Publications by authors named "Travis J Antes"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Syndecan-1 promotes lung fibrosis by regulating epithelial reprogramming through extracellular vesicles.

JCI Insight 2019 08 8;5. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Women's Guild Lung Institute, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal lung disease. A maladaptive epithelium due to chronic injury is a prominent feature and contributor to pathogenic cellular communication in IPF. Recent data highlight the concept of a "reprogrammed" lung epithelium as critical in the development of lung fibrosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potent mediator of cellular crosstalk, and recent evidence supports their role in lung pathologies such as IPF. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 is overexpressed by the epithelium in the lungs of IPF patients and in murine models after bleomycin injury. Moreover, we find that syndecan-1 is a pro-fibrotic signal that alters alveolar type II (ATII) cell phenotypes by augmenting TGFβ and Wnt signaling among other pro-fibrotic pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 controls the packaging of several anti-fibrotic microRNAs into EVs that have broad effects over several fibrogenic signaling networks as a mechanism of regulating epithelial plasticity and pulmonary fibrosis. Collectively, our work reveals new insight into how EVs orchestrate cellular signals that promote lung fibrosis and demonstrate the importance of syndecan-1 in coordinating these programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.129359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777916PMC
August 2019

Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles from Murine Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Using an Ultrafiltration Centrifugation Technique.

J Vis Exp 2018 11 9(141). Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Medicine, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly discovered subcellular components that play important roles in many biological signaling functions during physiological and pathological states. The isolation of EVs continues to be a major challenge in this field, due to limitations intrinsic to each technique. The differential ultracentrifugation with density gradient centrifugation method is a commonly used approach and is considered to be the gold standard procedure for EV isolation. However, this procedure is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and generally results in low scalability, which may not be suitable for small-volume samples such as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We demonstrate that an ultrafiltration centrifugation isolation method is simple and time- and labor-efficient yet provides a high recovery yield and purity. We propose that this isolation method could be an alternative approach that is suitable for EV isolation, particularly for small-volume biological specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/58310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357408PMC
November 2018

Targeting extracellular vesicles to injured tissue using membrane cloaking and surface display.

J Nanobiotechnology 2018 Aug 30;16(1):61. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Davis Building, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are nano-sized, membrane-bound vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells studied to date. EVs play key signaling roles in cellular development, cancer metastasis, immune modulation and tissue regeneration. Attempts to modify exosomes to increase their targeting efficiency to specific tissue types are still in their infancy. Here we describe an EV membrane anchoring platform termed "cloaking" to directly embed tissue-specific antibodies or homing peptides on EV membrane surfaces ex vivo for enhanced vesicle uptake in cells of interest. The cloaking system consists of three components: DMPE phospholipid membrane anchor, polyethylene glycol spacer and a conjugated streptavidin platform molecule, to which any biotinylated molecule can be coupled for EV decoration.

Results: We demonstrate the utility of membrane surface engineering and biodistribution tracking with this technology along with targeting EVs for enhanced uptake in cardiac fibroblasts, myoblasts and ischemic myocardium using combinations of fluorescent tags, tissue-targeting antibodies and homing peptide surface cloaks. We compare cloaking to a complementary approach, surface display, in which parental cells are engineered to secrete EVs with fusion surface targeting proteins.

Conclusions: EV targeting can be enhanced both by cloaking and by surface display; the former entails chemical modification of preformed EVs, while the latter requires genetic modification of the parent cells. Reduction to practice of the cloaking approach, using several different EV surface modifications to target distinct cells and tissues, supports the notion of cloaking as a platform technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-018-0388-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116387PMC
August 2018

Newt cells secrete extracellular vesicles with therapeutic bioactivity in mammalian cardiomyocytes.

J Extracell Vesicles 2018 15;7(1):1456888. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Newts can regenerate amputated limbs and cardiac tissue, unlike mammals which lack broad regenerative capacity. Several signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival during newt tissue regeneration have been elucidated, however the factors that coordinate signaling between cells, as well as the conservation of these factors in other animals, are not well defined. Here we report that media conditioned by newt limb explant cells (A1 cells) protect mammalian cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The cytoprotective effect of A1-conditioned media was negated by exposing A1 cells to GW4869, which suppresses the generation of extracellular vesicles (EVs). A1-EVs are similar in diameter (~100-150 nm), structure, and share several membrane surface and cargo proteins with mammalian exosomes. However, isolated A1-EVs contain significantly higher levels of both RNA and protein per particle than mammalian EVs. Additionally, numerous cargo RNAs and proteins are unique to A1-EVs. Of particular note, A1-EVs contain numerous mRNAs encoding nuclear receptors, membrane ligands, as well as transcription factors. Mammalian cardiomyocytes treated with A1-EVs showed increased expression of genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway, a pivotal player in survival signaling. We conclude that newt cells secrete EVs with diverse, distinctive RNA and protein contents. Despite ~300 million years of evolutionary divergence between newts and mammals, newt EVs confer cytoprotective effects on mammalian cardiomyocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2018.1456888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912190PMC
April 2018

Anti-HER2 scFv-Directed Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated mRNA-Based Gene Delivery Inhibits Growth of HER2-Positive Human Breast Tumor Xenografts by Prodrug Activation.

Mol Cancer Ther 2018 05 26;17(5):1133-1142. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

This paper deals with specific targeting of the prodrug/enzyme regimen, CNOB/HChrR6, to treat a serious disease, namely HER2 human breast cancer with minimal off-target toxicity. HChrR6 is an improved bacterial enzyme that converts CNOB into the cytotoxic drug MCHB. Extracellular vesicles (EV) were used for mRNA-based H gene delivery: EVs may cause minimal immune rejection, and mRNA may be superior to DNA for gene delivery. To confine HChrR6 generation and CNOB activation to the cancer, the EVHB chimeric protein was constructed. It contains high-affinity anti-HER2 scFv antibody (ML39) and is capable of latching on to EV surface. Cells transfected with EVHB-encoding plasmid generated EVs displaying this protein ("directed EVs"). Transfection of a separate batch of cells with the new plasmid, XPort/HChrR6, generated EVs containing HChrR6 mRNA; incubation with pure EVHB enabled these to target the HER2 receptor, generating "EXO-DEPT" EVs. EXO-DEPT treatment specifically enabled HER2-overexpressing BT474 cells to convert CNOB into MCHB in actinomycin D-independent manner, showing successful and specific delivery of HChrR6 mRNA. EXO-DEPTs-but not undirected EVs-plus CNOB caused near-complete growth arrest of orthotopic BT474 xenografts , demonstrating for the first time EV-mediated delivery of functional exogenous mRNA to tumors. EXO-DEPTs may be generated from patients' own dendritic cells to evade immune rejection, and without plasmids and their potentially harmful genetic material, raising the prospect of clinical use of this regimen. This approach can be used to treat any disease overexpressing a specific marker. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932266PMC
May 2018

Integrated systems for exosome investigation.

Methods 2015 Oct 24;87:31-45. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

System Biosciences (SBI), 265 N. Whisman Rd., Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are currently being investigated to better understand their biogenesis and biological functions. There is also a rapidly growing interest in utilizing exosomes present in patient biofluids for molecular diagnostics in the clinic. Exosomes are natural shuttles of RNA and protein cargo, making them attractive as potential therapeutic delivery vehicles. Here, we describe the methods for using the latest tools and technologies to study exosomes to better understand their roles in cell-to-cell communication, for discovery of clinical biomarkers and to engineer exosomes for therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2015.04.015DOI Listing
October 2015

Identification of a putative mitochondrial RNA polymerase from Physarum polycephalum: characterization, expression, purification, and transcription in vitro.

Curr Genet 2006 Apr 10;49(4):259-71. Epub 2006 Jan 10.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, 2601 N. Floyd Road, Richardson, TX 75080, USA.

Mitochondrial RNA polymerases (mtRNAPs) are necessary for the biogenesis of mitochondria and for proper mitochondrial function since they transcribe genes on mtDNA for tRNAs, rRNAs, and mRNAs. The unique type of RNA editing identified in mitochondria of Physarum polycephalum is thought to be closely associated with transcription, and as such, RNA editing activity would be expected to be closely associated with the mtRNAP. In order to better characterize the role of mtRNAPs in mitochondrial biogenesis and to determine the role of the Physarum mtRNAP in RNA editing, the cDNA of the Physarum mtRNAP was identified using PCR and degenerate primers designed from conserved motifs in mtRNAPs. This amplification product was used to screen a cDNA library for the cDNA corresponding to the Physarum mtRNAP. A cDNA corresponding to a 3.2 kb transcript containing a 997 codon open reading frame was identified. The amino acid sequence inferred from the open reading frame contains motifs characteristic of mtRNAPs. To confirm that a cDNA for an RNA polymerase had been isolated, the cDNA was expressed in E. coli as an N-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and shown to have DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity. This functional mtRNAP will be useful for in vitro studies of mitochondrial transcription and RNA editing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-005-0053-yDOI Listing
April 2006
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