Publications by authors named "Tracy Hull"

136 Publications

Consensus Definitions and Interpretation Templates for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Defecatory Pelvic Floor Disorders: Proceedings of the Consensus Meeting of the Pelvic Floor Disorders Consortium of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, the Society of Abdominal Radiology, the International Continence Society, the American Urogynecologic Society, the International Urogynecological Association, and the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

From the Division of Colorectal Surgery, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio Department of Urology, College of Medicine University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Department of Radiology, Cairo University Pelvic Floor Centre of Excellency and Research Lab, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, The Bronx, New York Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai South Nassau Hospital, Oceanside, New York Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Virginia, INOVA Women's Hospital, Falls Church, Virginia Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Massachusetts General Hospital Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000001111DOI Listing
September 2021

Controversies in the Ileoanal Pouch.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-021-05127-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Consensus Definitions and Interpretation Templates for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Defecatory Pelvic Floor Disorders: Proceedings of the Consensus Meeting of the Pelvic Floor Disorders Consortium of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, the Society of Abdominal Radiology, the International Continence Society, the American Urogynecologic Society, the International Urogynecological Association, and the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Sep 10:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, GRB 425, Boston, MA 02114.

The Pelvic Floor Disorders Consortium (PFDC) is a multidisciplinary organization of colorectal surgeons, urogynecologists, urologists, gynecologists, gastroenterologists, radiologists, physiotherapists, and other advanced care practitioners. Specialists from these fields are all dedicated to the diagnosis and management of patients with pelvic floor conditions, but they approach, evaluate, and treat such patients with their own unique perspectives given the differences in their respective training. The PFDC was formed to bridge gaps and enable collaboration between these specialties. The goal of the PFDC is to develop and evaluate educational programs, create clinical guidelines and algorithms, and promote high quality of care in this unique patient population. The recommendations included in this article represent the work of the PFDC Working Group on Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pelvic Floor Disorders (members listed alphabetically in Table 1). The objective was to generate inclusive, rather than prescriptive, guidance for all practitioners, irrespective of discipline, involved in the evaluation and treatment of patients with pelvic floor disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.21.26488DOI Listing
September 2021

Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Ulcerative Colitis: Can Pouches Withstand Traditional Treatment Protocols?

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Sep;64(9):1106-1111

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease Surgical Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Anal squamous cell carcinoma has rarely been reported in the setting of ulcerative colitis.

Objective: This study aimed to understand the prognosis of anal squamous cell carcinoma in the setting of ulcerative colitis.

Design: This is a retrospective review.

Setting: This study was conducted at a referral center.

Patients: Adult patients with both ulcerative colitis (556.9/K51.9) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (154.3/C44.520) between January 1, 2000 and August 1, 2019 were included.

Main Outcomes Measures: The primary outcomes measured are treatment and survival of anal squamous cell carcinoma.

Results: Of the 13,499 patients with ulcerative colitis treated, 17 adult patients with ulcerative colitis and anal dysplasia and/or anal squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study: 6 had a diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinoma, 8 had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 3 had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. There were 4 men (23%) and a median age of 55 years (range, 32-69) years. At diagnosis, 6 had an IPAA, of which 5 had active pouchitis, 1 had an ileorectal anastomosis with active proctitis, 1 had a Hartmann stump with disuse proctitis, 5 had pancolitis, and 4 had left-sided colitis. Of the 6 with anal squamous cell carcinoma, all received 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C with external beam radiation therapy. Four patients had an IPAA, all of whom required intestinal diversion or pouch excision because of treatment intolerance. At a median follow-up of 60 months, 3 patients died: one at 0 months (treatment-related myocardial infarction), one at 60 months (metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma), and one at 129 months (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor); the remaining patients had no residual disease.

Limitations: This study was limited because of its retrospective nature and small number of patients.

Conclusion: Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the setting of ulcerative colitis is extremely rare. In the setting of IPAA, diversion may be necessary to prevent radiation intolerance. Careful examination of the perianal region should be performed at the time of surveillance endoscopy. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B582.

Carcinoma Anal De Clulas Escamosas En Colitis Ulcerosa Puede El Pouch Modificar Los Resultados De Los Protocolos De Tratamiento Tradicional: ANTECEDENTES:La incidencia de cáncer anal de células escamosas es muy baja en pacientes con colitis ulcerosa.OBJETIVO:Comprender el pronóstico del cáncer anal de células escamosas en el contexto de la colitis ulcerosa.DISEÑO:Revisión retrospectiva.AJUSTE:Centro de referencia.PACIENTES:Pacientes adultos con colitis ulcerosa (556.9 / K51.9) y cáncer anal de células escamosas (154.3 / C44.520) entre el 1 de enero de 2000 y el 1 de agosto de 2019.RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES:Tratamiento y sobrevida del cáncer anal de células escamosas.RESULTADOS:De 13.499 pacientes en tratamiento por colitis ulcerosa, diecisiete presentaron displasia y/o cáncer de células escamosas: 6 con cáncer, 8 con lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas con displasia de alto grado y 3 con displasia de bajo grado.Cuatro son hombres (23 %) con una mediana de 55 años (rango 32-69). Al realizar el diagnóstico 6 tenían pouch, 5 con pouchitis activa; 1 con ileorecto anastomosis con proctitis activa y 1 con operación de Hartman y muñón con colitis por desuso; además 5 tenían pancolitis y 4 tenían colitis izquierdaTodos los casos con cáncer anal de células escamosas (6 pacientes), fueron tratados con 5-FU mas Mitomicina y radioterapia externa. Cuatro pacientes tenían pouch, todos requirieron derivación intestinal o escisión del pouch por intolerancia al tratamiento.En la mediana de seguimiento de 60 meses, tres pacientes fallecieron: uno a los 0 meses (infarto de miocardio relacionado con el tratamiento), uno a los 60 meses (cáncer de células escamosas metastásico) y uno a los 129 meses (tumor maligno de la vaina del nervio periférico); el resto no presentaba enfermedad residual.LIMITACIONES:Revisión retrospectiva, número pequeño de pacientes.CONCLUSIÓN:El cáncer anal de células escamosas en el contexto de la colitis ulcerosa es extremadamente raro. En el contexto de IPAA, la derivación puede ser necesaria para prevenir la intolerancia a la radiación. Se debe realizar un examen cuidadoso de la región perianal en el momento de la endoscopia de control. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B582.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000002011DOI Listing
September 2021

Defining the Economic Burden of Perioperative Venous Thromboembolism in Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the United States.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 07;64(7):871-880

Department of Colon & Rectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Patients with IBD are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism.

Objective: This study aims to define the economic burden associated with inpatient venous thromboembolism after surgery for IBD that presently remains undefined.

Design: This study is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis using the National Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2014.

Setting: Participating hospitals across the United States were sampled.

Patients: The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes were used to identify patients with a primary diagnosis of IBD.

Interventions: Major abdominopelvic bowel surgery was performed.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measured was the occurrence of inpatient venous thromboembolism. Univariate and multivariable patient- and hospital-level logistic regression models were used to compare patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and outcomes between venous thromboembolism and non-venous thromboembolism cohorts. Total average direct costs were then compared between cohorts, and the resulting difference was extrapolated to the national population.

Results: Of 26,080 patients included, inpatient venous thromboembolism was identified in 581 (2.2%). On multivariable analysis, diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, transfer status, length of preoperative hospitalization, and insurance status were independently associated with inpatient venous thromboembolism. Patients with venous thromboembolism were observed to be associated with an increased median length of stay (17.6 vs 6.7 days; p < 0.001) and higher inpatient mortality (5.0% vs 1.1%; OR 4.7, SE 3.2-7.0; p < 0.001). After adjusting for clinically relevant covariates, the additional cost associated with each inpatient venous thromboembolism was $31,551 (95% CI, $29,136-$33,965).

Limitations: Our study is limited by the administrative nature of the National Inpatient Sample database, which limits our ability to evaluate the impact of clinical covariates (eg, use of venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis, steroid use, and nutrition status).

Conclusion: Inpatient venous thromboembolism in abdominopelvic surgery for IBD is an infrequent, yet costly, morbid complication. Given the magnitude of patient morbidity and economic burden, venous thromboembolism prevention should be a national quality improvement and research priority. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B544.

Definicin Impacto Econmico De La Tromboembolia Venosa Perioperatoria En La Enfermedad Inflamatoria Intestinal En Los Estados Unidos: ANTECEDENTES:Pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) tienen un mayor riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV).OBJETIVO:Definir el impacto económico de TEV hospitalaria después de la cirugía por EII, que en la actualidad permanece indefinida.DISEÑO:Un análisis transversal retrospectivo utilizando la Muestra Nacional de Pacientes Internos (NIS) de 2004 a 2014.ENTORNO CLINICO:Hospitales participantes muestreados en los Estados Unidos.PACIENTES:Se utilizaron los códigos de la 9ª edición de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (ICD-9) para identificar a los pacientes con diagnóstico primario de EII.INTERVENCIONES:Cirugía mayor abdominopélvica intestinal.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE VALORACION:Incidencia de TEV en pacientes hospitalizados, utilizando modelos de regresión logística univariado y multivariable a nivel de pacientes y hospitales para comparar las características de los pacientes, las características del hospital y los resultados entre las cohortes de TEV y no TEV. Se compararon los costos directos promedio totales entre cohortes y la diferencia resultante extrapolando a la población nacional.RESULTADOS:De 26080 pacientes incluidos, se identificó TEV hospitalario en 581 (2,2%). En análisis multivariable, el diagnóstico de colitis ulcerosa, el estado de transferencia (entre centros hospitalarios), la duración de la hospitalización preoperatoria y el nivel de seguro medico se asociaron de forma independiente con la TEV hospitalaria. Se observó que los pacientes con TEV se asociaron con un aumento de la duración media de la estancia (17,6 versus a 6,7 días; p <0,001) y una mayor mortalidad hospitalaria (5,0% versus a 1,1%; OR 4,7, SE 3,2 -7,0; p <0,001). Después de ajustar las covariables clínicamente relevantes, el costo adicional asociado con cada TEV para pacientes hospitalizados fue de $ 31,551 USD (95% C.I. $ 29,136 - $ 33,965).LIMITACIONES:Estudio limitado por la naturaleza administrativa de la base de datos del NIS, que limita nuestra capacidad para evaluar el impacto de las covariables clínicas (por ejemplo, el uso de quimioprofilaxis de TEV, el uso de esteroides y el estado nutricional).CONCLUSIÓN:TEV hospitalaria en la cirugía abdominopélvica para la EII es una complicación mórbida infrecuente, pero costosa. Debido a la magnitud de la morbilidad el impacto económico, la prevención del TEV debería ser una prioridad de investigación y para mejoría de calidad a nivel nacional. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B544.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001942DOI Listing
July 2021

Does the Length of the Prolapsed Rectum Impact Outcome of Surgical Repair?

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 05;64(5):601-608

1 Digestive Disease & Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 2 Alleghany Health, Erie, Pennsylvania 3 Stanford Digestive Health Center, Palo Alto, California.

Background: There are many surgical options for the treatment of rectal prolapse with varying recurrence rates reported. The association between rectal prolapse length and recurrence risk has not been explored previously.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether length of prolapse predicts a risk of recurrence.

Design: Consecutive patients from a prospectively collected institutional review board-approved data registry were evaluated.

Settings: The study was conducted at the Cleveland Clinic Department of Colorectal Surgery.

Patients: All patients from 2010 to 2018 who underwent surgical intervention for rectal prolapse were included.

Intervention: Perineal repair with Delorme procedure and Altemeier, as well as abdominal repair with ventral rectopexy, resection rectopexy, and posterior rectopexy, was included.

Main Outcome Measures: Prolapse length, recurrence, type of surgery, and primary or secondary procedure were measured.

Results: In total, 280 patients had prolapse surgery over 8 years, mean age was 59 years (SD = 18 y), and 92.4% were female. Seventy percent had a prolapse length documented as <5 cm, and 30% had prolapse length documented as >5 cm. The mean prolapse length was 4.8 cm (SD = 2.9 cm). The overall rate of recurrent prolapse was 18%. There were 51 patients who had a recurrent prolapse after their first prolapse surgery. Factors significant for recurrence on univariate analysis were a perineal approach (p = 0.03), previous Delorme procedure (p < 0.001), and prolapse length >5 cm (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis there was significantly increased recurrence with length of prolapse >5 cm (OR = 2.2 (95% CI, 1.1-4.4); p = 0.02) and having a previous Delorme procedure (OR = 4.0 (95% CI, 1.6-10.1); p = 0.004). For each 1-cm increase in prolapse, the odds of recurrence increased by a factor of 2.2.

Limitations: This was a retrospective study of a heterogenous patient cohort.

Conclusions: The greater the length of prolapsed rectum, the greater the risk of recurrence. The length of prolapse should be considered when planning the most appropriate surgical repair to modify the recurrence risk. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B463. EL TAMAÑO DEL RECTO PROLAPSADO AFECTA EL RESULTADO DE LA REPARACIÓN QUIRÚRGICA?: Existen muchas opciones quirúrgicas para el tratamiento del prolapso de recto con diferentes tasas de recurrencia publicadas. La asociación entre el tamaño del prolapso rectal y el riesgo de recurrencia no se han explorado previamente.Determinar si el largo en el tamaño del prolapso predice un riesgo de recidiva.Se evaluaron pacientes consecutivos de un registro de datos aprobado por el IRB recopilado prospectivamente.Departamento de cirugía colorrectal de la Clínica Cleveland, en Ohio.Todos aquellos pacientes que entre 2010 y 2018 se sometieron a una intervención quirúrgica por prolapso completo de recto.La reparación perineal incluyó los procedimientos de Altemeier y Delorme. Las reparaciones abdominales incluidas fueron la rectopexia ventral, la rectopexia con resección y la rectopexia posterior.Tamaño del prolapso, recurrencia, tipo de intervención quirúrgica y tipo de procedimiento (primario o secundario).En total, 280 pacientes se sometieron a cirugía de prolapso rectal durante 8 años, la edad media fue de 59 años (DE 18) donde el 92,4% eran mujeres. El 70% tenían un tamaño de prolapso documentado como < 5 cm y 30% tenían un tamaño de prolapso documentada como > 5 cm. La longitud media del prolapso fue de 4,8 cm (DE 2,9).La tasa general de recidiva del prolapso fue de 18%. Hubo 51 pacientes que presentaron recidiva del prolapso después de una primera cirugía. Los factores significativos para la recidiva en el análisis univariado fueron el abordaje perineal (p = 0.03), un procedimiento de Delorme previo (p <0.001) y el tamaño del prolapso > 5 cm (p = 0.04). En el análisis multivariado, hubo un aumento significativo de la recidiva en aquellos prolapsos de > 5 cm (OR 2,2; IC del 95%: 1,09-4,4; p = 0,02) con un procedimiento de Delorme previo (OR 4; IC del 95%: 1,6 a 10,1; p = 0,004). Por cada centímetro de tamaño del prolapso, las probabilidades de recidiva aumentaron en un factor de 2,2.Estudio retrospectivo de una cohorte de pacientes heterogénea.Cuanto mayor es el tamaño del recto prolapsado, mayor es el riesgo de recidiva. Se debe evaluar muy cuidadosamente el tamaño de los prolapsos para escoger la corrección quirúrgica más apropiada y así disminuir el riesgo de recidivas.Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B463. (Traducción-Dr Xavier Delgadillo).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001856DOI Listing
May 2021

Pushing the Envelope in Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: Is It Feasible and Safe in Scarred Lesions?

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 03;64(3):343-348

Digestive Diseases and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection is an established advanced polypectomy technique to manage large colorectal polyps.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients who had endoscopic submucosal dissection in the setting of significant scarring attributed to a previous intervention to determine whether this is safe and feasible.

Design: The study used a prospectively maintained database.

Settings: A scarred lesion was defined as a nonlifting polyp with a history of previous attempted removal with endoscopic mucosal resection, snare, or biopsy where there was no suspicion of malignancy.

Patients: All consecutive patients in the previous 14 months were included.

Intervention: Endoscopic submucosal dissection was the study intervention.

Main Outcome Measures: Thirty-day morbidity and mortality, readmission, length of stay, and recurrence were measured.

Results: Ninety-one patients had endoscopic submucosal dissection over a 14-month period with a median polyp size of 31.5 mm (range, 20-45 mm). Eleven patients (12%) were confirmed as having significant scar. There were significantly more previous endoscopic mucosal resections in the scarred group (scarred: 63.6% vs nonscarred: 2.5%; p < 0.001). Significantly more of the scarred patients had their endoscopic submucosal dissection in the operating room versus the endoscopy suite (scarred: 82.0% vs nonscarred: 17.5%; p < 0.001). The 30-day morbidity rate was 18.7%. There were no mortalities. There was no difference in 30-day morbidity between scarred and nonscarred lesions (scarred: 9% vs nonscarred: 20%; p = 0.4). There were more day-case procedures in the nonscarred group (nonscarred: 93.7% vs scarred: 36.4%; p < 0.001). There was no malignancy on final pathology in the scarred group. There was no difference in readmission rate between the scarred and nonscarred lesions. The overall follow-up colonoscopy rate was 53%, and there were no polyp recurrences identified.

Limitations: The study was limited by its small sample size, single institute, surgeon experience, and short follow-up.

Conclusions: Not only is endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients who have scarred lesions technically feasible and safe, it avoids a bowel resection in the majority of patients who have exhausted other advanced endoscopy techniques. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B427.

Empujar El Sobre En La Diseccin Endoscpica Submucosa Es Factible Y Seguro En Lesiones Cicatrizadas: ANTECEDENTES:La disección endoscópica submucosa es una técnica de polipectomía avanzada establecida para tratar pólipos colorrectales grandes.OBJETIVO:Evaluar a pacientes que se sometieron a disección submucosa endoscópica en el contexto de cicatrices significativas debido a una intervención previa para determinar si esto es seguro y factible.DISEÑO:Base de datos mantenida prospectivamente.AJUSTE:Una lesión cicatrizada se definió como un pólipo que no se levanta con antecedentes de intento de extirpación previa con resección endoscópica de la mucosa, lazo o biopsia, donde no había sospecha de malignidad.PACIENTES:Todos los pacientes consecutivos en los últimos 14 meses.INTERVENCIÓN:Disección submucosa endoscópica.MEDIDAS DE RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES:Morbilidad y mortalidad a 30 días, reingreso, duración de la estadía, recurrencia.RESULTADOS:Noventa y un pacientes tuvieron disección submucosa endoscópica durante un período de 14 meses con tamaño de pólipo mediana de 31,5 mm (rango, 20 - 45 mm). Se confirmó que once pacientes (12%) tenían una cicatriz significativa. Hubo significativamente más resecciones de mucosa endoscópica previas en el grupo con cicatrices (con cicatrices: 63,6% vs. sin cicatrices: 2,5%, p <0,001). Significativamente más de los pacientes con cicatrices tuvieron su disección submucosa endoscópica en el quirófano en comparación con la sala de endoscopia (con cicatrices: 82% vs. sin cicatrices: 17.5%, p <0.001). La tasa de morbilidad a 30 días fue del 18,7%. No hubo muertes. No hubo diferencia en la morbilidad a 30 días entre las lesiones cicatrizadas y no cicatrizadas (cicatrizadas: 9% frente a no cicatrizadas: 20%, p = 0,4). Hubo más procedimientos ambulatorios en el grupo sin cicatrices (sin cicatrices: 93,7% frente a cicatrices: 36,36%, p <0,001). No hubo malignidad en la patología final en el grupo con cicatrices. No hubo diferencia en la tasa de reingreso entre las lesiones cicatrizadas y no cicatrizadas. La tasa general de colonoscopia de seguimiento fue del 53% y no se identificaron recurrencias de pólipos.LIMITACIONES:Tamaño de muestra pequeño, experiencia de un solo instituto y cirujanos y seguimiento corto.CONCLUSIÓN:La disección endoscópica submucosa en pacientes con lesiones cicatrizadas no solo es técnicamente factible y segura, sino que evita una resección intestinal en la mayoría de los pacientes que han agotado otras técnicas endoscópicas avanzadas. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B427.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001870DOI Listing
March 2021

Hypoalbuminaemia, Not Biologic Exposure, Is Associated with Postoperative Complications in Crohn's Disease Patients Undergoing Ileocolic Resection.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jul;15(7):1142-1151

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: There are limited data on the postoperative outcomes in Crohn's disease patients exposed to preoperative ustekinumab or vedolizumab. We hypothesised that preoperative biologic use in Crohn's disease is not associated with postoperative complications after ileocolic resection.

Methods: Crohn's disease patients who underwent ileocolic resection over 2009-2019 were identified at a large regional health system. Preoperative biologic use within 12 weeks of surgery was categorised as no biologic, anti-tumour necrosis factor, vedolizumab, or ustekinumab. The primary endpoint was 90-day intra-abdominal septic complication. Risk factors included preoperative medical therapies, demographics, disease characteristics, laboratory values, and surgical approach. Regression models assessed the association of biologic use with intra-abdominal septic complication.

Results: A total of 815 Crohn's disease patients who underwent an ileocolic resection were included [62% no biologic, 31.4% anti-tumour necrosis factor, 3.9% vedolizumab, 2.6% ustekinumab]. Primary anastomosis was performed in 85.9% of patients [side-to-side 48.8%, end-to-side 26%, end-to-end 25%] in primarily a stapled [77.2%] manner. Minimally invasive approach was used in 41.4%. The 90-day postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis rate of 810 patients was 12%, abscess rate was 9.6%, and anastomotic leak rate was 3.2%. Multivariable regression modelling controlling for confounding variables demonstrated that preoperative biologic use with anti-tumour necrosis factor [p = 0.21], vedolizumab [p = 0.17], or ustekinumab [p = 0.52] was not significantly associated with intra-abdominal septic complication. Preoperative albumin < 3.5 g/dl was independently associated with intra-abdominal septic complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.76 [1.03, 3.01]).

Conclusions: In Crohn's disease patients undergoing ileocolic resection, preoperative biologics are not associated with 90-day postoperative intra-abdominal septic complication. Preoperative biologic exposure should not delay necessary surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427722PMC
July 2021

Endoscopic stricturotomy and ileo-colonic resection in patients with primary Crohn's disease-related distal ileum strictures.

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2020 Aug 5;8(4):312-318. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Center for Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Stricture is a common presentation of Crohn's disease with the site of prevalence being the distal ileum. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of patients with primary distal ileum stricture treated with endoscopic stricturotomy (ESt) vs ileo-colonic resection (ICR).

Methods: All consecutive patients with primary distal ileum stricture that were treated with ESt and/or ICR were extracted from the interventional inflammatory bowel disease (-IBD) unit from 2001 to 2016. All patients with a stricture >5 cm or those with anastomotic strictures were excluded from the study. The primary outcomes were surgery-free survival and post-procedural complications.

Results: A total of 13 patients receiving ESt and 32 patients receiving ICR were included in this study. Although the length of the stricture is comparable between the two groups (2.4 ± 0.9 vs 3.0 ± 1.1 cm, =0.17), patients who received surgery had a more complicated obstruction presented by the high pre-stenosis proximal dilation rate (67.7% vs 9.1%, =0.001). All patients in both groups achieved immediate technical success after treatment. The median follow-up durations were 1.8 and 1.5 years in the ESt and ICR groups, respectively. The subsequent surgery rates were similar between the two groups (15.4% vs 18.8%, =0.79) and the overall surgery-free survival was also comparable between the two groups (=0.98). Post-procedural adverse events were seen in 2/29 ESt procedures (6.9% per procedure) and 8/32 (25.0%) patients receiving ICR (=0.05).

Conclusions: ESt achieved comparable stricture-related surgery-free survival as ICR, while ESt had a numerically lower post-operative complication rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gastro/goz071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434583PMC
August 2020

A narrative celebrating the recent contributions of women to colorectal surgery.

Surgery 2020 Sep 30;168(3):355-362. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, FL. Electronic address:

Background: To interview extraordinary women who have made recent significant contributions to the field of colorectal surgery.

Design: The authors asked some of the many extraordinary women who have made significant contributions to the field of colorectal surgery to answer several questions. These women were selected from many potential candidates based upon their extraordinary recent contributions to the field of colorectal surgery. These thought leaders were asked about their contributions to colorectal surgery, their mentors, whether they had any women as role models, and, lastly, what they would tell their younger selves. The study was structured to recognize these women for their remarkable recent contributions to colorectal surgery, and we wished to encourage women to pursue leadership in colorectal surgery including the allied fields of colorectal pathology and colorectal imaging. Furthermore, the authors hoped to inspire male colorectal surgeons to actively mentor and help the career development of women colorectal surgeons. The potential limitations of the study include the fact that there are many more well-deserving women who could have been included in the sample survey but, because of space constraints, were not invited.

Conclusion: Women in colorectal surgery and in the allied specialties of colorectal pathology and colorectal radiology have made many recent major significant contributions to colorectal surgery. The expectation is that the volume and frequency of such contributions as well as the number of women making these contributions should further significantly increase with time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.06.024DOI Listing
September 2020

Greater Peripouch Fat Area on CT Image Is Associated with Chronic Pouchitis and Pouch Failure in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Patients.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 12 4;65(12):3660-3671. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The causes of chronic antibiotic refractory pouchitis (CARP) and pouch failure in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients remain unknown. Our previous small study showed peripouch fat area measured by MRI was associated with pouchitis.

Aims: To explore the relationship between peripouch fat area on CT imaging and pouch outcomes.

Methods: This is a historical cohort study. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data of IBD patients with abdominal CT scans after pouch surgery between 2002 and 2017 were collected. Peripouch fat areas and mesenteric peripouch fat areas were measured on CT images at the middle pouch level.

Results: A total of 435 IBD patients were included. Patients with higher peripouch fat areas had a higher prevalence of CARP. Univariate analyses demonstrated that long duration of the pouch, high weight or body mass index, the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis or other autoimmune disorders, and greater peripouch fat area or mesenteric peripouch fat area were risk factors for CARP. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis or autoimmuned disorders, and greater peripouch fat area (odds ratio [OR] 1.031; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.016-1.047, P < 0.001) or mesenteric peripouch fat area were independent risk factors for CARP. Of the 435 patients, 139 (32.0%) had two or more CT scans. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that "peripouch fat area increase ≥ 15%" (OR 3.808, 95%CI 1.703-8.517, P = 0.001) was an independent predictor of pouch failure.

Conclusions: A great peripouch fat area measured on CT image is associated with a higher prevalence of CARP, and the accumulation of peripouch fat is a risk factor for pouch failure. The assessment of peripouch fat may be used to monitor the disease course of the ileal pouch.
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December 2020

When should we add a diverting loop ileostomy to laparoscopic ileocolic resection for primary Crohn's disease?

Surg Endosc 2021 06 28;35(6):2543-2557. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The aims of this study were to determine risk factors for morbidity associated with laparoscopic ileocolic resection (LICR) for Crohn's disease (CD) and whether the addition of a diverting ileostomy is associated with reduced morbidity.

Methods: Patients undergoing LICR for primary CD at our institution from 2005 to 2015 included in a prospectively maintained database were assessed. The decision to perform a diverting ileostomy was left at the discretion of the operating surgeon. Demographics, disease-related, and treatment-related variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses as possible factors associated with diverting ileostomy creation and 30-day perioperative septic complications (anastomotic leaks and/or abscess). Use of any immunosuppressive medication was defined as use of steroids, biologics, and immunomodulators either alone or in combination.

Results: For 409 patients, mortality was nil, overall morbidity rate was 40.6%, conversion rate 9.3%, and septic morbidity rate 7.6%. A diverting stoma was created in 22% of cases and was independently associated with BMI < 18.5 kg/m (P = 0.001), low serum albumin levels (P = 0.006), and longer operative time (P = 0.003). Use of any immunosuppressive medication was the only variable independently associated with septic complications, both in the overall population (OR 2.7, P = 0.036) and in the subgroup of undiverted patients (OR 3.1, P = 0.031). There was no association between septic morbidity and ileostomy creation, anastomotic configuration, penetrating disease, combined procedures (other resection or strictureplasty), BMI, albumin levels, and operative times.

Conclusions: LICR is safe in selected cases of complex penetrating disease, including when combined procedures are necessary. Our data are unable to prove that a diverting stoma is associated with reduced morbidity.
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June 2021

Redo IPAA After a Failed Pouch In Patients With Crohn's Disease: Is It Worth Trying?

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 06;63(6):823-830

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: In selected patients with ulcerative colitis and pelvic pouch failure, redo pouch is an option. However, it is unknown whether selected patients with Crohn's disease should be offered a chance to avoid permanent diversion after failure of IPAA.

Objective: The objective was to compare the outcomes of redo pouch for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Design: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained pouch database (1983-2017).

Settings: The setting was the Cleveland Clinic.

Patients: This study included patients who underwent redo pouch with a primary surgical specimen diagnosis of ulcerative or Crohn's colitis at the time of initial pouch.

Main Outcome Measures: Pouch failure was defined as either pouch excision or indefinite pouch diversion. Patient characteristics, perioperative and functional outcomes, pouch survival, and quality of life were compared according to the diagnosis.

Results: Of 422 patients, 392 had ulcerative colitis and 30 had Crohn's disease. Age and sex were comparable. The most common indications for redo pouch included anastomotic separation and fistulas (220 (56.1%) in ulcerative colitis and 21 (70%) in Crohn's disease). The majority of redo pouches required mucosectomy with handsewn anastomosis (310 (79%) in ulcerative colitis and 30 (100%) in Crohn's disease; p = 0.23). A new pouch was constructed in 160 patients (41%) with ulcerative colitis and repair of old pouch in 231 patients (59%) compared with 25 (83%) in Crohn's disease, who had creation of new pouch; only in 5 (17%) was the old pouch re-anastomosed. Stool frequency, seepage, and fecal urgency were comparable between groups. Cumulative 5-year pouch survival was longer in ulcerative colitis versus Crohn's disease (88% vs 55%; p = 0.008). Major causes of redo failure in Crohn's disease were pouch fistulas and/or strictures occurring after ileostomy closure. These were more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p < 0.001).

Limitations: This was a retrospective design.

Conclusions: Redo pouch can be offered to selected patients with colonic Crohn's disease diagnosed at the time of their primary pouch. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B206. REHACER LA ANASTOMOSIS ILEOANAL CON RESERVORIO DESPUéS DE UN RESERVORIO ILEAL FALLIDO EN PACIENTES CON ENFERMEDAD DE CROHN: ¿VALE LA PENA INTENTARLO?: En pacientes seleccionados con colitis ulcerativa y falla del reservorio pélvico, rehacer el reservorio es una opción. Sin embargo, se desconoce si en los pacientes seleccionados con enfermedad de Crohn se debería ofrecer la oportunidad de evitar la derivación permanente después de la falla de la anastomosis ileoanal con reservorio ileal.El objetivo fue comparar los resultados de reservorios re-hechos en colitis ulcerosa y la enfermedad de Crohn.El escenario fue la Cleveland Clinic.Análisis retrospectivo de una base de datos de reservorios ileales mantenida prospectivamente (1983-2017).Este estudio incluyó a pacientes que se sometieron a cirugía para rehacer el reservorio ileal con un diagnóstico en el espécimen quirúrgico primario de colitis ulcerosa o de Crohn en el momento del reservorio inicial.La falla del reservorio se definió como la escisión del reservorio o la derivación indefinida del reservorio. Las características del paciente, los resultados perioperatorios y funcionales, la supervivencia del reservorio y la calidad de vida se compararon de acuerdo con el diagnóstico.De 422 pacientes, 392 tenían colitis ulcerativa y 30 tenían enfermedad de Crohn. La edad y el género fueron comparables. Las indicaciones más comunes para rehacer el reservorio incluyeron dehiscencia anastomótica y fístulas [220 (56,1%) en colitis ulcerosa y 21 (70%) en la enfermedad de Crohn]. La mayoría de los reservorios rehechos requirieron mucosectomía con anastomosis manual [310 (79%) en colitis ulcerosa y 30 (100%) en la enfermedad de Crohn, p = 0.23]. Se construyó un nuevo reservorio en 160 (41%) pacientes con colitis ulcerativa y se reparó el reservorio antiguo en 231 (59%) pacientes, en comparación con 25 (83%) en la enfermedad de Crohn, que requirieron creación de un nuevo reservorio, y solo 5 (17%) donde el reservorio antiguo se volvió a anastomosar. La frecuencia de las evacuaciones, el manchado fecal y la urgencia fecal fueron comparables entre grupos. La supervivencia acumulada del reservorio a 5 años fue mayor en la colitis ulcerativa frente a la enfermedad de Crohn (88% frente a 55%, p = 0.008). Las principales causas de falla del reservorio rehecho en la enfermedad de Crohn fueron las fístulas del reservorio y / o las estenosis que ocurrieron después del cierre de ileostomía. Estas fueron más comunes en la enfermedad de Crohn que en la colitis ulcerativa (p <0.001).Este fue un diseño retrospectivo.Rehacer el reservorio ileal se puede ofrecer a pacientes seleccionados con enfermedad de Crohn colónica diagnosticada en el momento de su reservorio primario. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B206. (Traducción-Dr Jorge Silva Velazco).
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June 2020

Conditional Survival After IPAA for Ulcerative and Indeterminate Colitis: Does Long-term Pouch Survival Improve or Worsen With Time?

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 07;63(7):927-933

Department of Colon & Rectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Risk factors for pouch survival may or may not have a linear relationship with pouch loss over time. Conditional survival is a method to describe these nonlinear time-to-event relationships by reporting the expected survival at various time points.

Objective: The aim of this study was to calculate conditional pouch survival based on occurrence of risk factors for pouch loss.

Design: This was a retrospective study from an institutional database.

Settings: The study was conducted at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

Patients: Patients with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis who underwent index IPAA construction between 1986 and 2016 were included.

Main Outcome Measures: Patients were stratified based on postoperative anastomotic leak, abscess, or fistula occurrence. The Kaplan-Meier method with conditional survival was used to estimate overall and cause-specific survival at 10 years.

Results: A total of 3468 patients underwent IPAA during the study period. The overall 10-year pouch survival rate was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.93-0.95), and after 1 year the conditional pouch survival increased to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.94-0.96), after 3 years to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96-0.98), and after 5 years to 0.98 (95% CI, 0.98-0.99). A total of 122 patients (3.5%) developed anastomotic leak, and the 10-year IPAA survival in patients with leak was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.93). In this group, after 1 year of pouch survival, the conditional pouch survival increased to 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.96) and after 3 years to 0.98 (95% CI, 0.94-1.00). A similar pattern was seen for IPAA with postoperative abscess. The conditional survival curve was stable over time for patients with a fistula.

Limitations: This was a retrospective, single-institution study.

Conclusions: Overall conditional pouch survival improved over time for patients with postoperative anastomotic leak and abscess. These novel findings can be useful to counsel patients regarding expectations for long-term pouch survival even if they develop leaks and abscesses. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B217. SUPERVIVENCIA CONDICIONAL DESPUÉS DE ANASTOMOSIS CON BOLSA ÍLEO ANAL, PARA COLITIS ULCERATIVA E INDETERMINADA: ¿LA SOBREVIDA DE LA BOLSA A LARGO PLAZO, MEJORA O EMPEORA CON EL TIEMPO?: Los factores de riesgo para la sobrevida de la bolsa, pueden o no tener una relación lineal con la pérdida de la bolsa y con el tiempo. La supervivencia condicional es un método para describir estas relaciones no lineales de tiempo, hasta el evento informando la supervivencia esperada en varios puntos de tiempo.El objetivo de este estudio fue calcular la supervivencia condicional de la bolsa, en función de aparición de factores de riesgo para la pérdida de bolsa.Estudio retrospectivo de una base de datos institucional.Cleveland Clinic Foundation.Pacientes con colitis ulcerativa o indeterminada, sometidos a una anastomosis de bolsa íleo anal, de 1986 a 2016.Los pacientes fueron estratificados en función de la fuga anastomótica postoperatoria, absceso o aparición de fístula. El método de Kaplan Meier con supervivencia condicional, se utilizó para estimar la supervivencia general y la causa específica a los 10 años.Un total de 3.468 pacientes fueron sometidos a anastomosis ileal con bolsa anal durante el período de estudio. La tasa de supervivencia global de la bolsa a 10 años, fue de 0,94 (0,93 a 0,95), y después de 1 año, la supervivencia condicional de la bolsa aumentó a 0,95 (0,94 a 0,96), después de 3 años a 0,97 (0,96 a 0,98) y después de 5 años a 0.98 (0.98 - 0.99). Un total de 122 (3,5%) pacientes desarrollaron fuga anastomótica, y la supervivencia de la anastomosis de bolsa íleo anal a 10 años en pacientes con fuga fue de 0,85 (IC del 95%: 0,77 a 0,93). En este grupo, después de 1 año de supervivencia de la bolsa, la supervivencia condicional de la bolsa aumentó a 0,89 (IC del 95%: 0,82 a 0,96), y después de 3 años a 0,98 (IC del 95%: 0,94 a 1). Se observó un patrón similar para la anastomosis de bolsa íleo anal con absceso postoperatorio. La curva de supervivencia condicional fue estable en el tiempo para los pacientes con una fístula.Estudio retrospectivo, de una sola institución.La supervivencia condicional global de la bolsa, mejoró con el tiempo para pacientes con fuga anastomótica postoperatoria y absceso. Estos nuevos hallazgos pueden ser útiles para aconsejar a los pacientes con respecto a las expectativas de supervivencia de la bolsa a largo plazo, incluso si desarrollan fugas y abscesos. Consulte Video Resumen http://links.lww.com/DCR/B217. (Traducción-Dr Fidel Ruiz Healy).
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July 2020

Multivariate Prediction of Intraoperative Abandonment of Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 05;63(5):639-645

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, Florida.

Background: Restorative total proctocolectomy with IPAA may not be feasible in some patients because of technical intraoperative limitations.

Objective: This study aimed to assess preoperative predictors for intraoperative IPAA and review management.

Design: This is a retrospective review.

Setting: This study was conducted at Cleveland Clinic between January 2010 and May 2018.

Patients: Patients ≥18 years of age who underwent ileoanal pouch surgery were included. Patients with successful pouch creation as planned were grouped as "successful IPAA creation." Operative reports of patients who underwent alternative procedures were reviewed to identify cases when the pouch was preoperatively planned but intraoperatively abandoned (IPAA-abandoned group). Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine predictors of intraoperative pouch abandonment. We also reviewed the management of patients in whom the initial pouch creation failed.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes measured were preoperative predictors for intraoperative ileoanal pouch abandonment.

Results: A total of 1438 patients were offered an ileoanal pouch; 21 (1.5%) experienced pouch abandonment due to inadequate reach (n = 17) and other technical reasons (n = 4). These patients underwent alternative procedures such as end or loop ileostomy with/without proctectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated male sex (OR, 6.021; 95% CI, 1.540-23.534), BMI (OR, 1.217; 95% CI, 1.114-1.329), and a 2-stage procedure (OR, 14.510; 95% CI, 4.123-51.064) as independent factors associated with intraoperative abandonment of pouch creation. Alternative procedures were total proctocolectomy with end ileostomy (n = 14) and total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy without proctectomy (n = 7). Ultimately, pouch creation was achieved in 6 of 21 patients after a median interval of 8.8 (range, 4.1-34.8) months. All patients had intentional weight loss before a reattempt and total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy without proctectomy as their initial procedure.

Limitations: This study was limited by its retrospective nature.

Conclusions: Ileoanal pouch abandonment is rare and can be mitigated by initial total abdominal colectomy and weight loss. Male, obese patients are at a higher risk of failure. Intraoperative assessment of ileoanal pouch feasibility should occur before rectal dissection. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B156. PREDICCIÓN MULTIVARIANTE DEL ABANDONO INTRAOPERATORIO DE LA ANASTOMOSIS ANAL CON BOLSA ILEAL: La proctocolectomía total restaurativa con anastomosis de bolsa ileoanal puede no ser posible en algunos pacientes debido a limitaciones técnicas intraoperatorias.Evaluar los predictores preoperatorios para el abandono intraoperatorio de la bolsa ileoanal y revisar el manejo.Revisión retrospectiva.Cleveland Clinic entre Enero de 2010 y mayo de 2018.Pacientes > 18 años que se sometieron a cirugía de bolsa ileoanal. Los pacientes con una creación exitosa de la bolsa según lo planeado se agruparon como "creación exitosa de anastomosis de bolsa ileoanal". Se revisaron los informes operativos de los pacientes que se sometieron a procedimientos alternativos para identificar los casos en que la bolsa se planificó preoperatoriamente pero se abandonó intraoperatoriamente (grupo de "anastomosis anal de bolsa ileoanal abandonada"). Se desarrollaron modelos de regresión logística multivariante para determinar los predictores del abandono intraoperatorio de la bolsa. También revisamos el manejo de pacientes que fallaron en la creación inicial de la bolsa.Predictores preoperatorios para el abandono intraoperatorio de la bolsa ileoanal.A un total de 1438 pacientes se les ofreció una bolsa ileoanal; 21 (1.5%) experimentaron abandono de la bolsa debido a un alcance inadecuado (n = 17) y otras razones técnicas (n = 4). Estos pacientes se sometieron a procedimientos alternativos como ileostomía final o de asa con / sin proctectomía. El análisis de regresión logística multivariante indicó género masculino (OR, 6.021; IC 95%, 1.540-23.534), índice de masa corporal (OR, 1.217; IC 95%, 1.114-1.329) y procedimiento en 2 etapas (OR, 14.510; IC 95%, 4.123-51.064) como factores independientes asociados con el abandono intraoperatorio de la creación de la bolsa. Los procedimientos alternativos fueron la proctocolectomía total con ileostomía final (n = 14) y la colectomía abdominal total con ileostomía final sin proctectomía (n = 7). Finalmente, la creación de la bolsa se logró en 6/21 pacientes después de un intervalo medio de 8.8 (rango, 4.1-34.8) meses. Todos los pacientes tuvieron pérdida de peso intencional antes de la reintenta y colectomía abdominal total con ileostomía final sin proctectomía como procedimiento inicial.Naturaleza retrospectiva.El abandono de la bolsa ileoanal es raro y puede mitigarse mediante la colectomía abdominal total inicial y la pérdida de peso. Los pacientes masculinos y obesos tienen un mayor riesgo de fracaso. La evaluación intraoperatoria de la viabilidad de la bolsa ileoanal debe ocurrir antes de la disección rectal. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B156. (Traducción-Dr. Yesenia Rojas-Kahlil).
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May 2020

Lower peripouch fat area is related with increased frequency of pouch prolapse and floppy pouch complex in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2020 Apr 4;35(4):665-674. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Pouch prolapse is a rare pouch complication which often leads to pouch failure in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Its exact cause remains unknown. Floppy pouch complex (FPC) was defined as the presence of any one of the following pouch disorders: pouch prolapse, afferent limb syndrome (ALS), redundant loop, and pouch folding. We aimed to explore the role of peripouch fat area in the occurrence of pouch prolapse and FPC.

Methods: Pouch patients with available pouchoscopy and abdominal CT scans who were followed up between 2011 and 2017 in Cleveland Clinic were reviewed. Peripouch fat was measured on CT images.

Results: Of the 93 included patients, 31 were females; 87 had J pouches and 6 had S pouches. The median duration of pouch was 8.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-16.5) years. A total of 18 cases (19.4%, 18/93) were identified as FPC, including 12 pouch prolapse, 5 ALS, 1 redundant loop, and 3 pouch folding. Patients with pouch prolapse had lower peripouch fat area (13.6 (9.3-18.5) vs. 27.6 (11.0-46.2)cm, P = 0.022) than those without. Patients with FPC had lower peripouch fat area (15.4 (11.4-20.6) vs. 27.6 (11.0-46.9)cm, P = 0.040) than those without. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that lower peripouch fat area, lower weight, and family history of IBD were independent predictors of pouch prolapse and FPC.

Conclusions: A lower peripouch fat area was observed in inflammatory bowel disease patients with pouch prolapse and FPC. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the role of peripouch fat in the pathogenesis of pouch prolapse and FPC.
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April 2020

Reducing Patient Burden and Improving Data Quality With the New Cleveland Clinic Colorectal Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 04;63(4):469-487

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Krankenhaus München Neuperlach, Munich, Germany.

Background: The Cleveland Clinic Colorectal Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire was developed in response to the need for a new, fast, and comprehensive tool for evaluating quality of life in patients who have colorectal cancer. Available surveys such as the SF-12, SF-36, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer are either too general to be informative or too lengthy to complete.

Objective: The aim was to validate the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Colorectal Quality of Life Questionnaire.

Design: Data were obtained as part of a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Settings: This was a worldwide multicenter study with 2 domestic and 5 international locations.

Patients: This study randomly assigned 190 patients between the ages of 18 and 80 undergoing surgery for low rectal cancer. Of those randomly assigned, 142 with partially complete surveys were analyzed for selection bias and acceptability, and 95 with complete surveys were analyzed for survey validity.

Interventions: Patients received either a J-pouch, side-to-end anastomosis, or straight anastomosis.

Main Outcome Measure: The study evaluated survey validity measures such as standardized Cronbach α for internal consistency and Spearman correlation coefficients for construct validity, convergent validity, and responsiveness. Univariate analyses were used to assess discriminative validity.

Results: Sufficient acceptability, construct, and convergent validity and responsiveness were achieved. All scores showed great internal consistency (Cronbach α >0.8). Superior discriminative ability was demonstrated by significant differences (p < 0.05) in 2 of 7 scores between neoadjuvant treatment groups, and in 6 of 7 scores between complication groups, none of which were detected by the SF-12 or Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal surveys.

Limitations: Limitations included a small sample size, cultural differences, and failure to assess test-retest ability of the questionnaire.

Conclusions: The Cleveland Clinic Colorectal Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire is an efficient and reliable quality-of-life measure that better incorporates factors specific to colorectal cancer surgery. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B155. REDUCIENDO LA CARGA AL PACIENTE Y MEJORANDO LA CALIDAD DE DATOS CON EL NUEVO CUESTIONARIO DE CALIDAD DE VIDA EN CÁNCER COLORRECTAL DE CLEVELAND CLINIC (CCF-CAQL): El cuestionario de calidad de vida en cáncer colorrectal de Cleveland Clinic se desarrolló en respuesta a la necesidad de una herramienta nueva, rápida e integral para evaluar la calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal. Los cuestionarios disponibles como SF-12, SF-36, FACT-C y EORTC son demasiado generales para ser informativas o demasiado largas para completar.El objetivo fue validar el cuestionario de calidad de vida colorrectal de la Cleveland Clinic Foundation.Los datos se obtuvieron como parte de un ensayo prospectivo aleatorizado y controlado.Este fue un estudio multicéntrico mundial con dos sedes nacionales y cinco internacionales.Este estudio aleatorizó a 190 pacientes entre las edades de 18 y 80 sometidos a cirugía por cáncer rectal bajo. De aquellos aleatorizados, 142 con encuestas parcialmente completas se analizaron para determinar el sesgo de selección y la aceptabilidad, y 95 con encuestas completas se analizaron para determinar la validez de la encuesta.Los pacientes recibieron un reservorio en J, anastomosis latero-terminal o anastomosis termino-terminal.El estudio evaluó medidas de validez de la encuesta, como el Alfa de Cronbach estandarizado para la consistencia interna y los coeficientes de correlación de Spearman para la validez de construcción, la validez de convergencia y la capacidad de respuesta. Se utilizaron análisis univariados para evaluar la validez discriminativa.Se obtuvo suficiente aceptabilidad, construcción, validez de convergencia, y capacidad de respuesta. Todos los puntajes mostraron una gran consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach > 0.8). Una capacidad discriminativa superior fue demostrada por diferencias significativas (p < 0.05) en dos de siete puntajes entre grupos de tratamiento neoadyuvante, y en seis de siete puntajes entre grupos de complicaciones, ninguno de los cuales fue detectado por SF-12 o FACT-C.Las limitaciones incluyeron un tamaño de muestra pequeño, diferencias culturales y la falta de evaluación de la confiabilidad test-retest del cuestionario.El Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida en Cáncer Colorrectal de Cleveland Clinic es una medida de calidad de vida eficiente y confiable que incorpora mejor factores específicos asociados a la cirugía de cáncer colorrectal. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B155.
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April 2020

Does Colectomy Improve Type 2 Diabetes?

Obes Surg 2020 06;30(6):2429-2433

Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, Department of General Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk M61, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Gastrectomy and gastric bypass improve type 2 diabetes (T2DM), potentially through alterations in intestinal hormones and the microbiome. The aim of this study was to analyze whether colorectal resections result in improvement of T2DM. A total of 171 patients with T2DM who underwent colectomy for benign diseases were studied with a median postoperative follow-up of 3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1-5). The median BMI and glycated hemoglobin (HbA) at baseline and post-colectomy were 30.3 kg/m (IQR 26.6-34.6) versus 30.4 kg/m (IQR 26.2-35) (p = 0.1), and 6.7% (IQR 6.2-7.5) versus 6.5% (IQR 6.5-7.1) (p = 0.5), respectively. The proportion of patients taking diabetes medications at baseline versus post-colectomy did not differ significantly. Changes in BMI, HbA, and status of diabetes medications were not statistically different between the subtypes of colorectal resection. Our experience suggests that colectomy for benign colorectal diseases is not associated with long-term changes in body weight or glycemic control.
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June 2020

Impact of preoperative duration of ulcerative colitis on long-term outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2020 Jan 23;35(1):41-49. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, A30, Cleveland, Ohio, 44195, USA.

Background: It is unknown if ulcerative colitis (UC) duration has an impact on outcomes of ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). The aim of the study was to compare the long-term IPAA outcomes based on preoperative UC duration.

Methods: All patients with pathologically confirmed UC who underwent IPAA were included from a prospectively maintained pouch database (1983-2017).Patient's cohort was stratified according to UC duration:< 5 years,5-10 years,10-20 years,> 20 years. UC duration was defined as time interval from date of preoperative diagnosis to colectomy date. The main outcome was Kaplan-Meier pouch survival. Secondary outcomes were pouch function and quality of life.

Results: Out of 4502 IPAAs (1983-2016), 2797 patients were included. Treated with biologics versus 12% with UC duration > 20 years were 41% patients with UC duration < 5 years. Treated with steroids compared to shortest (34%,p < 0.001) were 54% patients with the longest disease. A total of 65% of patients with shortest disease had IPAAs performed mostly in 3 stages. Anastomotic separation and pelvic sepsis were more prevalent among shortest compared to longest disease groups. Rates of pouch-targeted fistulas, anastomotic strictures, and pouchitis were highest in longest disease group. Pouch survival was similar between groups. Multivariate analysis did not show a significant association between UC duration and pouch failure [1.05(0.97-1.1), p = 0.23].Longer UC duration was associated with increased odds of pouchitis [1.2(1.1, 1.3), p < 0.001]. Biologics agents were shown to be protective against pouchitis.

Conclusions: Preoperative UC duration does not increase pouch failure risk. Longer preoperative UC duration increases the pouchitis risk. Biologic agents and three-staged IPAA are protective against pouchitis and septic complications in long-term among patients with UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-019-03449-1DOI Listing
January 2020

Colorectal Surgery Resident Participation in Screening Colonoscopies: How Does It Impact Quality?

Dis Colon Rectum 2019 12;62(12):1528-1532

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Performing colonoscopies is an integral component of colorectal surgery residency training. There exists a paucity of literature regarding colonoscopy quality metrics with colorectal trainee involvement.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of colorectal surgery resident participation on quality metrics in screening colonoscopy.

Design: Screening colonoscopies performed between August 1, 2016, and July 31, 2018, were queried from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Data were cross-checked with resident case logs to verify colonoscopies with resident participation.

Setting: This study was conducted by the colorectal surgery department at a tertiary level hospital in the United States.

Patients: Consecutive, asymptomatic patients aged ≥45 years, undergoing screening colonoscopy, were selected.

Main Outcome Measures: The quality parameters measured included overall, male, and female adenoma detection rates; total examination time; withdrawal time; cecal intubation rate; quality of bowel preparation; complications; and medication dosage.

Results: A total of 4594 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 60.5 ± 8.4 years (range, 45-91); 51.7% were women. Overall, 4186 of the colonoscopies were performed without resident participation, and 408 were performed with resident participation. Scope insertion, withdrawal, and total examination times were longer in the resident group. Cecal intubation rate, polypectomy rate, sex-specific and overall adenoma detection rates, and complication rates were similar between the groups. In the multivariate model, trainee involvement had no significant impact on adenoma detection rate. In addition, the trainee group utilized a higher mean dose of fentanyl.

Limitations: The retrospective nature of the data with possible coding errors of the database and the inability to quantify the amount of resident participation and to clarify the degree of attending surgeon assistance and oversight were limitations of the study.

Conclusions: Colorectal surgery resident participation in screening colonoscopy takes longer and appears safe, while achieving all national quality metrics without compromising adenoma detection rates. Changes in colonoscopy scheduling in regard to length of time may prove beneficial when there is resident participation. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B43. PARTICIPACIÓN DE LOS RESIDENTES DE CIRUGÍA COLORRECTAL EN COLONOSCOPIAS DE CRIBADO: ¿CÓMO AFECTA LA CALIDAD?: La realización de colonoscopias es un componente integral del entrenamiento de residencia en cirugía colorrectal. Existe una escasez de literatura con respecto a las medidas de calidad de la colonoscopia con la participación de los aprendices colorrectales.Investigar el efecto de la participación de residentes de cirugía colorrectal en las medidas de calidad en la colonoscopia de cribado.Las colonoscopias de cribado realizadas entre el 1 de agosto de 2016 y el 31 de julio de 2018 se consultaron desde una base de datos institucional mantenida prospectivamente. Los datos se cotejaron con registros de casos de residentes para verificar las colonoscopias con participación de residentes.Departamento de cirugía colorrectal en un hospital de tercer nivel de los Estados Unidos.Pacientes consecutivos, asintomáticos, edad ≥45 años, sometidos a colonoscopia de detección.Parámetros de calidad que incluyen tasas generales de detección de adenoma en hombres y mujeres, tiempo total de examen, tiempo de retiro, tasa de intubación cecal, calidad de la preparación intestinal, complicaciones y dosis de medicamentos.Se incluyeron un total de 4.594 pacientes en el estudio con una edad media de 60,5 ± 8,4 años (rango, 45-91) y 51,7% mujeres. En total 4,186 de las colonoscopias se realizaron sin participación de los residentes y 408 se realizaron con la participación de los residentes. Los tiempos de inserción, retiro y examen total del alcance fueron más largos en el grupo residentes. La tasa de intubación cecal, la tasa de polipectomía, las tasas de detección de adenoma específicos de género y generales, y las tasas de complicaciones fueron similares entre los grupos. En el modelo multivariado, la participación de los aprendices no tuvo un impacto significativo en la tasa de detección de adenoma. Además, el grupo de aprendices utilizó una dosis media más alta de fentanilo.Carácter retrospectivo de los datos con posibles errores de codificación de la base de datos. Incapacidad para cuantificar la cantidad de participación de los residentes y para aclarar el grado de asistencia y supervisión del cirujano.La participación de los residentes de cirugía colorrectal en la colonoscopia de cribado lleva más tiempo y parece segura, mientras se logran todas las medidas de calidad nacionales sin comprometer las tasas de detección de adenoma. Los cambios en la programación de la colonoscopia con respecto al período de tiempo pueden ser beneficiosos cuando hay participación de residentes. Vea el resumen del video en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B43.
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December 2019

Comparison of long-term outcomes of primary and redo IPAA for patients with Crohn's disease.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2019 Nov 30;34(11):1945-1951. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue/A30, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Background: Crohn's disease (CD) patients after ileal anal pouch anastomosis (IPAA) are subject to CD recurrence, septic complications, and pouch failure. The aim of this study was to compare long-term outcomes of index and redo IPAA for CD.

Methods: Patients who underwent index and redo IPAA with a diagnosis of CD colitis were identified from a prospectively maintained IPAA database. Charts were reviewed to determine complications and pouch failure rates after index and redo IPAA. Long-term pouch survival and quality of life (QoL) were compared between index and redo IPAAs.

Results: There were 305 patients, 253 with an index IPAA and 52 having a redo IPAA. Their median ages were 33 years (index IPAA) and 32 years (redo IPAA) (p = 0.91); there were 47% and 53% men in each group, respectively (p = 0.54). Pouch salvage with redo IPAA was possible in 75% of redo pouches. Biologic agents were given in 8% of index IPAA and 34% redo IPAA patients (p < 0.01). Cumulative Kaplan Meier 5-year pouch survival was 80% vs. 60% in index and redo IPAA (p < 0.0001), at 10 years 74% vs. 38%, respectively (p < 0.0001). When queried, 78% who underwent redo pouch surgery would have it again and 86% would recommend this surgery to others.

Conclusion: IPAA can be offered to selected patients with isolated colonic CD. Failure in this group of patients is related mainly to recurrent CD, not surgical complications. Redo IPAA is a realistic option for salvage in certain patients with failed index IPAA.
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November 2019
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