Publications by authors named "Tovah Kerr"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Regional immune response to immunization with Escherichia coli O157:H7-derived intimin in cattle.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2013 Apr 13;20(4):562-71. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric pathogen of animals and humans that can result in deadly sequelae. Cattle are asymptomatic carriers and shedders of the bacteria and serve as an important reservoir of human infection. E. coli O157:H7 colonizes the gastrointestinal tract, most frequently at the rectoanal junction mucosa in cattle. Vaccination is a potentially highly effective means of decreasing cattle colonization and shedding and thereby decreasing human infections. Currently available vaccines are administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, and immune responses have been evaluated solely by systemic immunoglobulin responses. This study evaluated local and systemic lymphoproliferative responses in addition to immunoglobulin responses following subcutaneous or mucosal (rectal) immunization with E. coli O157:H7 outer membrane protein intimin over three trials. In all three trials, significant local and systemic lymphoproliferative responses (P < 0.05) occurred following immunization in the majority of animals, as well as significant immunoglobulin responses (P < 0.001) in all animals. Surprisingly, local responses in the mesorectal lymph nodes were very similar between the subcutaneous and mucosal immunization groups. Moreover, the responses in mesorectal lymph nodes appeared targeted rather than generalized, as minimal or no significant responses were observed in the associated prescapular lymph nodes of subcutaneously immunized animals. The results indicate that both subcutaneous and mucosal immunizations are effective methods of inducing immune responses against E. coli O157:H7 in cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00743-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3623412PMC
April 2013

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):522-8

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943200PMC
April 2009

Phylogenetic analysis of the myostatin gene sub-family and the differential expression of a novel member in zebrafish.

Evol Dev 2005 Sep-Oct;7(5):390-400

School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State Univerity, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

The myostatin (MSTN)-null phenotype in mammals is characterized by extreme gains in skeletal muscle mass or "double muscling" as the cytokine negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth. Recent attempts, however, to reproduce a comparable phenotype in zebrafish have failed. Several aspects of MSTN biology in the fishes differ significantly from those in mammals and at least two distinct paralogs have been identified in some species, which possibly suggests functional divergence between the different vertebrate classes or between fish paralogs. We therefore conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the entire MSTN gene sub-family. Maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and bootstrap analyses indicated a monophyletic distribution of all MSTN genes with two distinct fish clades: MSTN-1 and -2. These analyses further indicated that all Salmonid genes described are actually MSTN-1 orthologs and that additional MSTN-2 paralogs may be present in most, if not all, teleosts. An additional zebrafish homolog was identified by BLAST searches of the zebrafish Hierarchical Tets Generation System database and was subsequently cloned. Comparative sequence analysis of both genes (zebrafish MSTN (zfMSTN)-1 and -2) revealed many differences, primarily within the latency-associated peptide regions, but also within the bioactive domains. The 2-kb promoter region of zfMSTN-2 contained many putative cis regulatory elements that are active during myogenesis, but are lacking in the zfMSTN-1 promoter. In fact, zfMSTN-2 expression was limited to the early stages of somitogenesis, whereas zfMSTN-1 was expressed throughout embryogenesis. These data suggest that zfMSTN-2 may be more closely associated with skeletal muscle growth and development. They also resolve the previous ambiguity in classification of fish MSTN genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2005.05044.xDOI Listing
December 2005
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