Publications by authors named "Tracy L Carr"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Role of cytochrome P450c17α in dibromoacetic acid-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

Arch Toxicol 2011 May 3;85(5):513-23. Epub 2010 Nov 3.

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064, USA.

Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), a by-product formed during disinfection of drinking water, alters spermatogenesis in rats through defective spermiation. The mechanism underlying this toxicity is not fully understood. In this study, gene expression data generated with microarrays from testes were used to generate a mechanistic understanding of DBAA-induced testicular toxicity. Testes were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats dosed orally for 1 and 4 days with DBAA at 250 mg/kg/day. At both time points, DBAA administration induced delayed spermiation in Stage X tubules and regulated the expression of a small number of genes, including a mild but consistent downregulation of cytochrome P450c17α (CYP17) mRNA, an enzyme expressed by Leydig cells and essential for the production of testicular androgens. Downregulation of CYP17 was confirmed at the protein level and its biological significance was substantiated by demonstrating reduced testicular testosterone levels in DBAA-dosed rats. Furthermore, testosterone production by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-stimulated rat primary Leydig cells was reduced following treatment with 100 μM DBAA. Collectively, these results indicate that DBAA can directly target rat Leydig cells and downregulate testicular CYP17 expression with a resulting decreased testicular testosterone production. This disruption of testicular steroidogenesis is likely to contribute to the mechanism of failed spermiation observed in rats following exposure to DBAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-010-0600-2DOI Listing
May 2011

Diaryldiamines with dual inhibition of the histamine H(3) receptor and the norepinephrine transporter and the efficacy of 4-(3-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropyl)-6-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy)naphthalen-1-ol in pain.

J Med Chem 2010 Nov;53(21):7869-73

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064-6100, United States.

A series of compounds was designed as dual inhibitors of the H(3) receptor and the norepinephrine transporter. Compound 5 (rNET K(i) = 14 nM; rH(3)R K(i) = 37 nM) was found to be efficacious in a rat model of osteoarthritic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm100666wDOI Listing
November 2010

Rigidified 2-aminopyrimidines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists: effects of substitution about the rigidifying ring.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Mar 1;20(6):1900-4. Epub 2010 Feb 1.

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064-6100, USA.

Three novel series of histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) antagonists containing the 2-aminopyrimidine motif are reported. The best of these compounds display good in vitro potency in both functional and binding assays. In addition, representative compounds are able to completely block itch responses when dosed ip in a mouse model of H(4)-agonist induced scratching, thus demonstrating their activities as H(4)R antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.01.131DOI Listing
March 2010

cis-4-(Piperazin-1-yl)-5,6,7a,8,9,10,11,11a-octahydrobenzofuro[2,3-h]quinazolin-2-amine (A-987306), a new histamine H4R antagonist that blocks pain responses against carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

J Med Chem 2008 Nov;51(22):7094-8

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064-6100, USA.

cis-4-(Piperazin-1-yl)-5,6,7a,8,9,10,11,11a-octahydrobenzofuro[2,3-h]quinazolin-2-amine, 4 (A-987306) is a new histamine H(4) antagonist. The compound is potent in H(4) receptor binding assays (rat H(4), K(i) = 3.4 nM, human H(4) K(i) = 5.8 nM) and demonstrated potent functional antagonism in vitro at human, rat, and mouse H(4) receptors in cell-based FLIPR assays. Compound 4 also demonstrated H(4) antagonism in vivo in mice, blocking H(4)-agonist induced scratch responses, and showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice in a peritonitis model. Most interesting was the high potency and efficacy of this compound in blocking pain responses, where it showed an ED(50) of 42 mumol/kg (ip) in a rat post-carrageenan thermal hyperalgesia model of inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm8007618DOI Listing
November 2008

Cloning and characterization of the monkey histamine H3 receptor isoforms.

Eur J Pharmacol 2008 Dec 21;601(1-3):8-15. Epub 2008 Oct 21.

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research Division, Abbott Laboratories, R-4MN, AP9A, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064, USA.

We have recently identified three splice isoforms of the histamine H(3) receptor in multiple brain regions of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Two of the novel isoforms displayed a deletion in the third intracellular loop (H(3)(413) and H(3)(410)), the third isoform H(3)(335) displayed a deletion in the i3 intracellular loop and a complete deletion of the putative fifth transmembrane domain TM5. We have confirmed by RT-PCR the expression of full-length H(3)(445) mRNA as well as H(3)(413), H(3)(410), and H(3)(335) splice isoform mRNA in multiple monkey brain regions including the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. The full-length isoform H(3)(445) was predominant in all of the regions tested, followed by H(3)(335), with the H(3)(413) and H(3)(410) being of low abundance. When expressed in C6 cells, H(3)(445), H(3)(413), and H(3)(410) exhibit high affinity binding to the agonist ligand [(3)H]-(N)-alpha-methylhistamine with respective pK(D) values of 9.7, 9.7, and 9.6. As expected, the H(3)(335) isoform did not display any saturable binding with [(3)H]-(N)-alpha-methylhistamine. The histamine H(3) receptor agonists histamine, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, imetit and proxyfan were able to activate calcium mobilization responses through H(3)(445), H(3)(413) and H(3)(410) receptors when they were co-expressed with the chimeric G alpha(qi5)-protein in HEK293 cells, while no response was elicited in cells expressing the H(3)(335) isoform. The existence of multiple H(3) receptor splice isoforms across species raises the possibility that isoform specific properties including ligand affinity, signal transduction coupling, and brain localization may differentially contribute to observed in vivo effects of histamine H(3) receptor antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.10.026DOI Listing
December 2008

A robust and high-capacity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay for determining antagonist and inverse agonist pharmacological parameters of histamine H(3) receptor ligands.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2008 Jun;6(3):339-49

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064-6125, USA.

Guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding assays were established and utilized as a reliable and high-capacity functional assay for determining antagonist and inverse agonist pharmacological parameters of novel histamine H(3) ligands, at the recombinant human H(3) receptor. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays were performed with membranes prepared from human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing the full-length (445 amino acids) human H(3) receptor isoform, at approximately 1 pmol/mg of protein. Utilizing robotic liquid handling, assay filtration, and scintillation counting in a 96-well format, concentration-response curves were determined for up to 40 compounds per assay. The imidazole-containing H(3) receptor antagonist ciproxifan and the non-imidazole antagonist ABT-239 inhibited (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (RAMH)-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in a competitive manner, and negative logarithm of the dissociation equilibrium constant (pK(b)) values determined for nearly 200 structurally diverse H(3) antagonists were very similar to the respective negative logarithm of the equilibrium inhibition constant values from N-alpha-[(3)H]methylhistamine competition binding assays. H(3) antagonists also concentration-dependently decreased basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, thereby displaying inverse agonism at the constitutively active H(3) receptor. At maximally effective concentrations, non-imidazole H(3) antagonists inhibited basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding by approximately 20%. For over 100 of these antagonists, negative logarithm of the 50% effective concentration values for inverse agonism were very similar to the respective pK(b) values. Both H(3) receptor agonist-dependent and -independent (constitutive) [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding were sensitive to changes in assay concentrations of sodium, magnesium, and the guanine nucleotide GDP; however, the potency of ABT-239 for inhibition of RAMH-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was not significantly affected. These robust and reliable [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays have become one of the important tools in our pharmacological analysis and development of novel histamine H(3) receptor antagonists/inverse agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/adt.2007.118DOI Listing
June 2008

Detection of multiple H3 receptor affinity states utilizing [3H]A-349821, a novel, selective, non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist radioligand.

Br J Pharmacol 2006 Jul 22;148(5):657-70. Epub 2006 May 22.

Neuroscience Research, Dept. R4MN, Global Pharmaceutical Research Division, Abbott Laboratories, Bldg. AP9A-2, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, IL 60064, USA.

1. A-349821 is a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist. Herein, binding of the novel non-imidazole H3 receptor radioligand [3H]A-349821 to membranes expressing native or recombinant H3 receptors from rat or human sources was characterized and compared with the binding of the agonist [3H]N--methylhistamine ([3H]NMH). 2. [3H]A-349821 bound with high affinity and specificity to an apparent single class of saturable sites and recognized human H3 receptors with 10-fold higher affinity compared to rat H3 receptors. [3H]A-349821 detected larger populations of receptors compared to [3H]NMH. 3. Displacement of [3H]A-349821 binding by H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists was monophasic, suggesting recognition of a single binding site, while that of H3 receptor agonists was biphasic, suggesting recognition of both high- and low-affinity H3 receptor sites. 4. pKi values of high-affinity binding sites for H3 receptor competitors utilizing [3H]A-349821 were highly correlated with pKi values obtained with [3H]NalphaMH, consistent with labelling of H3 receptors by [3H]A-349821. 5. Unlike assays utilizing [3H]NMH, addition of GDP had no effect on saturation parameters measured with [3H]A-349821, while displacement of [3H]A-349821 binding by the H3 receptor agonist histamine was sensitive to GDP. 6. In conclusion, [3H]A-349821 labels interconvertible high- and low-affinity states of the H3 receptor, and displays improved selectivity over imidazole-containing H3 receptor antagonist radioligands. [3H]A-349821 competition studies showed significant differences in the proportions and potencies of high- and low-affinity sites across species, providing new information about the fundamental pharmacological nature of H3 receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1751875PMC
July 2006

Synthesis and structure-activity studies on N-[5-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]methanesulfonamide, an imidazole-containing alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor agonist.

J Med Chem 2004 Jun;47(12):3220-35

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, IL 60064-6123, USA.

Structure-activity studies were performed on the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor (AR) selective agonist N-[5-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]methanesulfonamide (4). Compounds were evaluated for binding activity at the alpha(1A), alpha(1b), alpha(1d), alpha(2a), and alpha(2B) subtypes. Functional activity in tissues containing the alpha(1A) (rabbit urethra), alpha(1B) (rat spleen), alpha(1D) (rat aorta), and alpha(2A) (rat prostatic vas deferens) was also evaluated. A dog in vivo model simultaneously measuring intraurethral pressure (IUP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was used to assess the uroselectivity of the compounds. Many of the compounds that were highly selective in vitro for the alpha(1A)-AR subtype were also more uroselective in vivo for increasing IUP over MAP than the nonselective alpha(1)-agonists phenylpropanolamine (PPA) (1) and ST-1059 (2, the active metabolite of midodrine), supporting the hypothesis that greater alpha(1A) selectivity would reduce cardiovascular side effects. However, the data also support a prominent role of the alpha(1A)-AR subtype in the control of MAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm030551aDOI Listing
June 2004