears. Due to mixed results and a lack of standardization in high-quality studies, we cannot recommend PRP at this time as an adjunct to rotator cuff repair. Both ECM and synthetic scaffolds, as well as SCR, can be used, especially in situations where native tendon is compromised, and additional mechanical augmentation is needed. Stem cells have been the least studied to date, so it is difficult to give recommendations for or against their use at this time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S260657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568683PMC
October 2020

Posterior Glenoid Augmentation With Extra-articular Iliac Crest Autograft for Recurrent Posterior Shoulder Instability.

Arthrosc Tech 2020 Sep 11;9(9):e1227-e1233. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Several techniques have been described for bone block augmentation as a treatment for posterior shoulder instability, including intra-articular distal tibial allograft and extra-articular iliac crest autograft. Although indications are not yet well defined, these bone augmentation procedures are considered in patients with glenoid bone loss, increased glenoid retroversion, previous failed posterior soft-tissue repair, and insufficient posterior capsulolabral tissue. In patients with posterior glenoid bone loss, the senior author (P.J.M.) recommends intra-articular glenoid reconstruction with a fresh distal tibial osteoarticular allograft. In patients with insufficient posterior capsulolabral tissue, the senior author prefers an extra-articular iliac crest autograft to buttress the posterior soft-tissue restraints. This technique guide outlines extra-articular iliac crest autograft treatment for recurrent posterior shoulder instability in patients with insufficient posterior soft tissues due to prior failed surgery. After an open capsulolabral repair is performed using suture anchors, the bone block is placed extra-articularly on the posterior glenoid neck.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2020.04.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528205PMC
September 2020

Total shoulder arthroplasty outcomes after noncorrective, concentric reaming of B2 glenoids.

JSES Int 2020 Sep 6;4(3):644-648. Epub 2020 May 6.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA.

Background: Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is an effective procedure for the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA) delivering reliable pain relief and improved shoulder function. Abnormal glenoid morphologies are common, and biconcave glenoids are enigmas that have been associated with poor clinical outcomes and implant survivorship.

Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome scores of patients who underwent noncorrective, concentric reaming for TSA with biconcave glenoids (B2). We hypothesized that patients with B2 glenoids who underwent TSA with glenoid implantation using noncorrective, concentric reaming would have significant improvements in clinical outcome scores and high implant survivorship.

Methods: All patients who underwent anatomic TSA for GHOA with B2 glenoids, performed by a single surgeon, between July 2006 and December 2015 with minimum 2-year follow-up were reviewed. Walch classification was obtained from preoperative imaging (magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography). Clinical outcome scores were prospectively collected and included American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) score, Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) score, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score, 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical component summary (PCS), and patient satisfaction. Clinical failures (revision TSA surgery or conversion to reverse TSA) and complications were reported. Paired test and bivariate correlations level of significance was set at  = .05. Survivorship analysis with implant failure as an endpoint was done using Kaplan-Meier survival curves.

Results: 51 TSA in 49 patients (9 females, 40 males) with primary GHOA with B2 glenoids were performed with a mean age of 64 (range 36-81 years) at the time of surgery. The mean retroversion was 19.1° (range 5.4°-38°), and posterior decentering was 42.0% (range 19.4%-78.5%). At final evaluation, 45/51 anatomic TSAs (88% follow-up) with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (range 2.0-10.4 years) were assessed. All clinical outcome scores improved significantly pre- to postoperatively: ASES, 52.5 to 79.6 ( < .001); SANE, 52.4 to 74.7 ( < .001); QuickDASH, 39.2 to 19.1 ( = .001); and PCS, 40.9 to 48.9 ( = .001). Median postoperative satisfaction was 9 (range 1-10). There were 2 failures and 4 that required another surgery -subscapularis repair, lysis of adhesions, irrigation and débridement, and one to explore the status of the subscapularis for persistent pain. The implant survivorship rate was 95% at a mean follow-up of 4.9 years.

Conclusion: Anatomic total shoulder replacement with minimally noncorrective, concentric reaming in patients with B2 glenoids had significant improvement in clinical outcome scores, high patient satisfaction, and high survivorship in this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479043PMC
September 2020

Risk Factors for Recurrence After Arthroscopic Instability Repair-The Importance of Glenoid Bone Loss >15%, Patient Age, and Duration of Symptoms: A Matched Cohort Analysis.

Am J Sports Med 2020 10 11;48(12):3036-3041. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Glenoid bone loss (GBL) has been implicated as a risk factor for failure of arthroscopic anterior glenohumeral instability repair. Although certain amounts of GBL are associated with higher recurrence rates, there are limited studies on successes versus failures in these cohorts.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of arthroscopic Bankart repair in patients with and without GBL to determine a threshold percentage of GBL that predicts success.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior shoulder instability between 2004 and 2013 were prospectively enrolled. Patients with ≤25% GBL were included. Patients with no GBL were grouped and compared with those having 5% to 25% GBL. Outcomes included Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation, Western Ontario Shoulder Index, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, with evidence of recurrent instability. Patients with and without GBL were statistically compared with respect to outcomes and recurrence rates.

Results: Of 434 eligible patients, the cases of 405 (45 female, 360 male; mean age, 27.5 years [range, 18-47 years]) were followed for a mean 61 months (range, 48-96 months). There were 189 (46.6%) with no GBL and 216 (53.3%) with GBL; the mean GBL of the latter cohort was 15% (range, 5%-25%). The mean duration of instability symptoms was 7.9 months (range, 1-21 months) and was significantly longer in the GBL group ( < .05). The mean recurrence rate was 14.8%, which was significantly greater in patients presenting with GBL versus those with none (48/216 [22.2%] vs 12/189 [6.3%]; < .01). Within the GBL group, GBL ≥15%, duration of symptoms >5 months, and younger age (<20 years) were independent risk factors for failure ( < .01). Patients with any GBL had >4-times greater odds of recurrence after arthroscopic stabilization (odds ratio, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.16-8.21). Moreover, patients presenting for arthroscopic Bankart repair with GBL ≥15% had nearly 3-times greater odds of recurrent instability.

Conclusion: GBL ≥15% in an active patient population portends to increased odds of recurrent instability events and inferior clinical outcomes after arthroscopic Bankart repair. Furthermore, nonmodifiable risk factors, such as age (<20 years) and duration of symptoms before presentation (>5 months), significantly affect risk of recurrence and should be key factors when counseling patients on risk of failure and determining the ideal procedure for the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520949840DOI Listing
October 2020

Beighton Score, Tibial Slope, Tibial Subluxation, Quadriceps Circumference Difference, and Family History Are Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Failure: A Retrospective Comparison of Primary and Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions.

Arthroscopy 2021 01 7;37(1):195-205. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Twin Cities Orthopedics, Edina, Minnesota, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess patient history, physical examination findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) measurements of those with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft failure compared with primary ACL tear patients to better discern risk factors for ACL graft failure.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review comparing patients who underwent revision ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with a primary ACLR group with minimum 1-year follow-up. Preoperative history, examination, and imaging data were collected and compared. Measurements were made on MRI, plain radiographs, and 3D CT. Inclusion criteria were patients who underwent primary ACLR by a single surgeon at a single center with minimum 1-year follow-up or ACL graft failure with revision ACLR performed by the same surgeon.

Results: A total of 109 primary ACLR patients, mean age 33.7 years (range 15 to 71), enrolled between July 2016 and July 2018 and 90 revision ACLR patients, mean age 32.9 years (range 16 to 65), were included. The revision ACLR group had increased Beighton score (4 versus 0; P < .001) and greater side-to-side differences in quadricep circumference (2 versus 0 cm; P < .001) compared with the primary ACLR group. A family history of ACL tear was significantly more likely in the revision group (47.8% versus 16.5%; P < .001). The revision group exhibited significantly increased lateral posterior tibial slope (7.9° versus 6.2°), anterolateral tibial subluxation (7.1 versus 4.9 mm), and anteromedial tibia subluxation (2.7 versus 0.5 mm; all P < .005). In the revision group, femoral tunnel malposition occurred in 66.7% in the deep-shallow position and 33.3% in the high-low position. The rate of tibial tunnel malposition was 9.7% from medial to lateral and 54.2% from anterior to posterior. Fifty-six patients (77.8%) had tunnel malposition in ≥2 positions. Allograft tissue was used for the index ACLR in 28% in the revision group compared with 14.7% in the primary group.

Conclusion: Beighton score, quadriceps circumference side-to-side difference, family history of ACL tear, lateral posterior tibial slope, anterolateral tibial subluxation, and anteromedial tibia subluxation were all significantly different between primary and revision ACLR groups. In addition, there was a high rate of tunnel malposition in the revision ACLR group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.08.031DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of 3D Printed Spherical Implants versus Femoral Head Allografts for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Nov - Dec;59(6):1167-1170. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Successful tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis can be difficult to achieve in patients with bulk bone defects even with the use of femoral head allograft. Retrograde intramedullary nail placement through custom 3-dimensional (3D) spherical implants is an innovative option for these patients. The purpose of this study was to compare fusion rates, graft resorption, and complication rates between patients undergoing TTC fusion with 3D sphere implants versus femoral head allografts. Patients who underwent TTC arthrodesis with an intramedullary nail along with a 3D spherical implant (n = 8) or femoral head allograft (n = 7) were included in this study. The rate of successful fusion of the tibia, calcaneus, and talar neck to the 3D sphere or femoral head allograft was compared between the groups. The rate of total fused articulations was significantly higher in the 3D sphere group (92%) than the femoral head allograft group (62%; p = .018). The number of patients achieving successful fusion of all 3 articulations was higher in the 3D sphere group (75%) than the femoral head allograft group (42.9%, p = .22). The rate of graft resorption was significantly higher in the femoral head allograft group (57.1%) than the 3D sphere group (0%, p = .016). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of complications. These data demonstrate that the use of a custom 3D printed sphere implant is safe in patients with severe bone loss undergoing TTC arthrodesis with a retrograde intramedullary nail and may result in improved rates of successful arthrodesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.10.015DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantification and Qualification of Stem Cells From Blood After Mobilization With Filgrastim, and Concentration Using a Platelet-Rich Plasma System.

Arthroscopy 2020 11 15;36(11):2911-2918. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Auburn, Alabama, U.S.A.; Auburn University Sports Medicine, Auburn, Alabama, U.S.A.

Purpose: To determine the cellular composition of a product created with peripheral blood harvested after systemic mobilization with filgrastim and processed with one point-of-care blood concentrating system, i.e., a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) system. The second purpose was to compare mobilized platelet-rich plasma (M-PRP) with a concentrated bone marrow aspirate (cBMA) and a PRP created from the same subjects with the same PRP system.

Methods: Ten healthy volunteer subjects were recruited for collection and analysis of 3 tissue sources: non-treated peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate, and filgrastim-mobilized peripheral blood, involving 4 doses of weight-based filgrastim. One point-of-care blood and bone marrow concentrating system was used to create 3 products: PRP, cBMA, and M-PRP. Automated hematologic analysis was performed on all products to quantify total red blood cells, white blood cells (WBCs), monocyte, platelet, and hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) concentrations. Flow cytometry was used to determine hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cell populations. Lastly, concentrates were cultured and fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-F) and morphology of adherent cells were evaluated.

Results: M-PRP contained a greater concentration of WBC (mean difference = 53.2 k/μL; P < .0001), monocytes (mean difference = 8.3 k/μL; P = .002), and a trend toward a greater concentration of HPC (mean difference = 200.5 /μL; P = .060) when compared with PRP. M-PRP contained a greater concentration of monocytes (mean difference = 5.5 k/μL; P = .017) and a trend toward a greater concentration of platelets (mean difference = 348 k/μL; P = .051) and HPC (mean difference = 193.4 /μL; P = .068) when compared with cBMA. M-PRP had a similar concentration of platelets to PRP (mean difference = 110 k/μL; P = .051) and PRP had a greater concentration than cBMA (mean difference = 458 k/μL; P = .003). cBMA remained the only product capable of producing CFU-Fs (446 ± 247 /mL) as neither the M-PRP nor PRP produced CFU-Fs. M-PRP produced colonies consistent with WBC.

Conclusions: M-PRP, produced with filgrastim mobilized blood and a proprietary PRP system, contained more total WBCs, monocytes, platelets, and HPCs than cBMA and more WBCs, monocytes, and HPCs than PRP.

Clinical Relevance: Filgrastim mobilized PRP may be an alternative to cBMA for use as a point-of-care product for orthopaedic treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.07.005DOI Listing
November 2020

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Biceps Tenodesis Fixation Strengths: Fixation Type and Location Are Biomechanically Equivalent.

Arthroscopy 2020 12 30;36(12):3081-3091. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A; Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to critically evaluate the biomechanical outcomes of different fixation constructs for a variety of biceps tenodesis techniques in cadaveric models based on both type of fixation and location.

Methods: A PROSPERO-registered systematic review (CCRD42018109243) of the current literature was conducted with the terms "long head of biceps" AND "tenodesis" AND "biomechanics" and numerous variations thereof in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases, yielding 1,460 abstracts. After screening by eligibility criteria, 18 full-text articles were included. The individual biomechanical factors evaluated included ultimate load to failure (in newtons), stiffness (in newtons per millimeter), and cyclic displacement (in millimeters). After reviewing the included literature, we performed a quality analysis of the studies (Quality Appraisal for Cadaveric Studies scale score) and a meta-analysis comparing raw mean differences in data between the suprapectoral and subpectoral fixation location groups, as well as between the fixation construct groups.

Results: Among the 18 included studies, 347 cadaveric specimens were evaluated for ultimate load to failure, stiffness, and cyclic displacement when comparing both location (suprapectoral vs subpectoral) and tenodesis fixation type (interference screw vs cortical button, suture anchor, or all-soft-tissue techniques). Interference screw fixation showed significantly greater mean stiffness by 8.0 N/mm (P = .013) compared with the other grouped techniques but did not show significant differences when evaluated for ultimate load to failure and cyclic displacement (P = .28 and P = .18, respectively). Additionally, no difference in construct strength was seen when comparing the fixation strength of suprapectoral versus subpectoral techniques for stiffness, ultimate load to failure, and cyclic loading (P = .47, P = .053, and P = .13, respectively).

Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, no significant biomechanical differences were found when the results were stratified by specific surgical technique (interference screw vs other tenodesis techniques) and location (suprapectoral vs subpectoral biceps tenodesis).

Clinical Relevance: As a result of this study, when biomechanically evaluating specific tenodesis constructs, the individual clinician has the liberty of choosing the fixation technique based on his or her preference and knowledge of shortcomings of each type of fixation construct.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.05.055DOI Listing
December 2020

Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Glenohumeral Ligaments: An Anatomic Study.

Am J Sports Med 2020 07 22;48(8):1837-1845. Epub 2020 May 22.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: While several studies have qualitatively described the anatomy of the glenohumeral ligaments, there remains a lack of consensus regarding their quantitative humeral and glenoid attachment sites.

Purpose: To quantitatively and qualitatively describe the anatomic humeral and glenoid attachment sites of the glenohumeral ligaments and their relationship to well-established anatomic landmarks.

Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods: A total of 10 nonpaired, fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders were included in this study. A 3-dimensional coordinate measuring device was used to quantify the location of pertinent bony landmarks and soft tissue attachment areas. All subcutaneous tissues and musculature were removed, with the exception of the rotator cuff (respective muscle bellies cut at their musculotendinous junctions) and the long head of the biceps tendon. The superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL), middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL), anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL), posteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (PIGHL), and coracohumeral ligament (CHL) were then transected. Coordinates of points along the perimeters of attachment sites were used to calculate areas, while coordinates of center points were used to determine distances between surgically relevant attachment sites and pertinent bony landmarks.

Results: The mean length of the SGHL humeral attachment along the intra-articular cartilage margin was 9.5 ± 3.2 mm, spanning from 12:55 to 1:40, while the SGHL glenoid attachment to the labrum was 1.9 ± 1.2 mm medial to the most lateral extent of the labral rim, spanning from 12:30 to 12:45. The mean length of the MGHL attachment along the intra-articular cartilage margin was 16.4 ± 3.0 mm, equating to 2:10 to 3:35 on the humeral head clockface, and the glenoid attachment was confluent with the labrum, attaching 1.5 ± 1.0 mm medial to the most lateral extent of the labral rim and thus extending from 1:50 to 2:35 on the glenoid clockface. The mean length of the AIGHL attachment along the intra-articular cartilage margin was 12.0 ± 3.0 mm, spanning from 4:05 to 5:10 on the humeral head clockface. The AIGHL bony footprint on the glenoid neck was 48.4 ± 24.5 mm. The confluent attachment of the AIGHL to the labrum was 1.2 ± 0.9 mm medial to the most lateral extent of the labral rim, corresponding to 3:30 to 4:05 on the glenoid clockface. The mean length of the PIGHL attachment along the intra-articular cartilage margin was 12.0 ± 1.4 mm, spanning from 7:40 to 8:50 on the humeral head clockface. The PIGHL attachment to the labrum was 1.2 ± 0.5 mm medial to the most lateral extent of the labral rim. This attachment to the labrum was calculated to span from 7:35 to 8:50 on the glenoid clockface. The mean length of the CHL origin from the coracoid was 12.9 mm, with its most anterior point located a mean of 14.1 mm from the tip of the coracoid. The mean length of the CHL attachment along the intra-articular cartilage margin was 10.0 ± 4.0 mm, spanning from 11:55 to 12:40 on the humeral head clockface.

Conclusion: Glenohumeral ligaments were consistently identified in all specimens with minor anatomic variability for the SGHL, MGHL, AIGHL, and PIGHL. Important landmarks including the cartilage surface of the humerus, the bicipital groove, and the clockface can be utilized intraoperatively when attempting anatomic repair of these structures.

Clinical Relevance: There are multiple open and arthroscopic shoulder procedures that rely on anatomic restoration of these static stabilizers to provide optimal shoulder function and prevent recurrent instability. The qualitative descriptions are comparable with current literature; however, this study is the first to quantify the glenohumeral capsular and ligamentous attachments. The data provided allow for reliable landmarks to be established from known bony and soft tissue structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520917665DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes After Primary ACL Reconstruction and Meniscus Ramp Repair.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Apr 24;8(4):2325967120912427. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Twin Cities Orthopedics, Edina, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Satisfactory outcomes have been reported after all-inside meniscus ramp repair with combined anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, clinical outcomes after ACLR with inside-out meniscus ramp repair are limited.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient-reported outcomes for patients who underwent ACLR and medial meniscus ramp repair compared with those who underwent isolated ACLR; patients in the 2 groups were matched for age, sex, and sport/activity. The null hypothesis was that there would be no significant differences in clinical outcomes between groups at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence 3.

Methods: Patients who underwent primary ACLR with bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft by a single surgeon were retrospectively identified. A subgroup of patients with combined ACLR and meniscus ramp repair with a minimum 2-year postoperative follow-up were matched to a cohort who underwent isolated ACLR. Subjective patient-reported questionnaires, knee stability, and return to level of activity/sport were collected.

Results: There were 851 patients who underwent primary ACLR; of these, 158 (18.6%) had medial meniscus ramp lesions confirmed at arthroscopy. The most common clinical characteristics in patients with ramp lesions were chronic injuries (68.4%), contact mechanism (88%), concomitant lateral meniscus tears (63.2%), and concomitant lateral meniscus posterior root tears (22.2%). Further, 50 patients who underwent combined ACLR and meniscus ramp repair with minimum 2-year follow-up were matched to patients who underwent isolated ACLR. Both groups reported significant improvements in subjective outcomes from preoperative to postoperative assessments ( < .001). No significant differences were found in postoperative outcomes for combined ACLR with ramp repair versus isolated ACLR ( > .05). Patients with meniscus ramp repair had increased preoperative knee laxity demonstrated by grade 3 Lachman (44% vs 6%) and pivot-shift (38% vs 12%) test results compared with patients who underwent isolated ACLR ( ≤ .005 for both).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates similar clinical outcomes, knee stability on postoperative physical examination, and return-to-sport rates for patients who underwent combined ACLR with BPTB autograft and inside-out meniscus ramp repair versus a matched cohort who underwent isolated ACLR. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for the presence of ramp lesions in patients with ACL tears who have a contact mechanism of injury, grade 3 Lachman test result, and concomitant lateral meniscal abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120912427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218952PMC
April 2020

The identification and treatment of snapping posterior tendons of the knee improves patient clinical outcomes.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Mar 7;29(3):908-913. Epub 2020 May 7.

Twin Cities Orthopedics, 4060 West 65th Street, Edina, MN, 55435, USA.

Purpose: To assess the most common presenting symptoms, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction following treatment of either snapping medial pes anserinus hamstrings or snapping lateral biceps femoris tendons.

Methods: Consecutive patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up after isolated medial hamstring release for a diagnosis of medial snapping pes anserinus tendons or patients treated with primary biceps repair for lateral snapping biceps femoris tendons were evaluated. Clinical outcome scores of the following domains were collected: SF12, WOMAC score, Lysholm Knee Survey, and a simple numeric patient satisfaction score (0-10). Statistical analysis was performed with paired t-tests between preoperative and postoperative scores.

Results: At an average follow-up of 4.6 years (range 2.0-8.6 years) with two patients lost to follow-up, six consecutive patients (three male, three female) with seven knees were diagnosed with medial snapping pes anserinus tendons and treated with semitendinosus and gracilis tenotomies. Seven knees in seven patients (three male, four female) were diagnosed with lateral snapping biceps femoris tendons and were treated with an isolated biceps femoris repair. Nine of 13 patients were able to return to full desired activities/pre-operative level of sporting activities (4/6 medial, 5/7 lateral. Lysholm and SF-12 scores improved from preoperative to post-operative status for patients with snapping biceps femoris. Only patients undergoing primary biceps repair showed improvement across all WOMAC domains. Patients with medial hamstring tenotomy demonstrated improvement in Lysholm scores. Median postoperative satisfaction for both pathologies was 7 out of 10.

Conclusion: Medial hamstring release for snapping pes anserinus and isolated biceps repair for lateral snapping biceps femoris yields improvement in patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes at mid-term follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06046-wDOI Listing
March 2021
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