Publications by authors named "Tracy L Tylka"

60 Publications

Body acceptance by others: Refinement of the construct, and development and psychometric evaluation of a revised measure - The Body Acceptance by Others Scale-2.

Body Image 2020 Dec 30;36:238-253. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS) measures the degree to which individuals perceive body acceptance by others, but its factor structure is questionable. Here, we developed a revision of the BAOS (i.e., the BAOS-2) by designing novel items reflective of generalised perceptions of body acceptance by others. In three studies, we examined the psychometrics of the 13-item BAOS-2. Study 1, with United Kingdom adults (N = 601), led to the extraction of a unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores and provided evidence of 4-week test-retest reliability. Study 2, with United Kingdom adults (N = 423), indicated that the unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores had adequate fit and that scores were invariant across gender. Study 2 also provided evidence of convergent, construct, criterion, discriminant, and incremental validity. Study 3 cross-validated the fit of the unidimensional model in adults from the United State (N = 503) and provided evidence of invariance across gender and national group. Internal consistency coefficients of BAOS-2 scores were adequate across all three studies. There were no significant gender differences in BAOS-2 scores and a significant national difference had a negligible effect size. Thus, the BAOS-2 is a psychometrically-sound measure that can be utilised in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.11.007DOI Listing
December 2020

Body functionality: A review of the literature.

Body Image 2020 Dec 12;36:149-171. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, United States.

Body functionality describes everything that the body is able to do, across diverse domains (e.g., bodily senses, creative endeavours). Nearly a decade ago, leading scholars identified research on body functionality as a priority for the body image field. The field has responded, as shown by the recent rise of body functionality research. We considered this an opportune time to (a) define body functionality (what it is and is not); (b) present theoretical frameworks of body functionality; (c) articulate first-generation and current measures relating to body functionality; (d) offer functionality-focused body image interventions that can improve appreciation for one's body functionality (and body image more broadly); (e) summarise additional areas of research related to body functionality and positive body image; and (f) provide considerations and directions for future research and interventions incorporating body functionality. Research has underscored body functionality as a valuable construct with respect to positive body image and well-being, particularly when individuals appreciate what their bodies can do and conceptualise their body functionality holistically. Yet, the experience of body functionality is nuanced across social identities. Overall, the field has greatly advanced knowledge about body functionality, and we are excited to see the next generation of research that emerges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.11.006DOI Listing
December 2020

Future directions for research on yoga and positive embodiment.

Eat Disord 2020 Jul-Aug;28(4):542-547

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, USA.

This article provides the concluding thoughts on the special issue, , which illustrate the progress being made on the relationship between yoga practice and the different indicators of positive embodiment that is relevant for the prevention and treatment of eating disorders. Based on the current body or work, we offer recommendations for the next steps for researchers for population-based, qualitative, and prevention and intervention research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2020.1763113DOI Listing
September 2020

Introduction to the special issue on yoga and positive embodiment: a note from the editors on how we got here.

Eat Disord 2020 Jul-Aug;28(4):309-314

Department of Kinesiology and Educational Psychology, Washington State University , Pullman, WA, USA.

Studying the practice of yoga and its relationship to body image, embodiment, and eating disorders brings together the professional and personal aspects of our lives as yoga practitioners, researchers, and women living in bodies within a society that can be tough on body appreciation. Developing this edition on "Yoga for positive embodiment in eating disorder prevention and treatment" has been a work of love for all of us. As yoga practitioners, we have personally experienced the benefits of yoga in our own bodies and felt that there may be benefits for others. As researchers, we are dedicated to the exploration and utilization of evidence-based practices to enhance well-being, promote a positive body image and sense of embodiment, and both prevent and treat eating disorders. Our experiences as yoga practitioners, in conjunction with our curiosity as researchers, led us to explore the extant evidence for yoga as a tool for leading to improvements in body image, disordered eating behaviors, and eating disorders, and to embark on our own research in this area to fill necessary gaps in our knowledge base. Our long-term dedication to the fields of body image and eating disorders, in conjunction with our emerging interest in yoga as a potential tool, led us to the compilation of this edition on yoga and positive embodiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2020.1749977DOI Listing
September 2020

The Body Acceptance by Others Scale: An assessment of its factorial validity in adults from the United Kingdom.

Body Image 2020 Dec 16;35:71-74. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The construct of body acceptance by others (i.e., the degree to which an individual perceives acceptance for their appearance by others) is central to conceptual models of positive body image and adaptive eating styles. It is typically measured using the 10-item Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS; Avalos & Tylka, 2006), but emerging research has suggested that a unidimensional model of BAOS scores may be unstable. Here, we examined the factor structure of BAOS scores in a sample of adults from the United Kingdom (N = 1148). Exploratory factor analyses indicated that BAOS scores reduced to two dimensions in women, of which only a primary 6-item factor was stable. In men, all 10 items loaded onto a primary factor. However, the results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both models of BAOS scores had poor fit. Although both the unidimensional 10-item and 6-item models had adequate internal consistency, our results are suggestive of factor structure instability. We conclude by suggesting ways in which future research could revise the BAOS to improve its factorial stability and validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.08.006DOI Listing
December 2020

Potential contributing roles of early affiliative memories, social safeness and body appreciation to adolescents' well-being.

J Health Psychol 2020 Sep 18:1359105320953463. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

CINEICC, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Interpersonal and body image-related factors have been associated with adolescents' well-being. Since data on positive body image in adolescence and its relationship with well-being remain scarce, the present study explored the roles of early affiliative memories, social safeness, and body appreciation in adolescents' well-being. Path analysis' results showed that social safeness and body appreciation mediated the relationship between early affiliative memories and physical, psychological and school environment well-being. This suggests that not only early affiliative memories are important for adolescents' well-being but also current feelings of social belonging and body appreciation. Future longitudinal studies should further confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105320953463DOI Listing
September 2020

Smile pretty and watch your back: Personal safety anxiety and vigilance in objectification theory.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Psychology, Colorado College.

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in on Nov 19 2020 (see record 2020-89294-001). In Table 4, the mean, standard deviation, and range for the Personal Safety Anxiety and Vigilance (PSAVS) variable were incorrect.] Objectification Theory posits that everyday encounters with sexual objectification carry a diffuse nonspecific sense of threat that engenders personal safety anxiety in women. In this article, we provide direct evidence for this tenet across 5 studies and 1,665 participants using multiple methods. Study 1 ( = 207) and Study 2 ( = 161) explored and confirmed the factor structure of the Personal Safety Anxiety and Vigilance Scale (PSAVS), a measure of personal safety anxiety, and provided evidence for the reliability and construct validity of its scores. Study 3 ( = 363) showed that personal safety anxiety is a conceptually different construct for women and men, and differentially mediated the relation between sexual objectification and restricted freedom of movement and the relation between self-objectification and restricted freedom of movement for women and men. Study 4 ( = 460) included a comprehensive test of personal safety anxiety within an expanded Objectification Theory model, which supported personal safety anxiety as a mediator of the links from sexual and self-objectification to women's restricted freedom of movement. Study 5 ( = 474) replicated these results while also adjusting for specific fears of crime and rape. Our findings offer a newly validated assessment tool for future research on safety anxiety, illuminate the real and lasting sense of threat engendered by everyday sexual objectification, and broaden understanding of the mental and physical constraints on women's lived experiences posited in Objectification Theory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000344DOI Listing
September 2020

Body image and depressive symptoms among transgender and cisgender adults: Examining a model integrating the tripartite influence model and objectification theory.

Body Image 2020 Dec 23;35:53-62. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

The Ohio State University, Department of Psychology, United States. Electronic address:

Studies have shown higher levels of body image concerns and depression among transgender individuals, which may result from the internalized stigma of living in a body that does not conform to the expectations of their affirmed gender. We integrated objectification theory and the tripartite influence model, which both address how internalizing gendered appearance-related expectations are linked to body image and depression, and then determined whether this integrated model varied based on participants' gender identity. Participants included 715 cisgender women, 207 cisgender men, 186 trans men, and 71 trans women from the U.S. A multiple group analysis indicated that thin-ideal and muscular-ideal internalization were serially linked to body shame and depression through body monitoring and appearance comparison, with appearance comparison mediating the link between body monitoring and body shame. While this model was supported for each gender identity group, cisgender men had a relatively weaker relationship from thin-ideal internalization to body monitoring, and trans women had a relatively stronger inverse link from muscular-ideal internalization to body monitoring. Furthermore, the significance of the model pathways often differed based on gender identity. Overall, findings reveal the salience of gender identity in the connections between internalization, body monitoring, appearance comparison, body shame, and depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.08.004DOI Listing
December 2020

Cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 across five countries.

Body Image 2020 Sep 22;34:270-276. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8572, Japan. Electronic address:

The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a, 2015b) is a widely used measure of positive body image within many cultures and countries; yet, cross-cultural examinations are few. The present study aimed to investigate the measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across adults from five countries: Iran, Japan, Poland, Serbia, and the U.S. The sample included 2944 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. The findings provided evidence that the BAS-2's one-dimensional structure is the same in these countries. Partial metric invariance (when some but not all items contribute to a latent construct equally for groups) indicated that nine out of 10 items contributed to the latent body appreciation construct to a similar degree across the countries. When a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model was applied with participants' age and gender as covariates, evidence of differential item functioning was found. Results suggest that both age and gender influenced body appreciation, indicating that the body appreciation factor means are different at different levels of the covariates. In conclusion, cross-culturally body appreciation may be shaped by country, language, age, and gender correlates to different degrees. In future research, measurement invariance analyses should be conducted prior to cultural group comparisons on the BAS-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.07.003DOI Listing
September 2020

The effects of yoga on functionality appreciation and additional facets of positive body image.

Body Image 2020 Sep 1;34:184-195. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.

This study investigated the effects of yoga on functionality appreciation, and the potential mechanisms that could explain the impact of yoga on additional facets of positive body image. Young adult women (N = 114; M = 22.19) were randomised to a 10-week Hatha yoga programme or waitlist control group. Participants completed measures of functionality appreciation, body appreciation, body compassion, appearance evaluation, self-objectification, and embodiment at Pretest, Midtest, Posttest, and 1-month Follow-Up. Follow-up data could not be analysed due to high levels of attrition. The remaining data showed that, compared to the control group, women in the yoga programme experienced lower self-objectification at Midtest and greater embodiment over time. Further, all participants experienced improvements in body appreciation, body compassion, and appearance evaluation over time, regardless of their assigned group. Lower self-objectification contributed to improvements in body appreciation and body compassion. In addition, greater embodiment contributed to improvements in body appreciation, body compassion, and appearance evaluation. Contrary to our expectations, yoga did not lead to increased functionality appreciation, nor was functionality appreciation a mediator of the impact of yoga on positive body image. Instead, lower self-objectification, and greater embodiment, drove improvements in positive body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.06.003DOI Listing
September 2020

A conceptual model describing mechanisms for how yoga practice may support positive embodiment.

Eat Disord 2020 Jul-Aug;28(4):376-399. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

Department of Psychology, Ohio State University , USA.

Yoga practice has been associated with various indices of positive embodiment in correlational and intervention studies. Yet, systematic, theoretically-grounded models detailing specific mechanisms by which yoga supports positive embodiment are lacking. In this article, we present a conceptual model that describes mechanisms (i.e., mediators and moderators) that can be used to guide research to help answer how, for whom, and under what conditions yoga practice may promote positive embodiment. Based on existing theoretical frameworks and empirical findings, this model suggests that (a) yoga practice may cultivate embodying experiences during yoga (e.g., state mindfulness), (b) these embodying experiences may build stable embodying experiences that generalize beyond the yoga context (e.g., trait mindfulness), and (c) these stable embodying experiences may then promote embodying practices (e.g., mindful self-care). This mediational chain is likely moderated by the yoga context (e.g., instructional focus, presence of mirrors, diversity of bodies represented) and yoga practitioners' social identities (e.g., body size, physical limitations), social and personal histories (e.g., experiences with weight stigma and trauma), and personality traits and motives (e.g., body comparison, appearance-focused motives to practice yoga). Using the structure of this conceptual model, we offer researchers ideas for testable models and study designs that can support them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2020.1740911DOI Listing
March 2020

Examining the effects of mindfulness-based yoga instruction on positive embodiment and affective responses.

Eat Disord 2020 Jul-Aug;28(4):458-475. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Empirical evidence provides support for the inclusion of yoga as part of eating disorder prevention efforts through its positive impact on positive embodiment and experience of positive core affect. However, there is a need to identify the specific instructional strategies that will more consistently support positive embodiment and positive affect. We examined the effect of teaching a single yoga class using mindfulness-based instruction compared to appearance-based and neutral instruction alternatives on embodiment (i.e., state body surveillance, state body appreciation, pleasure during yoga) and changes in affect from before to after class. Female participants ( = 62;  = 23.89,  = 6.86) were randomly assigned to a yoga class that emphasized: being mindfully present in one's body, changing one's appearance, or just getting into yoga poses. ANOVAs revealed significantly higher body surveillance (η =.10) and lower forecasted pleasure (η =.21) in the appearance class compared to the other two classes. Participants in the mindfulness class experienced greater improvement in affect (η =.08) from before to after class and higher remembered pleasure during the yoga class (η =.19) compared to those in the appearance class. Emphasizing changes to appearance in yoga instruction may place participants at risk for less positive affect and less positive experiences of embodiment compared to mindfulness-based or even neutral yoga instruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2020.1738909DOI Listing
March 2020

Beyond 'truly exceptional': A tribute to Thomas F. Cash, an innovative leader in the body image field.

Authors:
Tracy L Tylka

Body Image 2019 12 14;31:191-197. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

The Ohio State University, Department of Psychology, 225 Psychology Building, Columbus, OH 43210. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2019.10.011DOI Listing
December 2019

The roles of self-compassion, body surveillance, and body appreciation in predicting intrinsic motivation for physical activity: Cross-sectional associations, and prospective changes within a yoga context.

Body Image 2019 Jun 25;29:110-117. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Washington State University, United States.

Engaging in physical activity for the immediate internal experiences it brings (e.g., pleasure, satisfaction) is critical for long-term exercise adherence. Investigations of how factors such as body image contribute to intrinsic motivation for physical activity are needed. The present study examined body surveillance and body appreciation as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and intrinsic motivation for physical activity cross-sectionally and prospectively. One sample of college women completed measures of study variables at one time point (Sample 1; N = 269, M = 19.96) and a second sample did so during Weeks 1, 8, and 16 while participating in a 16-week yoga course (Sample 2; N = 323, M = 20.31). In Sample 1, latent variable structural equation modeling supported body appreciation as a mediator between self-compassion and intrinsic motivation for physical activity. In Sample 2, latent growth curve analyses revealed that change in self-compassion predicted changes in body surveillance and body appreciation in expected directions. Further, change in body appreciation positively predicted change in intrinsic motivation. Targeting self-compassion and body appreciation may help support women's intrinsic motivation for physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2019.03.002DOI Listing
June 2019

Intuitive eating is connected to self-reported weight stability in community women and men.

Eat Disord 2020 May-Jun;28(3):256-264. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Division of Health Determinants, Directorate of Health, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Professionals working in eating disorder prevention, treatment, and public health aim to improve eating behaviors to stabilize weight, which is more adaptive for health and well-being than weight variation. However, it is unknown which eating behaviors are linked to weight stability in non-intervention samples. This study examines how intuitive eating and eating restraint (flexible and rigid control) are linked to retrospective reports of weight stability (i.e., maintained weight) and instability (i.e., lost, gained, or cycled weight) during the past year. Community women ( = 192) and men ( = 190) completed online self-report measures of eating behaviors and weight patterns. Intuitive eating was linked to greater weight stability, whereas rigid and flexible control were linked to greater weight instability. Additional research is required to assess the directionality of these associations. Nevertheless, these findings provide preliminary support and clinical implications for the promotion of intuitive eating in prevention and public health contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2019.1580126DOI Listing
November 2020

Intuitive eating is connected to self-reported weight stability in community women and men.

Eat Disord 2020 May-Jun;28(3):256-264. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Division of Health Determinants, Directorate of Health, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Professionals working in eating disorder prevention, treatment, and public health aim to improve eating behaviors to stabilize weight, which is more adaptive for health and well-being than weight variation. However, it is unknown which eating behaviors are linked to weight stability in non-intervention samples. This study examines how intuitive eating and eating restraint (flexible and rigid control) are linked to retrospective reports of weight stability (i.e., maintained weight) and instability (i.e., lost, gained, or cycled weight) during the past year. Community women ( = 192) and men ( = 190) completed online self-report measures of eating behaviors and weight patterns. Intuitive eating was linked to greater weight stability, whereas rigid and flexible control were linked to greater weight instability. Additional research is required to assess the directionality of these associations. Nevertheless, these findings provide preliminary support and clinical implications for the promotion of intuitive eating in prevention and public health contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2019.1580126DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluating the impact of a brief yoga intervention on preadolescents' body image and mood.

Body Image 2018 Dec 22;27:196-201. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Centre for Appearance Research, University of the West of England, UK.

Yoga is an embodying activity that promotes body awareness, body connection, body responsiveness, and appreciation of body functionality, and it therefore may be a beneficial school-based intervention for children's body image. The present study examined the impact of a 4-week yoga intervention on pre-adolescent girls' and boys' body image (body appreciation, body esteem, and body surveillance) and mood (positive and negative affect) 1-week post-intervention and at 6-week follow-up. British children (N = 344; 54.4% female) aged 9-11 years were recruited from four schools, two of which were randomly assigned to the yoga intervention and two to a physical education control condition. Overall, girls reported greater body image concern and negative mood than boys. Unexpectedly, both groups reported increased body appreciation, body esteem, and positive mood, and decreased body surveillance and negative affect from baseline to post-intervention and/or follow-up. Both girls and boys in the yoga intervention evaluated the sessions very favourably; the majority desired to participate in more lessons. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.10.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Muttarak's Study Design Cannot Support the Link Between the Body-Positive Movement and Overweight or Obesity.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2018 10 11;26(10):1527. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Marion, Ohio, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22281DOI Listing
October 2018

Mechanisms underlying weight status and healthcare avoidance in women: A study of weight stigma, body-related shame and guilt, and healthcare stress.

Body Image 2018 Jun 22;25:139-147. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

1601 Cherry Street, MS 9503, 3 Parkway Building, 9th Floor, Department of Health Sciences, College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA. Electronic address:

Studies show that women with high BMI are less likely than thinner women to seek healthcare. We aimed to determine the mechanisms linking women's weight status to their healthcare avoidance. Women (N = 313) were surveyed from a U.S. health-panel database. We tested a theory-driven model containing multiple stigma and body-related constructs linking BMI to healthcare avoidance. The model had a good fit to the data. Higher BMI was related to greater experienced and internalized weight stigma, which were linked to greater body-related shame. Internalized weight stigma was also related to greater body-related guilt, which was associated with higher body-related shame. Body-related shame was associated with healthcare stress which ultimately contributed to healthcare avoidance. We discuss recommendations for a Weight Inclusive Approach to healthcare and the importance of enhancing education for health professionals in weight bias in order to increase appropriate use of preventive healthcare in higher weight women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.03.001DOI Listing
June 2018

Development and exploration of the gratitude model of body appreciation in women.

Body Image 2018 Jun 8;25:14-22. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Although researchers and clinicians recognize the importance of positive body image for women's well-being, development of theoretical frameworks for understanding positive body image has not kept pace with research documenting its many benefits. The present study proposed and tested a comprehensive model linking gratitude, contingent self-worth, social comparison, body appreciation, and intuitive eating. Path analysis indicated that this model fit the data for a sample of college and online community women (N = 263). Gratitude was indirectly linked to body appreciation via lower investment in self-worth based on appearance and others' approval, and via lower engagement in eating and body comparison. Gratitude had a strong direct effect on body appreciation, and body appreciation accounted for a large portion (88%) of gratitude's relationship with intuitive eating. These results provide strong preliminary support for the model, revealing that gratitude, which can be improved via intervention, plays a key role in body appreciation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.01.008DOI Listing
June 2018

Body Image: Celebrating the past, appreciating the present, and envisioning the future.

Authors:
Tracy L Tylka

Body Image 2018 03;24:A1-A3

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus and Marion, 225 Psychology Building, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.01.003DOI Listing
March 2018

Is intuitive eating related to resting state vagal activity?

Auton Neurosci 2018 03 15;210:72-75. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA; Section for Translational Psychobiology in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Centre for Psychosocial Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Efferent and afferent fibers of the vagus nerve are involved in regulating hunger and satiety. Vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) reflects vagal activity. Previously no study addressed a potential association between resting state vagal activity and intuitive eating. Self-reports on intuitive eating and measures of resting state vmHRV were obtained in 39 students (16 female, mean age: 19.64±1.44years). Hierarchical multiple regression models showed that, after controlling for gender, age, and body mass index, resting vagal activity was inversely related to the Unconditional Permission to Eat subscale of the Intuitive Eating scale. Individuals with higher resting vagal activity tend to be less willing to eat desired foods and are more likely to label certain foods as forbidden. Future studies should include measures of self-regulation and eating disorder symptomatology to identify potential mediators or moderators when attempting to replicate these preliminary findings in larger samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2017.11.005DOI Listing
March 2018

Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

Body Image 2017 Dec 10;23:188-205. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.10.006DOI Listing
December 2017

The Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS): Development and psychometric evaluation in U.S. community women and men.

Body Image 2017 Dec 17;23:28-44. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Behavioral Health, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Body functionality has been identified as an important dimension of body image that has the potential to be useful in the prevention and treatment of negative body image and in the enhancement of positive body image. Specifically, cultivating appreciation of body functionality may offset appearance concerns. However, a scale assessing this construct has yet to be developed. Therefore, we developed the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS) and examined its psychometric properties among three online community samples totalling 1042 women and men (ns=490 and 552, respectively). Exploratory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with seven items. Confirmatory factor analysis upheld its unidimensionality and invariance across gender. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion-related, and construct (convergent, discriminant, incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. The FAS is a psychometrically sound measure that is unique from existing positive body image measures. Scholars will find the FAS applicable within research and clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.07.008DOI Listing
December 2017

Trappings of femininity: A test of the "beauty as currency" hypothesis in shaping college women's gender activism.

Body Image 2017 Jun 17;21:66-70. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, USA.

This study investigated whether believing beauty is a primary currency for women operates as an antecedent force in the relation between self-objectification and gender activism. Ninety-four ethnically diverse women attending a small liberal arts college in the southeastern United States completed the study questionnaires online for course credit. Preliminary results demonstrated beauty as currency belief, self-objectification, and support for the gender status quo were negatively associated with gender activism. A serial mediation analysis revealed support for the proposed model: Beauty as currency belief was indirectly and inversely linked to gender activism through self-objectification and support for the gender status quo, offering initial evidence for our beauty as currency hypothesis. These findings suggest belief in the notion women will reap more benefits from their bodies than other attributes or pursuits may be an important legitimizing feature of feminine beauty ideology that works through self-objectification against gender social change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.02.008DOI Listing
June 2017

Is body dissatisfaction changing across time? A cross-temporal meta-analysis.

Psychol Bull 2017 03 28;143(3):293-320. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Department of Psychology, Ohio State University.

It remains unclear whether body dissatisfaction, a widely recognized predictor of eating-related pathologies and depressive symptomatology, is consistent across cohorts and time. This question is important to investigate because dominant theories propose that sociocultural influences, which may fluctuate, play an important role in the development of body dissatisfaction. Previous efforts for tracking body dissatisfaction across cohorts and time are limited by relying on data from a single institution or using assessments that lack psychometric support across genders. In this study, we utilized cross-temporal meta-analyses to examine changes in 2 dimensions of body dissatisfaction: thinness-oriented dissatisfaction as assessed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-Body Dissatisfaction subscale (data available across 31 years from 326 unique samples, n = 100,228 participants) and muscularity-oriented dissatisfaction as measured with the Drive for Muscularity Scale (data available across 14 years from 117 unique samples, n = 23,575 participants). Results revealed a significant interaction between year of study and gender in predicting thinness-oriented dissatisfaction: girls and women scored higher than boys and men consistently (ds = 0.51-1.17), although only girls' and women's scores decreased gradually across time (d = 0.49). Boys and men scored higher than girls and women on muscularity-oriented dissatisfaction (d = 1.72), with no significant changes across time. These patterns remained when controlling for age and geographic location. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of considering multiple dimensions of body dissatisfaction in research and offer evidence that sociocultural shifts in body acceptance and diversity may be countering thinness-related pressures for girls and women. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000081DOI Listing
March 2017

Teaching Intuitive Eating and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Skills Via a Web-Based Intervention: A Pilot Single-Arm Intervention Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2016 Oct 14;5(4):e180. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Background: Middle-aged women are at risk of weight gain and associated comorbidities. Deliberate restriction of food intake (dieting) produces short-term weight loss but is largely unsuccessful for long-term weight management. Two promising approaches for the prevention of weight gain are intuitive eating (ie, eating in accordance with hunger and satiety signals) and the development of greater psychological flexibility (ie, the aim of acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]).

Objectives: This pilot study investigated the usage, acceptability, and feasibility of "Mind, Body, Food," a Web-based weight gain prevention intervention prototype that teaches intuitive eating and psychological flexibility skills.

Methods: Participants were 40 overweight women (mean age 44.8 [standard deviation, SD, 3.06] years, mean body mass index [BMI] 32.9 [SD 6.01] kg/m, mean Intuitive Eating Scale [IES-1] total score 53.4 [SD 7.46], classified as below average) who were recruited from the general population in Dunedin, New Zealand. Module completion and study site metrics were assessed using Google Analytics. Use of an online self-monitoring tool was determined by entries saved to a secure online database. Intervention acceptability was assessed postintervention. BMI, intuitive eating, binge eating, psychological flexibility, and general mental and physical health were assessed pre- and postintervention and 3-months postintervention.

Results: Of the 40 women enrolled in the study, 12 (30%) completed all 12 modules (median 7.5 [interquartile range, IQR, 2-12] modules) and 4 (10%) used the self-monitoring tool for all 14 weeks of the intervention period (median 3 [IQR 1-9] weeks). Among 26 women who completed postintervention assessments, most women rated "Mind, Body, Food" as useful (20/26, 77%), easy to use (17/25, 68%) and liked the intervention (22/25, 88%). From pre- to postintervention, there were statistically significant within-group increases in intuitive eating (IES-2 total score P<.001; all IES-2 subscale scores: P ≤.01), psychological flexibility (P=.01), and general mental health (P<.001) as well as significant decreases in binge eating (P=.01). At the 3-month follow-up, IES-2 improvements were maintained, and there were further improvements in binge eating (P<.001) and general mental health (P=.03), and a marginal yet nonsignificant tendency for further improvement in psychological flexibility (P=.06). There were no significant within-group changes in BMI from pre- to postintervention and postintervention to 3-month follow-up (P=.46 and P=.93, respectively).

Conclusions: The "Mind, Body, Food" prototype Web-based intervention is appealing to middle-aged women and may be a useful tool to help women learn intuitive eating and ACT skills, reduce binge eating, and maintain weight over 3 months. Further work to improve the user experience and engagement is required before testing the online intervention in a randomized controlled trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/resprot.5861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5086025PMC
October 2016

A Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2: An investigation with female university students in the Netherlands.

Body Image 2016 Dec 4;19:44-48. Epub 2016 Sep 4.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

This paper describes a Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a), an instrument for assessing key components of positive body image. Dutch-speaking female university students (N=310, M=21.31, SD=3.04) completed the Dutch BAS-2. To assess its construct validity, participants also completed measures of appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, self-objectification, self-esteem, and optimistic life orientation. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-dimensional factor structure of the Dutch BAS-2, substantiating the BAS-2 factor structure found in samples of U.S., Chinese, and Iranian university students and community adults. Dutch BAS-2 scores also demonstrated good internal consistency (α=.90), convergent validity, and incremental validity. In addition, lower body mass indices were associated with higher Dutch BAS-2 scores. The present findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the BAS-2 and thus its promise in enabling research on positive body image in diverse cultural contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.08.008DOI Listing
December 2016

A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial.

Appetite 2016 10 8;105:364-74. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, USA.

Weight loss is the primary recommendation for health improvement in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) despite limited evidence of long-term success. Alternatives to weight-loss approaches (such as Health At Every Size - a weight-neutral approach) have been met with their own concerns and require further empirical testing. This study compared the effectiveness of a weight-neutral versus a weight-loss program for health promotion. Eighty women, aged 30-45 years, with high body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals that emphasized either a weight-loss or weight-neutral approach to health. Health measurements occurred at baseline, post-intervention, and 24-months post-randomization. Measurements included blood pressure, lipid panels, blood glucose, BMI, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, distress, self-esteem, quality of life, dietary risk, fruit and vegetable intake, intuitive eating, and physical activity. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models to examine group-by-time interaction effects and between and within-group differences. Group-by-time interactions were found for LDL cholesterol, intuitive eating, BMI, weight, and dietary risk. At post-intervention, the weight-neutral program had larger reductions in LDL cholesterol and greater improvements in intuitive eating; the weight-loss program had larger reductions in BMI, weight, and larger (albeit temporary) decreases in dietary risk. Significant positive changes were observed overall between baseline and 24-month follow-up for waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, self-esteem, and quality of life. These findings highlight that numerous health benefits, even in the absence of weight loss, are achievable and sustainable in the long term using a weight-neutral approach. The trial positions weight-neutral programs as a viable health promotion alternative to weight-loss programs for women of high weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.06.006DOI Listing
October 2016