Publications by authors named "Toshio Ogihara"

392 Publications

Effects of an Antihypertensive Combination in Japanese Hypertensive Outpatients Based on the Long-acting Calcium Channel Blocker Benidipine on Vascular and Renal Events: A Sub-analysis of the COPE Trial.

Curr Hypertens Rev 2020 ;16(3):238-245

Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In the trial known as COPE (Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events), three benidipine (a Calcium Channel Blocker; CCB) regimens were compared. Hypertensive Japanese outpatients aged 40-85 years (n=3,293) who did not achieve the target blood pressure of <140/90 mmHg with benidipine 4 mg/day were treated with the diuretic thiazide (n=1,094) or a β-blocker (n=1,089) or an additional Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB; n=1,110). A significantly higher incidence of hard cardiovascular composite endpoints and of fatal or non-fatal strokes was observed in the benidipine-β-blocker group compared to the benidipine-thiazide group.

Objective And Methods: We further evaluated the treatment effects of the three benidipine-based regimens on vascular and renal events in a sub-analysis of the COPE patients.

Results: A total of 10 vascular events (0.8 per 1,000 person-years) including one aortic dissection (0.1 per 1,000 person-years) and nine cases of peripheral artery disease (0.8 per 1,000 person-years) were documented, as was a total of seven renal events (0.6 per 1,000 person-years). No significant differences in vascular and renal events were revealed among the three treatment groups: vascular events, p=0.92; renal events, p=0.16, log-rank test.

Conclusion: Blood pressure-lowering therapy with benidipine combined with an ARB, β-blocker, or thiazide was similarly effective in the prevention of vascular and renal events in hypertensive outpatients, although there are not enough events to compare the difference in the three treatment groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573402116666200129130151DOI Listing
January 2020

Development of a Geriatric Prognostic Scoring System for Predicting Survival After Surgery for Elderly Patients With Gastrointestinal Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Oct 6;26(11):3644-3651. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2-E2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Background: The number of elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer is rising as the population ages. This study aimed to assess the impact of a preoperative geriatric assessment on postoperative survival and to develop a geriatric prognostic scoring system (GPSS) for elderly patients.

Methods: Patients (n = 544) age 75 years or older who had undergone radical surgery for gastrointestinal cancer were recruited for this observational study. Geriatric assessments (GAs) using the Barthel Index, the Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, the Vitality Index, and the Geriatric Depression Score were administered before surgery. Multivariable analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model to identify significant prognostic factors. The GPSS was developed using regression coefficients of the multivariable regression to predict overall survival (OS). Thereafter, 165 consecutive patients were prospectively validated to test the authors' model.

Results: The independent predictors of OS appeared to be GA as well as age, type of cancer, clinical stage, performance status, and body mass index. The patients were classified into high- and low-risk groups according to the GPSS. The overall 3-year survival was 79% in the low-risk group and 26% in the high-risk group (hazard ratio [HR], 5.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.35-7.42; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, when GPSS was applied to independent cohorts, the patients in the high-risk group showed significantly poorer prognoses than those in the low-risk group (HR, 4.49; 95% CI 2.65-7.60; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Geriatric assessments were closely associated with postoperative OS. The GPSS is useful in predicting postoperative prognosis and may help determine treatment strategies for elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07687-zDOI Listing
October 2019

Beneficial effect of laughter therapy on physiological and psychological function in elders.

Nurs Open 2019 Jan 18;6(1):93-99. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Graduate School of Health Sciences Morinomiya University of Medical Sciences Suminoe-ku Japan.

Aim: In the present study we investigated the effect of laughter therapy on physiological and psychological function in older people.

Design: An open-label trial.

Methods: Seventeen older people who regularly attended an elderly day care centre were recruited. Stand-up comedy as laughter therapy was performed once a week for 4 weeks. Parameters of physiological and psychological function were evaluated before and after laughter therapy.

Results: Laughter therapy intervention resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate, accompanied by a significant increase in plasma concentration of serotonin and a significant decrease in salivary concentration of chromogranin A. Questionnaire surveys of SF-8, GDS-15, and Vitality Index demonstrated alleviation of depression and improvement of sociability and activity in older people. Laughter therapy could be expected to become a practical treatment to improve quality of life of older people in an elderly day care centre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279721PMC
January 2019

Effects of Calcium-Channel Blocker Benidipine-Based Combination Therapy on Cardiac Events - Subanalysis of the COPE Trial.

Circ J 2018 01 2;82(2):457-463. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

Keio University.

Background: The Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events (COPE) trial was conducted to compare the effects of regimens combining the dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker benidipine with each of 3 secondary agent types (an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), a β-blocker and a thiazide) in Japanese hypertensive outpatients who did not achieve target blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) with benidipine 4 mg/day alone. The analysis included 3,293 patients (ARB, 1,110; β-blocker, 1,089; thiazide, 1,094) with a median follow-up of 3.61 years. The main results of the COPE trial demonstrated that the incidences of hard cardiovascular composite endpoints and fatal or non-fatal strokes were significantly higher in the benidipine/β-blocker group than in the benidipine/thiazide group.Methods and Results:We further evaluated the treatment effects on different cardiac events among the 3 benidipine-based regimens.We observed a total of 50 cardiac events, 4.2 per 1000 person-years. The incidences of total cardiac events and each cardiac event were similarly low among the 3 treatment groups. Unadjusted and multi-adjusted hazard ratios for total cardiac events showed no significant difference among the 3 treatment groups.

Conclusions: This subanalysis of the COPE trial demonstrated that blood pressure-lowering regimens combining benidipine with an ARB, β-blocker or thiazide diuretic were similarly effective for the prevention of cardiac events in Japanese hypertensive outpatients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-17-0592DOI Listing
January 2018

On-Treatment Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Older Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension.

Hypertension 2017 02 3;69(2):220-227. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

From the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (Y.Y.); Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (Y.Y., D.M.L.-J.); Department of Geriatric and General Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan (H.R., T.O.); Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, ASH Comprehensive Hypertension Center, University of Chicago Medicine, IL (G.L.B.); Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (S.O.); Keio University, Tokyo, Japan (T.S.); Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama, Japan (K.S.); Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Japan (H.M.); Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai, Japan (Y.I.); and Morinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka, Japan (T.O.).

Our aim was to assess optimal on-treatment blood pressure (BP) at which cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality risks are minimized in Japanese older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. We used data from the VALISH study (Valsartan in Elderly Isolated Systolic Hypertension) that recruited older adults (n=3035; mean age, 76 years) with systolic BP (SBP) of ≥160 mm Hg and diastolic BP of <90 mm Hg. Patients were treated by valsartan. Patients were also categorized into 3 groups based on achieved on-treatment SBP of <130 mm Hg (n=317), 130 to <145 mm Hg (n=2025), or ≥145 mm Hg (n=693). The primary outcome was composite CVD (coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, cardiovascular deaths, other vascular diseases, and kidney diseases) with secondary outcome being all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the CVD risk for each group. Over a median 3-year follow-up (8022 person-years), 93 CVD events and 52 deaths occurred. Using the on-treatment SBP of 130 to <145 mm Hg as reference stratum, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of CVD and all-cause mortality risks for those with SBP<130 mm Hg were 2.08 (1.12-3.83) and 2.09 (0.93-4.71) and for those with SBP≥145 mm Hg were 2.29 (1.44-3.62) and 2.51 (1.35-4.66), respectively. On-treatment diastolic BP yielded no relationships with CVD or all-cause mortality risk. In conclusion, among Japanese older adults with isolated systolic hypertension, SBP in the range between 130 and 144 mm Hg was associated with minimal adverse outcomes and a reduction in CVD and all-cause mortality. The BP range will need to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00151229.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08600DOI Listing
February 2017

Effects of calcium channel blocker benidipine-based combination therapy on target blood pressure control and cardiovascular outcome: a sub-analysis of the COPE trial.

Hypertens Res 2017 Apr 1;40(4):376-384. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

We compared three benidipine-based regimens-that is, benidipine plus angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), β-blocker (BB) or thiazide-and found that the benidipine-BB combination was less beneficial in reducing the risk of stroke than the benidipine-thiazide combination. This sub-analysis sought to compare the effects of reaching a target blood pressure (BP) (<140/90 mm Hg) on the cardiovascular outcomes among the three benidipine-based treatment groups in the Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events trial. This sub-analysis included 3001 subjects to evaluate the achievement of target BP at a minimum of three points at 6-month intervals of clinical BP measurements during the study period. After randomization, the patients were categorized into two groups on the basis of achieved on-treatment target BP: a good control (GC) group achieving a BP⩾66.7% of the target and a poor control (PC) group with a BP <66.6% of the target. For each of the two control groups, outcomes were compared among the three treatment groups. The event rates for cardiovascular composite endpoints, stroke and hard cardiovascular events were higher in the PC group than the GC group (P=0.041, P=0.042 and P=0.038, respectively). Within the PC group, hazard ratios for the incidence of cardiovascular events were lower in the benidipine-thiazide group than in the benidipine-BB group (composite cardiovascular events: 2.04, P=0.033; stroke: 4.14, P=0.005; and hard cardiovascular events: 3.52, P=0.009). Within the GC group, the incidence of cardiovascular events was not different among the three treatment regimens. The benidipine-thiazide combination may provide better cardiovascular outcomes than the benidipine-BB combination even in patients with poor BP control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2016.158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506236PMC
April 2017

Effect of hydrochlorothiazide in addition to telmisartan/amlodipine combination for treating hypertensive patients uncontrolled with telmisartan/amlodipine: a randomized, double-blind study.

Hypertens Res 2017 Mar 20;40(3):251-258. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Morinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka, Japan.

The efficacy and safety of telmisartan 80 mg/amlodipine 5 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (T80/A5/H12.5) was examined for its ability to treat hypertension in Japanese patients whose hypertension is uncontrolled with telmisartan 80 mg/amlodipine 5 mg (T80/A5). Patients aged ⩾20 years who had essential hypertension despite taking two or three antihypertensive drugs entered a 6-week run-in period on T80/A5. Patients whose hypertension remained uncontrolled were randomly assigned to either the T80/A5/H12.5 group (n=149) or the T80/A5 group (n=160), once daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, patients in the T80/A5/H12.5 group showed a significantly greater adjusted mean reduction in both seated diastolic blood pressure and seated systolic blood pressure than those in the T80/A5 group. Furthermore, more patients achieved a diastolic/systolic blood pressure of <90/140 mm Hg in the T80/A5/H12.5 group compared with the T80/A5 group. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, elevated blood uric acid levels and hyperuricemia, and the latter two events were more frequent in the T80/A5/H12.5 group than in the T80/A5 group. Overall, T80/A5/H12.5 administered for 8 weeks significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and was well tolerated by patients with hypertension uncontrolled with T80/A5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2016.124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339800PMC
March 2017

Effects of ipragliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on blood pressure in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pooled analysis of six randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

Diabetol Int 2017 Mar 9;8(1):76-86. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

4Morinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka, Japan.

Our aim was to examine the effects of ipragliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on blood pressure in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a pooled analysis of double-blind trials of Japanese T2DM patients, randomized to 50 mg ipragliflozin or placebo, with patient-level data for the change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from baseline to end of treatment (12-24 weeks). Data from six trials were analyzed: ipragliflozin was administered as monotherapy in two; in combination with metformin, pioglitazone, or sulfonylurea in one each; and in combination with prior therapy in patients with renal impairment in one. Overall, 628 and 368 patients were treated with ipragliflozin and placebo, respectively. The placebo-adjusted mean changes (95 % confidence interval) in SBP and DBP (mmHg) were -2.8 (-4.4, -1.3,  < 0.001) and -1.6 (-2.7, -0.6,  < 0.002), respectively, in all patients. The reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly greater in patients with baseline SBP ≥140 mmHg [-5.5 (-9.1, -1.8) and -2.9 (-5.3, -0.5), respectively] than in patients with SBP <140 mmHg [-2.1 (-3.8, -0.4) and -1.3 (-2.5, -0.1), respectively]. The reductions in SBP and DBP were also significantly greater in the ipragliflozin group than in the placebo group in patients treated with [-2.8 (-5.1, -0.4) and -2.4 (-4.0, -0.8), respectively] or without [-3.0 (-5.0, -1.0) and -1.0 (-2.4, 0.4), respectively] concomitant antihypertensive therapy. In conclusion, this pooled analysis showed that ipragliflozin was associated with significant reductions in SBP and DBP compared with placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13340-016-0283-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224932PMC
March 2017

The efficacy and long-term safety of a triple combination of 80 mg telmisartan, 5 mg amlodipine and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide in Japanese patients with essential hypertension: a randomized, double-blind study with open-label extension.

Hypertens Res 2017 Jan 1;40(1):51-60. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Morinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka, Japan.

The aim of this study was to compare 80 mg telmisartan/5 mg amlodipine/12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (T80/A5/H12.5) with 80 mg telmisartan/12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (T80/H12.5) to determine their relative blood pressure (BP) lowering effects in essential hypertensive patients with inadequate control and to evaluate the long-term safety of T80/A5/H12.5 in a 52-week extension period. Patients (n=132) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind treatment with T80/A5/H12.5 or T80/H12.5 for 8 weeks after a 6-week run-in-period of T80/H12.5. All 126 patients who completed the double-blind period entered the 52-week open-label extension and received T80/A5/H12.5. The adjusted mean changes from the reference baseline of the trough-seated systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) at week 8 were significantly larger in the T80/A5/H12.5 group (-10.6/-8.8 mm Hg) than in the T80/H12.5 group (-2.3/-1.3 mm Hg) (P<0.0001). The BP-lowering effect of T80/A5/H12.5 was maintained over the 52-week extension period. The adverse events (AEs) during both treatment periods were generally mild. Drug-related AEs were reported in one patient in each group in the double-blind period and in five patients exposed to T80/A5/H12.5 in the double-blind and/or open-label extension period. T80/A5/H12.5 therapy was clinically and statistically superior to T80/H12.5 therapy for the reduction of BP in patients with essential hypertension uncontrolled with T80/H12.5, and its BP-lowering effect was maintained in the long term. T80/A5/H12.5 was generally well-tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2016.100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5222993PMC
January 2017

Therapeutic effect of intra-articular injection of ribbon-type decoy oligonucleotides for hypoxia inducible factor-1 on joint contracture in an immobilized knee animal model.

J Gene Med 2016 Aug;18(8):180-92

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Morinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Limited range of motion (ROM) as a result of joint contracture in treatment associated with joint immobilization or motor paralysis is a critical issue. However, its molecular mechanism has not been fully clarified and a therapeutic approach is not yet established.

Methods: In the present study, we investigated its molecular mechanism, focusing on the role of a transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and evaluated the possibility of molecular therapy to inhibit HIF-1 activation by ribbon-type decoy oligonucleotides (ODNs) for HIF-1 using immobilized knee animal models.

Results: In a mouse model, ROM of the immobilized knee significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by synovial hypertrophy. Immunohistochemical studies suggested that CTGF and VEGF are implicated in synovial hypertrophy with fibrosis. CTGF and VEGF were up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels at 1 and 2 weeks after immobilization, subsequent to up-regulation of HIF-1 mRNA and transcriptional activation of HIF-1. Of importance, intra-articular transfection of decoy ODNs for HIF-1 in a rat model successfully inhibited transcriptional activation of HIF-1, followed by suppression of expression of CTGF and VEGF, resulting in attenuation of restricted ROM, whereas transfection of scrambled decoy ODNs did not.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the important role of HIF-1 in the initial progression of immobilization-induced joint contracture, and indicates the possibility of molecular treatment to prevent the progression of joint contracture prior to intervention with physical therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.2891DOI Listing
August 2016

Effects of calcium channel blocker-based combinations on intra-individual blood pressure variability: post hoc analysis of the COPE trial.

Hypertens Res 2016 Jan 22;39(1):46-53. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability is an important predictor of stroke. However, which antihypertensive drug combination is better at reducing visit-to-visit BP variability and therefore at reducing stroke incidence remains uncertain. We have previously reported that the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker benidipine combined with a β-blocker appeared to be less beneficial in reducing the risk of stroke than a combination of benidipine and thiazide. Here, we further compare the visit-to-visit BP variability among three benidipine-based regimens, namely angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), β-blocker and thiazide combinations. The present post hoc analysis included 2983 patients without cardiovascular events or death during the first 18 months after randomization. We compared the BP variability (defined as the s.d. and the coefficient of variation (CV)), maximum systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of the clinic mean on-treatment BPs obtained at 6-month intervals, starting 6 months after the treatment initiation, among the 3 treatments (ARB, n=1026; β-blocker, n=966; thiazide, n=991). During the first 6-36 months after randomization, both the s.d. and CV-BPs were lower in the benidipine-thiazide group than in the benidipine-β-blocker group (s.d.-SBP, P=0.019; s.d.-DBP, P=0.030; CV-SBP, P=0.012; CV-DBP, P=0.022). The s.d. and CV in the ARB group did not reach statistical significance compared with the other two groups. The maximum BPs did not differ among the three treatments. These findings suggest that the benidipine-thiazide combination may reduce visit-to-visit BP variability more than the benidipine-β-blocker combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2015.104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4709460PMC
January 2016

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is a useful predictive tool for postoperative delirium after gastrointestinal surgery in old-old adults.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016 Sep 26;16(9):1036-42. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Aim: To determine whether carrying out the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment before operations would be useful for predicting complications, particularly postoperative delirium (POD), in old-old patients.

Methods: A total of 517 patients aged 75 years and older, who underwent radical surgery for gastrointestinal cancer at Osaka University Hospital, were recruited for this observational study. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment components and assessment of performance status were carried out before surgery, and a record of postoperative complications including POD was made prospectively until discharge from hospital. The following morphological and clinical measurements were also obtained from the medical records: age, sex, disease type, previous history, comorbid lifestyle-related diseases, POD, postoperative complications, operative method, duration of operation, hemorrhage volume, blood transfusion volume, method of anesthesia, body mass index and blood tests.

Results: POD appeared in 24.0% of the 517 patients who underwent surgery. Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination, instrumental activities of daily living and Geriatric Depression Scale results were associated with the incidence of POD, and the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living results were extracted as independent factors associated with the development of POD after adjusting for traditional risk factors for postoperative complications and performance status.

Conclusions: The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment before gastrointestinal surgery can be a useful tool for predicting the development of POD in old-old patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1036-1042.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12587DOI Listing
September 2016

Preferable effects of olmesartan/calcium channel blocker to olmesartan/diuretic on blood pressure variability in very elderly hypertension: COLM study subanalysis.

J Hypertens 2015 Oct;33(10):2165-72

aOsaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka bMorinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka cKeio University, Tokyo dKyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto eShin-oyama City Hospital, Tochigi fSaitama Medical University, Saitama gEhime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime hTokyo Medical University, Tokyo iAsahi Rousai Hospital, Aichi, Japan.

Objective: The aims of this subanalysis of the COLM trial [NCT00454662] were to compare visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) between age groups and between two treatment combinations, that is, the angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan combined with a calcium channel blocker (CCB), or a diuretic and to investigate the effect of VVV of BP on cardiovascular events in elderly hypertensive patients.

Methods: Hypertensive patients ages 65-84 years with a history of and/or risk factors for cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive treatment with olmesartan along with either a CCB or a diuretic for at least 3 years. This subanalysis comprised 4876 patients who had their office BP measured at least three occasions (median nine occasions) during the follow-up period. VVV of BP was defined by several metrics including the within-individual standard deviation of every visit during the follow-up period.

Results: VVV of SBP was larger in the very elderly group (75-84 years) than in the elderly group (65-74 years). VVV of SBP was smaller in the olmesartan along with CCB group than in the olmesartan along with diuretic group, especially in very elderly patients and also isolated systolic hypertensive patients. The incidence rate of primary endpoint increased along with an increment in the SD of SBP in all of the age and treatment groups.

Conclusion: VVV of SBP may mediate the preferable effect of combination of angiotensin II receptor blocker along with CCB on cardiovascular events in the very elderly and also isolated systolic hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4570687PMC
October 2015

Continuous infusion of angiotensin II modulates hypertrophic differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in cartilage formation in a fracture model mouse.

Hypertens Res 2015 Jun 19;38(6):382-93. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Department of Clinical Gene Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Although components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are reported to be expressed in cultured chondrocytes and cartilage, little is known about the precise function of Angiotensin II (Ang II) in chondrocytes. In this study, we employed a rib fracture model mouse to investigate the effect of Ang II on chondrocytes. Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) was expressed in chondrocytes in the growth plate of mouse tibia. Continuous infusion of Ang II to rib-fractured mice resulted in a significant increase in the volume of cartilage, suggesting Ang II-induced hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. It was also confirmed by a significant increase in the mRNA expression of Sox9 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which are genes related to chondrocyte differentiation, and type X collagen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), which are hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific molecular markers. Chondrocyte hypertrophy with upregulation of these genes was attenuated by administration of olmesartan, an AT1R blocker, but not by hydralazine. Moreover, Ang II infusion significantly suppressed apoptosis of chondrocytes, accompanied by significant induction of mRNA expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL. Olmesartan, but not hydralazine, significantly attenuated the reduction of apoptotic cells and the increase in anti-apoptotic genes induced by Ang II infusion. Overall, the present study demonstrated that Ang II promoted hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and reduced apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes independently of high blood pressure. The present data indicate the role of Ang II in cartilage, and might provide a new concept for treatment of cartilage diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2015.18DOI Listing
June 2015

Effect of angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan, on turnover of bone metabolism in bedridden elderly hypertensive women with disuse syndrome.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015 Aug 3;15(8):1064-72. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Department of Clinical Gene Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Aims: Although recent studies suggest that several antihypertensive drugs could reduce the risk of bone fracture, it is still unclear how these drugs act on bone remodeling, especially in elderly women with severe osteoporosis with disuse syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on bone metabolism in elderly bedridden women with hypertension and disuse syndrome.

Methods: Elderly bedridden women (aged >75 years) receiving antihypertensive therapy treated with CCB were recruited in the present study. The participants were divided into two groups--CCB group and ARB group--and followed up to 12 months.

Results: Markers of bone resorption were markedly increased, suggesting accelerated bone resorption in the participants of the present study. In the follow-up period, the patients treated with a CCB showed a significant decrease in bone mineral density in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant increase in bone resorption markers, whereas treatment with olmesartan inhibited bone loss, associated with attenuation of increased bone resorption markers. Bone mineral density of femoral neck in the CCB group was significantly lower than that in the ARB group at 6 months.

Conclusion: The present study showed inhibitory effects of an ARB on bone resorption in hypertensive patients with accelerated bone resorption, such as elderly bedridden women, and indicated an important role of the renin-angiotensin system in bone metabolism. In elderly hypertensive patients, ARB might be expected to have additional beneficial potential to maintain bone health in bedridden patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12406DOI Listing
August 2015

Combination therapy of hypertension in the elderly: a subgroup analysis of the Combination of OLMesartan and a calcium channel blocker or diuretic in Japanese elderly hypertensive patients trial.

Hypertens Res 2015 Jan 25;38(1):89-96. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Shin-oyama City Hospital, Oyama, Japan.

Combination of OLMesartan and a calcium channel blocker or a diuretic in Japanese elderly hypertensive patients (COLM) trial demonstrated that olmesartan combinations with a CCB or diuretic have similar effects on reducing cardiovascular risk in elderly hypertensive patients. However, the safety profiles suggest that olmesartan combined with CCB may be preferable to olmesartan combined with diuretic. In this subgroup analysis, we further evaluated the effects and safety of these combinations in elderly (65-74 years old (y.o.)) and very elderly (75-84 y.o.) hypertensive patients. In the COLM trial, 5141 patients (2918 elderly and 2223 very elderly) were randomly assigned to receive olmesartan-based therapy with either CCB or diuretic. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, respectively, in the elderly age group and in the very elderly group were: 1.04 (0.72-1.50; olmesartan plus CCB vs. olmesartan plus diuretic, P = 0.85) and 0.71 (0.51-0.99, P = 0.045) for the primary composite end point, and 1.07 (0.67-1.72, P = 0.77) and 0.64 (0.42-0.98, P = 0.036) for the composite of hard end points. The hazard ratios for stroke (fatal and non-fatal) were 1.48 (0.88-2.48; olmesartan plus CCB vs. olmesartan plus diuretic, P = 0.13) and 0.63 (0.39-1.02, P = 0.059) (interaction-P = 0.019). Withdrawal rates from the trial, withdrawal due to serious adverse event and the incidence of any adverse event were higher in the olmesartan plus diuretic group than in the olmesartan plus CCB group in both age groups. In conclusion, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and CCB combination may be preferable to an ARB and diuretic combination in the very elderly hypertensive patients for the reduction of cardiovascular risk, particularly for the reduction in stroke risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2014.144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287656PMC
January 2015

Comparison of olmesartan combined with a calcium channel blocker or a diuretic in elderly hypertensive patients (COLM Study): safety and tolerability.

Hypertens Res 2015 Feb 25;38(2):132-6. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Department of Cardiology, Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama, Japan.

The cardiovascular effects of combined therapy with the angiotensin receptor blocker (olmesartan) and a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB) or a diuretic were compared in high-risk elderly Japanese hypertensive patients by performing a randomized, open label, blinded-endpoint study of morbidity and mortality (the COLM study). Here we report the results obtained with respect to safety and tolerability. High-risk hypertensive patients aged 65-84 years were enrolled and were randomized to receive olmesartan combined with either a CCB (amlodipine or azelnidipine) or a low-dose diuretic for at least 3 years. The primary endpoint was a composite of fatal and non fatal cardiovascular events, whereas adverse events (AEs) and the percentage of patients who discontinued the allocated treatment were evaluated as secondary endpoints. A total of 5141 patients were randomized. Both combination regimens achieved a similar reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The incidences of AEs, serious AEs, drug-related serious AEs and discontinuation due to serious AEs were lower in the olmesartan plus CCB group than in the olmesartan plus diuretic group. Serum levels of uric acid and creatinine were significantly higher in the olmesartan plus diuretic group than in the olmesartan plus CCB group. Olmesartan combined with a CCB was significantly superior to olmesartan plus a diuretic with regard to the frequency of AEs and discontinuation of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2014.141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322201PMC
February 2015

A randomised controlled trial for the evaluation of risk for type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients receiving thiazide diuretics: Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study.

BMJ Open 2014 Jul 16;4(7):e004576. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Department of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: Thiazide diuretics are one of the first choice antihypertensives but not optimally utilised because of concerns regarding their adverse effects on glucose metabolism. The Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study was designed, for the first time, to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with essential hypertension during antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics compared to those not treated with diuretics.

Design: Multicentre, unblinded, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial with blinded assessment of end points and intention-to-treat analysis that was started in 2004 and finished in 2012.

Setting: Hypertension clinics at 106 sites in Japan, including general practitioners' offices and teaching hospitals.

Participants: Non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension.

Interventions: Antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics at 12.5 mg/day of hydrochlorothiazide or equivalent (Diuretics group) or that without thiazide diuretics (No-diuretics group).

Main Outcome: The primary outcome was new onset of type 2 diabetes diagnosed according to WHO criteria and the criteria of Japanese Society of Diabetes.

Results: 1130 patients were allocated to Diuretics (n=544) or No-diuretics group (n=586). Complete end point information was collected for 1049 participants after a median follow-up of 4.4 years. Diabetes developed in 25 (4.6%) participants in the Diuretics group, as compared with 29 (4.9%) in the No-diuretics group (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.58; p=0.800).

Conclusions: Antihypertensive treatment with thiazide diuretics at low doses may not be associated with an increased risk for new onset of type 2 diabetes. This result might suggest safety of use of low doses of thiazide diuretics.

Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00131846.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120409PMC
July 2014

Combinations of olmesartan and a calcium channel blocker or a diuretic in elderly hypertensive patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

J Hypertens 2014 Oct;32(10):2054-63; discussiom 2063

aMorinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka bKeio University, Tokyo cOsaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka dSapporo Medical University, Hokkaido eDokkyo Medical University fShin-Oyama City Hospital, Tochigi gTohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi hEhime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime iKurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka jUniversity of the Ryukyus School of Medicine, Okinawa kSaitama Medical University, Saitama lAsahi Rousai Hospital, Aichi mYokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa nSapporo Nishimaruyama Hospital, Hokkaido oTokyo Medical University, Tokyo pKawasaki Medical School, Okayama qKanazawa University Hospital, Ishikawa, Japan.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the cardiovascular effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, combined with a calcium channel blocker (CCB) or a diuretic, in a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint trial.

Methods: Japanese hypertensive patients aged at least 65 to less than 85 years with SBP at least 140 mmHg and/or DBP at least 90 mmHg with antihypertensive treatment, or SBP at least 160 mmHg and/or DBP at least 100 mmHg without antihypertensive treatment were randomized to receive olmesartan with either a dihydropyridine CCB or a low-dose diuretic. If SBP and/or DBP remained at least 140 and/or at least 90 mmHg, the other antihypertensive drug was added. The primary endpoint was a composite of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The median follow-up time was 3.3 years.

Results: Blood pressure decreased similarly in both groups. The primary endpoint occurred in 116/2568 patients (4.5%) in the olmesartan plus CCB group and in 135/2573 patients (5.3%) in the olmesartan plus diuretic group [hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.07, P = 0.16]. Rates of all-cause death and cardiovascular deaths were similar. Among patients aged at least 75 years, the incidence of stroke tended to be lower in the olmesartan plus CCB group than in the olmesartan plus diuretic group (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% CI 0.38-1.02, P = 0.059, interaction P = 0.019). Fewer patients in the olmesartan plus CCB group (8.2%, 211/2568) than in the olmesartan plus diuretic group (9.8%, 253/2573; P = 0.046) experienced serious adverse events.

Conclusion: Despite no significant difference in cardiovascular events, the different safety profiles suggest that the combination of olmesartan and CCB may be preferable to that of olmesartan and diuretic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166009PMC
October 2014

Genome-wide response to antihypertensive medication using home blood pressure measurements: a pilot study nested within the HOMED-BP study.

Pharmacogenomics 2013 Nov;14(14):1709-21

Department of Geriatric Medicine & Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan and Department of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan and Research Institute, National Cerebro & Cardiovascular Research Center, Osaka, Japan and Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension & Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension in the HOMED-BP trial were randomly allocated to first-line treatment with a calcium channel blocker (CCB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB).

Methods: We recruited 265 (93 for CCB, 71 for ACEI and 101 for ARB) patients who completed the genomic study. Home blood pressure was measured for 5 days off-treatment before randomization and for 5 days after 2-4 weeks of randomized drug treatment. Genotyping was performed by 500K DNA microarray chips. The blood pressure responses to the three drugs were analyzed separately as a quantitative trait. For replication of SNPs with p < 10(-4), we used the multicenter GEANE study, in which patients were randomized to valsartan or amlodipine.

Results: SNPs in PICALM, TANC2, NUMA1 and APCDD1 were found to be associated with CCB responses and those in ABCC9 and YIPF1 were found to be associated with ARB response with replication.

Conclusion: Our approach, the first based on high-fidelity phenotyping by home blood pressure measurement, might be a step in moving towards the personalized treatment of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs.13.161DOI Listing
November 2013

Effects of a benidipine-based combination therapy on the risk of stroke according to stroke subtype: the COPE trial.

Hypertens Res 2013 Dec 29;36(12):1088-95. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Center for Clinical Research, Yamaguchi University Hospital, Ube, Japan.

The Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events (COPE) trial compared the dihydropyridine T/L-type calcium channel blocker benidipine-based therapies when combined with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), a β-blocker (BB) or a thiazide diuretic (TD). The results suggested that benidipine combined with a BB appeared to be less beneficial in reducing the risk of stroke compared with the benidipine-TD combination (hazard ratio (HR): 2.31, P=0.0109). We further evaluated the treatment effects on different stroke subtypes among the three benidipine-based regimens. The COPE trial was an investigator-initiated, multicenter study with PROBE design. Patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter were excluded from the study. All stroke events were subclassified with the Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. The total incidence of stroke was 4.7, hemorrhagic stroke was 1.6 and ischemic stroke was 2.5 per 1000 person-years. The incidence of lacunar stroke was 1.1, large-artery stroke was 0.6, cardioembolic stroke was 0.3, unknown ischemic type was 0.6 and transient ischemic attack was 0.6 per 1000 person-years. Although few differences in stroke subtypes were observed among the three treatment groups, multi-adjusted HRs for the incidence rates of all types of stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were significantly higher with the benidipine-BB regimen than with the benidipine-TD regimen. The incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in the benidipine-ARB regimen was not different compared with the other two treatment regimens. This prespecified sub-analysis suggested that a blood pressure-lowering therapy with a benidipine-TD regimen might be beneficial for hypertensive patients to prevent both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2013.100DOI Listing
December 2013

Combination therapy for hypertension in patients with CKD: a subanalysis of the Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events trial.

Hypertens Res 2013 Nov 18;36(11):947-58. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

The Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events (COPE) trial was a multicenter, randomized, three-arm comparative study (N=3293) undertaken to determine the optimal combination therapy, based on the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients treated with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), a β-blocker (BB) or a thiazide diuretic (TD) in addition to the calcium antagonist benidipine as baseline medication. This subanalysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of three combination therapies in a subset of 834 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (287 patients treated with benidpine-ARB, 283 patients treated with benidipine-BB and 264 patients treated with benidipine-TD). The incidence of composite cardiovascular events as the primary end point did not differ among these three groups. The incidence of hard end points and cerebrovascular events among these groups did not differ either, although the incidence among all patients in the COPE trial was lower in the benidipine-TD group than in the benidipine-BB group. The incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus was higher in the benidipine-TD group than in the benidipine-ARB group among patients with CKD. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was maintained even after 12 months of treatment in patients with a baseline eGFR <60 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) regardless of the treatment group, although the eGFR decreased over time in all patients in the three groups. In conclusion, in patients with CKD, all of the tested combination therapies demonstrated comparable efficacy in terms of prevention of cardiovascular events as well as maintenance of eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2013.63DOI Listing
November 2013

Genetic impact on uric acid concentration and hyperuricemia in the Japanese population.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2013 13;20(4):351-67. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Using general Japanese populations, we performed a replication study of genetic loci previously identified in European-descent populations as being associated with uric acid and gout. The relative contribution of non-genetic and genetic factors to the variances in serum uric acid concentration was then evaluated.

Methods: Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from 7 candidate loci robustly confirmed in Europeans. Genotyping was performed in up to 17,226 individuals, from which 237 hyperuricemia cases and 3,218 controls were chosen for a case-control study. For 6 SNPs showing a replication of uric acid association in 17,076 general population samples, we further tested the associations with other metabolic traits (n≤5,745) and with type 2 diabetes (931 cases and 1404 controls) and coronary artery disease (806 cases and 1337 controls).

Results: Significant uric acid associations (one-tailed p<0.05) were replicated for 6 loci in Japanese. The strongest association was detected at SLC22A12 rs505802 for uric acid (p=2.4×10(-50)) and ABCG2 rs2231142 for hyperuricemia (p3.6×10(-10)). The combined genetic effect could explain some proportion of inter-individual variation in uric acid (R(2)=0.03) and was more or less comparable to the effect of well-recognized risk factors -BMI (R(2)=0.04) and alcohol intake (R(2)=0.01). The tested SNPs were not significantly associated with cardiovascular risk traits except for GCKR rs780094.

Conclusion: Our results confirm that 6 common uric acid variant loci are reproducible in Japanese. Further investigation is warranted to efficiently use the knowledge about genetic factors in combination with modifiable risk factors when we decide an individual's treatment strategy for hyperuricemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.15727DOI Listing
October 2013

Deletion of CDKAL1 affects high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mice, indicating relevance to diabetes.

PLoS One 2012 16;7(11):e49055. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Division of Animal Model, Department of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/objective: The CDKAL1 gene is among the best-replicated susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes, originally identified by genome-wide association studies in humans. To clarify a physiological importance of CDKAL1, we examined effects of a global Cdkal1-null mutation in mice and also evaluated the influence of a CDKAL1 risk allele on body mass index (BMI) in Japanese subjects.

Methods: In Cdkal1-deficient (Cdkal1⁻/⁻) mice, we performed oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and perfusion experiments with and without high-fat feeding. Based on the findings in mice, we tested genetic association of CDKAL1 variants with BMI, as a measure of adiposity, and type 2 diabetes in Japanese.

Principal Findings: On a standard diet, Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice were modestly lighter in weight than wild-type littermates without major alterations in glucose metabolism. On a high fat diet, Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice showed significant reduction in fat accumulation (17% reduction in %intraabdominal fat, P = 0.023 vs. wild-type littermates) with less impaired insulin sensitivity at an early stage. High fat feeding did not potentiate insulin secretion in Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice (1.0-fold), contrary to the results in wild-type littermates (1.6-fold, P<0.01). Inversely, at a later stage, Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice showed more prominent impairment of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. mRNA expression analysis indicated that Scd1 might function as a critical mediator of the altered metabolism in Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice. In accordance with the findings in mice, a nominally significant (P<0.05) association between CDKAL1 rs4712523 and BMI was replicated in 2 Japanese general populations comprising 5,695 and 12,569 samples; the risk allele for type 2 diabetes was also associated with decreased BMI.

Conclusions: Cdkal1 gene deletion is accompanied by modestly impaired insulin secretion and longitudinal fluctuations in insulin sensitivity during high-fat feeding in mice. CDKAL1 may affect such compensatory mechanisms regulating glucose homeostasis through interaction with diet.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0049055PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500257PMC
March 2013

Association of genetic variants influencing lipid levels with coronary artery disease in Japanese individuals.

PLoS One 2012 26;7(9):e46385. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/objective: In Japanese populations, we performed a replication study of genetic loci previously identified in European-descent populations as being associated with lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: We genotyped 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 22 candidate loci that had previously been identified by genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analyses for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and/or triglycerides in Europeans. We selected 22 loci with 2 parallel tracks from 95 reported loci: 16 significant loci (p<1 × 10(-30) in Europeans) and 6 other loci including those with suggestive evidence of lipid associations in 1292 GWA-scanned Japanese samples. Genotyping was done in 4990 general population samples, and 1347 CAD cases and 1337 controls. For 9 SNPs, we further examined CAD associations in an additional panel of 3052 CAD cases and 6335 controls.

Principal Findings: Significant lipid associations (one-tailed p<0.05) were replicated for 18 of 22 loci in Japanese samples, with significant inter-ethnic heterogeneity at 4 loci-APOB, APOE-C1, CETP, and APOA5-and allelic heterogeneity. The strongest association was detected at APOE rs7412 for LDL-C (p=1.3 × 10(-41)), CETP rs3764261 for HDL-C (p=5.2 × 10(-24)), and APOA5 rs662799 for triglycerides (p=5.8 × 10(-54)). CAD association was replicated and/or verified for 4 loci: SORT1 rs611917 (p=1.7 × 10(-8)), APOA5 rs662799 (p=0.0014), LDLR rs1433099 (p=2.1 × 10(-7)), and APOE rs7412 (p=6.1 × 10(-13)).

Conclusions: Our results confirm that most of the tested lipid loci are associated with lipid traits in the Japanese, further indicating that in genetic susceptibility to lipid levels and CAD, the related metabolic pathways are largely common across the populations, while causal variants at individual loci can be population-specific.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046385PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3458872PMC
April 2013

Long-term follow-up evaluation of results from clinical trial using hepatocyte growth factor gene to treat severe peripheral arterial disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2012 Oct 16;32(10):2503-9. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Department of Clinical Gene Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871, Japan.

Objective: As angiogenic growth factors can stimulate the development of collateral arteries, a concept called therapeutic angiogenesis, we performed a phase I/IIa open-label clinical trial using intramuscular injection of naked plasmid DNA encoding hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We reported long-term evaluation of 2 years after HGF gene therapy in 22 patients with severe peripheral arterial disease.

Methods And Results: Twenty-two patients with peripheral arterial disease or Buerger disease staged by Fontaine IIb (n=7), III (n=4), and IV (n=11) were treated with HGF plasmid, either 2 mg or 4 mg ×2. Increase in ankle-branchial pressure index >0.1 was observed in 11 of 14 patients (79 %) at 2 years after gene therapy and in 11 of the 17 patients (65%) at 2 months. Reduction in rest pain (>2 cm in visual analog scale) was observed in 9 of 9 patients (100%) at 2 years and in 8 of 13 (62%) patients at 2 months. At 2 years, 9 of 10 (90%) ischemic ulcers reduced by >25%, accompanied by a reduction in the size of ulcer. Severe complications and adverse effects caused by gene transfer were not detected in any patient throughout the period up to 2 years.

Conclusions: Overall, the present study demonstrated long-term efficacy of HGF gene therapy up to 2 years. These findings may be cautiously interpreted to indicate that intramuscular injection of naked HGF plasmid is safe, feasible, and can achieve successful improvement of ischemic limbs as sole therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.244632DOI Listing
October 2012

Meta-analysis identifies multiple loci associated with kidney function-related traits in east Asian populations.

Nat Genet 2012 Jul 15;44(8):904-9. Epub 2012 Jul 15.

Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, Center for Genomic Medicine (CGM), RIKEN, Yokohama, Japan.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), impairment of kidney function, is a serious public health problem, and the assessment of genetic factors influencing kidney function has substantial clinical relevance. Here, we report a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for kidney function-related traits, including 71,149 east Asian individuals from 18 studies in 11 population-, hospital- or family-based cohorts, conducted as part of the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network (AGEN). Our meta-analysis identified 17 loci newly associated with kidney function-related traits, including the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine levels (eGFRcrea) (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)). We further examined these loci with in silico replication in individuals of European ancestry from the KidneyGen, CKDGen and GUGC consortia, including a combined total of ∼110,347 individuals. We identify pleiotropic associations among these loci with kidney function-related traits and risk of CKD. These findings provide new insights into the genetics of kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4737645PMC
July 2012

Impact of serum uric acid on renal function and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients treated with losartan.

Hypertens Res 2012 Aug 10;35(8):867-73. Epub 2012 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan.

High serum uric acid level (SUA) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are risk factors for cardiovascular events (CVEs). However, their interactions as cardiovascular risk factors remain unknown. This subanalysis of the Japan Hypertension Evaluation with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Therapy (J-HEALTH) study included 7629 patients, in whom the serum creatinine level was measured at least twice. The study examined the impact of hyperuricemia (SUA ≥7 mg dl(-1)) on CVE according to the level of renal dysfunction and whether early changes in SUA predicted future glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). The mean follow-up period was 3.1 years. The patients were divided into three groups according to the baseline estimated GFR (eGFR): groups A, B and C with eGFR <45, 45-59 and ≥60 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2), respectively. eGFR increased from 38.1 to 57.6, from 52.8 to 67.5 and from 74.7 to 80.7 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) in groups A, B and C, respectively. In non-hyperuricemic patients, the CVE rate was 10.83, 4.98 and 4.21/1000 person-years in groups A, B and C, respectively, while in hyperuricemic patients, the corresponding values were 14.18, 17.02 and 5.93. Thus, hyperuricemia increased the risk of CVE only in group B (relative risk (RR) 3.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55 to 7.60); P<0.002). The final change in the eGFR was negatively correlated with the change in SUA from baseline to year 1 (P<0.001). CVEs were more frequent in those with a decrease in eGFR. Hyperuricemia may be a major determinant of increased cardiovascular risk in CKD stage 3A, and SUA may be involved in the progression of CKD. Changes in the GFR influence the rate of CVE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2012.59DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419971PMC
August 2012

Reevaluation of the association of seven candidate genes with blood pressure and hypertension: a replication study and meta-analysis with a larger sample size.

Hypertens Res 2012 Aug 29;35(8):825-31. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

To obtain evidence for blood pressure (BP) trait association, we conducted an association study of selected candidate gene variants. In Japan, a total of 19,426 individuals underwent testing for genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) and 9271 individuals (3460 cases and 5811 controls) underwent testing for genetic associations with dichotomous hypertension. Association with seven notable candidate genes was tested, namely, ACE, ADD1, ADRB2, AGT, CYP11B2, GNB3 and NOS3, followed by a joint meta-analysis involving previously reported multi-study populations, including >20,000 individuals (for SBP/DBP) and >17,000 individuals (for hypertension). BP trait associations at two loci (AGT rs699 and CYP11B2 rs1799998) were consistently replicated in the Japanese association study and joint meta-analysis involving the populations described above. Hypertension association reached genome-wide significance for the two variants, specifically, P=7.3 × 10(-10) for AGT rs699 and P=3.9 × 10(-8) for CYP11B2 rs1799998. In our study panels, the most significant association was found for CYP11B2 rs1799998 with all three BP traits: P=1.5 × 10(-5) for SBP, P=1.8 × 10(-5) for DBP and P=2.3 × 10(-5) for hypertension. A suggestive association with SBP (P=0.042), DBP (P=0.01) and hypertension (P=1.4 × 10(-5)) was also detected for ACE rs4340 (a proxy for ACE D/I polymorphism) in the joint meta-analysis. Our data provide evidence for true BP trait associations with two candidate gene variants. These variants were not identified in the previous genome-wide association studies, presumably because they did not reach a given threshold in the discovery stage. Thus, certain variants in genes with clinical and physiological relevance are likely to account for a portion of BP variance in the general population and are worth following up via a target gene approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2012.43DOI Listing
August 2012