Publications by authors named "Toshio Mori"

120 Publications

Differences in the Knowledge and Experience of Physicians and Dentists About Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Osteoporotic Patients.

Int Dent J 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan.

Aim: Prevention of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in patients with osteoporosis requires the cooperation of physicians and dentists. We investigated the knowledge, experience, and behaviour related to medical and dental cooperation for MRONJ prevention in patients with osteoporosis between physicians and dentists practising in the Shiga prefecture.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the cooperation between practising physicians and dentists for preventing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients with osteoporosis using 2 separate questionnaires from July 28, 2018, to February 3, 2019.

Results: Of 461 dentists who were sent the questionnaires at their dental clinics, 307 (67%) responded via fax. Of 846 physicians who were sent the questionnaire at their clinics, 378 (45%) responded via fax. Of these, 268 (32%) were finally analysed because 110 (13%) physicians had never treated patients with osteoporosis; 50% dentists and 24% physicians were familiar with the MRONJ position paper in Japan, and 39% dentists and 9% physicians had encountered MRONJ in their clinical practice. A total of 30% physicians had requested oral health care by a dentist before administering bone-modifying agents (BMA) therapy. The knowledge and experience of MRONJ differed between physicians and dentists.

Conclusion: The behaviour of physicians and dentists was insufficient to enable medical and dental cooperation for the prevention of MRONJ in patients with osteoporosis. The lack of cooperation between physicians and dentists during osteoporosis treatment in the Shiga prefecture in Japan is documented in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.identj.2020.12.005DOI Listing
January 2021

Dropped Head Syndrome Treated with Physical Therapy Based on the Concept of Athletic Rehabilitation.

Case Rep Orthop 2020 8;2020:8811148. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan.

Patients with dropped head syndrome (DHS) show severe cervical kyphosis, i.e., chin-on-chest deformity, and their activities of daily living are impaired considerably. However, the therapeutics for DHS, especially conservative treatment, have not been fully established. A 75-year-old woman suffered from DHS, which she developed from neck pain due to cervical spondylosis. Examinations showed atrophy and dysfunction of her cervical extensor muscles. For this patient, we created a special program of physical therapy based on the concept of athletic rehabilitation and provided her the athletic rehabilitation-based physical therapy (AR-PT). After starting AR-PT, the patient's neck pain was relieved. She recovered from DHS, and the atrophy of her cervical extensor muscles improved. This study suggests that our program of AR-PT improves cervical extensor muscle insufficiency in patients with DHS and corrects their cervical kyphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8811148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787856PMC
December 2020

Seasonal Differences in the UVA/UVB Ratio of Natural Sunlight Influence the Efficiency of the Photoisomerization of (6-4) Photoproducts into their Dewar Valence Isomers.

Photochem Photobiol 2020 Dec 3. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Medical Genetics Research Center, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

The UVA and UVB components of sunlight can produce three classes of bipyrimidine DNA photolesions [cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) and related Dewar valence isomers (DewarPPs)]. The UVA/UVB ratio of sunlight is high in winter and low in summer in the Northern Hemisphere. Since UVB radiation produces 6-4PPs and UVA radiation converts them into DewarPPs through photoisomerization, it is expected that there may be differences in the photoisomerization of 6-4PPs between summer and winter, although that has never been documented. To determine that, isolated DNA was exposed to natural sunlight for 8 h in late summer and in winter, and absolute levels of the three classes of photolesions were quantified using calibrated ELISAs. It was found that sunlight produces CPDs and 6-4PPs in DNA at a ratio of about 9:1 and converts approximately 80% of 6-4PPs into DewarPPs within 3 h. Moreover, photoisomerization is more efficient in winter than in late summer after sunlight irradiation for the same duration, at similar solar UV doses and with the same induction level of CPDs. These results demonstrate that seasonal differences in the UVA/UVB ratio influence the efficiency of the photoisomerization of 6-4PPs into DewarPPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13361DOI Listing
December 2020

White-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium metabolizes chloropyridinyl-type neonicotinoid insecticides by an N-dealkylation reaction catalyzed by two cytochrome P450s.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 4;402:123831. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

We previously identified a cytochrome P450 (CYP) derived from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium as involved in degradation of acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid (NEO) insecticide. In the present study, we investigated biodegradation of other NEOs by P. chrysosporium, and attempted to identify the CYP enzyme responsible for NEO degradation. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade some NEOs (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiacloprid) in nutrient-rich medium. Two CYPs in P. chrysosporium (PcCYPs), CYP5037B3 and CYP5147A3, were identified as major isozymes involved in metabolism of three neonicotinoids that have in common a chloropyridinyl moiety (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiacloprid) by screening yeast that heterologously express PcCYPs. Both PcCYPs catalyzed cleavage of the chloropyridinyl moiety and side chain of the three NEOs by N-dealkylation, resulting in 6-chloro-3-pyridinemethanol and respective side chain fragments. In a culture of P. chrysosporium, 97 % and 74 % of imidacloprid and thiacloprid were modified to form degradation products, and one of these, 6-chloro-3-pyridinemethanol, was further degraded. These two PcCYPs catalyzed almost the same reaction but their substrate specificity and expression pattern are slightly different. Altogether, we found that P. chrysosporium degrades NEOs via the activity of at least two different CYP isozymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123831DOI Listing
January 2021

USEFULNESS OF THE PROXIMITY ENDOSCOPE IN VITRECTOMY FOR PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.

Retina 2020 Dec;40(12):2424-2426

Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Community Health Care Organization Chukyo Hospital, Aichi, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000002937DOI Listing
December 2020

[Clinical Outcomes of Endoscope-Assisted 30-Gauge Single-Needle Technique for Intrascleral Intraocular Lens Fixation].

Ophthalmic Res 2021 21;64(2):253-260. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Chukyo Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan.

Introduction: We have developed an endoscope-assisted single-needle technique, which is an improvement of Yamane's double-needle technique of the intrascleral intraocular lens (IOL) fixation techniques. In this surgical procedure, the IOL is manipulated in the vitreous cavity, and the IOL haptic is externalized from the eye one by one with the aid of an ophthalmic endoscope. The purpose of this study was to report the postoperative visual function and safety of this new technique.

Methods: Overall, 19 consecutive eyes (16 patients; mean age, 75.1 ± 9.6 years; mean follow-up period, 5.7 months) that underwent intrascleral IOL fixation surgery with our new technique were included in the study. Manifest refraction, uncorrected/corrected visual acuity, and corneal endothelial cell density were measured before and after surgery. Tilt and decentration of IOL were analyzed using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

Results: The mean absolute prediction error (spherical equivalent) was 0.82 ± 0.52. The mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity had significantly improved at the final visits (p = 0.02). No significant differences in the mean corneal endothelial cell density were observed between the first (2,232 ± 751 cells/mm2) and final (2,099 ± 649 cells/mm2) visits (p = 0.35). The mean IOL tilt was 8.1 ± 3.2°. There were no vision-threatening complications, such as retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, or IOL dislocation, during or after surgery.

Conclusions: The endoscope-assisted single-needle technique is a safe and effective method of intrascleral IOL fixation surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511047DOI Listing
August 2020

Clinical characteristics of participants enrolled in an early identification and healthcare management program for dementia based on cluster analysis and the effectiveness of associated support efforts.

Int Psychogeriatr 2020 Feb 17:1-11. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Geriatrics and Cognitive Disorders, Fujita Health UniversitySchool of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Objective: Although early identification and management services for dementia have become more widespread, their efficacy and the clinical characteristics of service have yet to be fully evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify these issues.

Measurements: The subjects were 164 Japanese users of an early identification and management program for dementia, known as the Initial-phase Intensive Support Team (IPIST), between 2013 and 2015. Nonhierarchical cluster analysis was used to derive subgroups based on cognitive status and ability in activities of daily living (ADL) and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). One-way analysis of variance was performed to evaluate differences among the groups derived by the cluster analysis. A paired t test was used to assess how the clinical status of the groups changed between baseline and follow-up.

Results: Four groups were identified by cluster analysis, i.e. a mild group, a moderate group, a BPSD group with moderate cognitive impairment and severe BPSD, and a severe group with severe cognitive impairment and severe BPSD. Although there were no significant improvements in cognitive impairment or ADL in any group, significant improvements were found in BPSD in the BPSD and severe BPSD groups. Caregiver burden was significantly lessened in all groups. Clinical diagnosis and long-term care insurance service utilization rates were significantly improved overall.

Conclusion: The users of IPIST were classified into four subgroups based on their clinical characteristics. The IPIST program could improve the quality of life of people with dementia and their caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S104161021900125XDOI Listing
February 2020

Self-fusion and fusion cell isolation of transformants derived from white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 by simple visual method.

J Biosci Bioeng 2020 Feb 7;129(2):146-149. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 522-8529, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 522-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

In order to develop a simple method for crossing two transformants, we first attempted to elucidate the fusion type (self-compatibility or -incompatible) of Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. Two transformants expressing green or red fluorescent protein derived from an auxotrophic mutant were constructed. Each recombinant protein fluoresced by expression as a fused protein with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. On co-culture of both transformants, a number of sequential hyphal cells emitting dual fluorescence were formed at the contact areas of both hyphae. Some of the single cells isolated as protoplasts and chlamydospore from the co-cultures also expressed these fluorescent proteins. These results suggest that P. sordida YK-624 possesses a self-compatible fusion system. In addition, transformant strains with different fluorescence derived from this fungus can readily undergo self-fusion and nuclear interchange events by confrontational and mixed cultivation, and we developed a simple method that allows fused cells to be isolated as chlamydospores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.08.011DOI Listing
February 2020

Wavelength- and Tissue-dependent Variations in the Mutagenicity of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers in Mouse Skin.

Photochem Photobiol 2020 01 15;96(1):94-104. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is a main mutagenic photolesion in DNA produced by UVR. We previously studied the wavelength-dependent kinetics of mutation induction efficiency using monochromatic UVR sources and transgenic mice developed for mutation assay and established the action spectra of UVR mutagenicity in the mouse epidermis and dermis. Here, we further established the action spectra of CPD and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct formation in the same tissues and in naked DNA using the same sources and mouse strain. Quantitative ELISA helped us estimate the photolesion formation efficiencies on a molecule-per-nucleotide basis. Using these action spectra, we confirmed that the UVR mutation mostly depends on CPD formation. Moreover, the mutagenicity of a CPD molecule (CPD mutagenicity) was found to vary by wavelength, peaking at approximately 313 nm in both the epidermis and dermis with similar wavelength-dependent patterns. Thus, the CPD formation efficiency is a main determinant of UVR mutagenicity in mouse skin, whereas a wavelength-dependent variation in the qualitative characteristics of CPD molecules also affects the mutagenic consequences of UVR insults. In addition, the CPD mutagenicity was always higher in the epidermis than in the dermis, suggesting different cellular responses to UVR between the two tissues irrespective of the wavelength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13159DOI Listing
January 2020

High levels of oxidatively generated DNA damage 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine accumulate in the brain tissues of xeroderma pigmentosum group A gene-knockout mice.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2019 08 13;80:52-58. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Medical Genetics Research Center, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, 634-8521, Japan.

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair, a pathway that eliminates a wide variety of helix-distorting DNA lesions, including ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers. In addition to skin diseases in sun-exposed areas, approximately 25% of XP patients develop progressive neurological disease, which has been hypothesized to be associated with the accumulation of an oxidatively generated type of DNA damage called purine 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxynucleoside (cyclopurine). However, that hypothesis has not been verified. In this study, we tested that hypothesis by using the XP group A gene-knockout (Xpa) mouse model. To quantify cyclopurine lesions in this model, we previously established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody (CdA-1) that specifically recognizes 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (cyclo-dA). By optimizing conditions, we increased the ELISA sensitivity to a detection limit of ˜one cyclo-dA lesion/10 nucleosides. The improved ELISA revealed that cyclo-dA lesions accumulate with age in the brain tissues of Xpa and of wild-type (wt) mice, but there were significantly more cyclo-dA lesions in Xpa mice than in wt mice at 6, 24 and 29 months of age. These findings are consistent with the long-standing hypothesis that the age-dependent accumulation of endogenous cyclopurine lesions in the brain may be critical for XP neurological abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2019.04.004DOI Listing
August 2019

Biotransformation and detoxification of the neonicotinoid insecticides nitenpyram and dinotefuran by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

Environ Pollut 2019 Sep 6;252(Pt A):856-862. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used throughout the world over the last two decades. In the present study, we investigated the degradation of neonicotinoid insecticides nitenpyram (NIT) and dinotefuran (DIN) by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. While NIT was completely degraded by P. sordida YK-624 under ligninolytic conditions, only a 20% decrease was observed under nonligninolytic conditions. On the other hand, P. sordida YK-624 degraded 31% of DIN under ligninolytic conditions after a 20-day incubation, while it did not degrade DIN under nonligninolytic conditions. We found that cytochromes P450 played a key role in the biotransformation of NIT and DIN by P. sordida YK-624. A novel NIT metabolite (E)-N-((6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl)-N-ethyl-N'-hydroxy acetimidamide (CPMHA) and a novel DIN metabolite N-((4aS,7aS,E)-1-methylhexahydrofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-ylidene)nitramide (PHPF) were identified in this study. In addition, to evaluate neurotoxicity, the effects of NIT, DIN and their metabolites on the viability of human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y were determined. PHPF showed higher neurological toxicity than DIN, whereas the metabolite of NIT, CPMHA, showed no toxic effect. Our results indicated that the neurological toxicity of NIT could be effectively removed by P. sordida YK-624.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.022DOI Listing
September 2019

Effect on growth, sugar consumption, and aerobic ethanol fermentation of homologous expression of the sugar transporter gene Pshxt1 in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

J Biosci Bioeng 2019 Nov 17;128(5):537-543. Epub 2019 May 17.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters are found in all organisms. Although numerous studies have examined the functions of yeast and mold MFS transporters in terms of sugar affinity and metabolic regulation, no functional analyses of MFS sugar transporters in white rot fungi have been reported. This study identified an MFS sugar transporter gene (Pshxt1) of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 expressed in liquid culture containing low concentrations of nitrogen source. Homologous expression of Pshxt1 dramatically increased the rates of glucose, fructose, mannose, and xylose consumption. Galactose consumption increased slightly but significantly. These data suggest that Pshxt1 has broad affinity for monosaccharides. In contrast, a transformant homologously expressing Pshxt1 consumed glucose in preference to xylose in wood enzymatic-digestion liquor and liquid culture. Additionally, homologous expression of Pshxt1 improved mycelial growth, aerobic ethanol production, and simultaneous aerobic saccharification and fermentation efficiency, whereas secretion of the ligninolytic enzyme manganese peroxidase was clearly decreased in the presence of glucose by Pshxt1 expression. These results suggest that Pshxt1 is involved in the repression of ligninolytic enzyme activity via carbon catabolite repression at sufficiently high glucose concentrations for activation of primary metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.04.016DOI Listing
November 2019

Identification of the cytochrome P450 involved in the degradation of neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

J Hazard Mater 2019 06 9;371:494-498. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

We previously reported that cytochrome P450 s play critical roles in neonicotinoid insecticide biodegradation by white-rot fungi. Here, we investigated the biodegradation of acetamiprid (ACET) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to identify the cytochrome P450 involved in this degradation process. During a 20-day incubation period, P. chrysosporium degraded 21% and 51% of ACET in ligninolytic and nonligninolytic media, respectively. The degradation rate of ACET was markedly decreased by the addition of cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Recombinant cytochrome P450s in P. chrysosporium (PcCYP) were heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AH22, and the PcCYP involved in ACET degradation was identified. The results showed that CYP5147A3 can degrade ACET, and two ACET metabolites, N'-cyano-N-methyl acetamidine and 6-chloro-3-pyridinemethanol, were identified. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first characterization of the fungal cytochrome P450 that is responsible for the degradation and detoxification of ACET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.03.042DOI Listing
June 2019

Effects of Glucose Concentration on Ethanol Fermentation of White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 Under Aerobic Conditions.

Curr Microbiol 2019 Mar 3;76(3):263-269. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan.

White-rot fungi are microorganisms capable of ethanol fermentation; however, the specific conditions activating ethanol fermentation are unclear in contrast to fermentation by yeasts. In this study, we investigated the conditions favoring ethanol fermentation by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, which is able to produce ethanol from woody material. In aerobic stationary cultivation with various concentrations of glucose (0.8-33 g/l), the fungus produced ethanol in media containing an initial glucose concentration of 2.8 g/l or higher. The amount of glucose consumption, mycelial weight, and ethanol production on the second day of culture increased in a concentration-dependent manner at low glucose concentrations; however, these were saturated at high concentrations. Biomass yields (growth/glucose consumption) were decreased until the initial glucose concentration increased to 6.0 g/l, after which the biomass yields showed constant values at higher concentrations (12-33 g/l). On the other hand, ethanol yields increased with decreasing biomass yields. In short shaking cultivation using mycelial suspension, trace amounts of instantaneous aerobic ethanol production were observed with 1.1 and 2.1 g/l glucose, but the relative gene expression levels of key enzymes at the pyruvate branch point showed no significant differences between ethanol production and non-production conditions. From these experimental results, it appears that the white-rot fungus P. sordida YK-624 produces ethanol due to overflow in sugar metabolism under aerobic conditions, although P. sordida YK-624 prioritizes glucose utilization for respiratory growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-018-01622-3DOI Listing
March 2019

Functional characterization of the manganese transporter smf2 homologue gene, PsMnt, of Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 via homologous overexpression.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2018 04;365(8)

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan.

A homologue gene of the yeast natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family transporter smf2 was identified in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. Relative expression levels of the homologue, designated PsMnt, were roughly equivalent in cultures containing 0 to 1000 μM Mn(II), a concentration non-toxic to the fungus. In the PsMnt-overexpressing mutant, cellular Mn accumulation and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity increased significantly in 4-day cultures containing 10 μM MnSO4. Compared with the wild-type strain, MnP activity in the overexpressing mutants was higher at lower Mn concentrations (specifically 10-15 times higher). These results suggest that PsMnt is a high-affinity Mn transporter involved in cellular Mn accumulation under Mn-deficient conditions. This is the first report of an smf2 homologue in wood rot fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fny050DOI Listing
April 2018

NOVEL ENDOSCOPE-ASSISTED VITREOUS SURGERY COMBINED WITH ATMOSPHERIC ENDOSCOPIC TECHNIQUE AND/OR SUBRETINAL ENDOSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT WITH GRADE C PROLIFERATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY.

Retina 2019 Jun;39(6):1066-1075

Chukyo Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of novel endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery techniques in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

Methods: Eight consecutive patients who had undergone endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy were investigated. The peripheral vitreous was cut under air with the aid of endoscopic view (atmospheric endoscopic technique), and the subretinal proliferation was removed under subretinal endoscopic observation (subretinal endoscopic technique).

Results: Retinal reattachment was achieved after the primary surgery without a large retinotomy and scleral buckling in each case. The mean follow-up was 16.8 months (range, 8-28 months). Atmospheric endoscopic technique was performed in all cases, and subretinal endoscopic technique was performed in three cases. After surgery, the mean best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 20/778 to 20/111 (P = 0.014). Although microretinal breaks occurred during the removal of vitreous using atmospheric endoscopic technique in all cases, there were no severe postoperative complications, such as retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

Conclusion: Endoscope-assisted vitreous surgery with atmospheric endoscopic technique and/or subretinal endoscopic technique is safe and effective in the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000002121DOI Listing
June 2019

Quantitative analysis of UV photolesions suggests that cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers produced in mouse skin by UVB are more mutagenic than those produced by UVC.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2018 Apr;17(4):404-413

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

The amount of photolesions produced in DNA after exposure to physiological doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can be estimated with high sensitivity and at low cost through an immunological assay, ELISA, which, however, provides only a relative estimate that cannot be used for comparisons between different photolesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct (64PP) or for analysis of the genotoxicity of photolesions on a molecular basis. To solve this drawback of ELISA, we introduced a set of UVR-exposed, calibration DNA whose photolesion amounts were predetermined and estimated the absolute molecular amounts of CPDs and 64PPs produced in mouse skin exposed to UVC and UVB. We confirmed previously reported observations that UVC induced more photolesions in the skin than UVB at the same dose, and that both types of UVR produced more CPDs than 64PPs. The UVR protection abilities of the cornified and epidermal layers for the lower tissues were also evaluated quantitatively. We noticed that the values of absorbance obtained in ELISA were not always proportional to the molecular amounts of the lesion, especially for CPD, cautioning against the direct use of ELISA absorbance data for estimation of the photolesion amounts. We further estimated the mutagenicity of a CPD produced by UVC and UVB in the epidermis and dermis using the mutation data from our previous studies with mouse skin and found that CPDs produced in the epidermis by UVB were more than two-fold mutagenic than those by UVC, which suggests that the properties of CPDs produced by UVC and UVB might be different. The difference may originate from the wavelength-dependent methyl CpG preference of CPD formation. In addition, the mutagenicity of CPDs in the dermis was lower than that in the epidermis irrespective of the UVR source, suggesting a higher efficiency in the dermis to reduce the genotoxicity of CPDs produced within it. We also estimated the minimum amount of photolesions required to induce the mutation induction suppression (MIS) response in the epidermis to be around 15 64PPs or 100 CPDs per million bases in DNA as the mean estimate from UVC and UVB-induced MIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7pp00348jDOI Listing
April 2018

Clinical outcomes of endoscope-assisted vitrectomy for treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

Clin Ophthalmol 2017 14;11:2003-2010. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Chukyo Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan.

Summary: We evaluated the clinical outcomes for ophthalmic endoscope-assisted vitrectomy in consecutive patients with uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The primary success rate was 98.4% (125/127) without performing a posterior drainage retinotomy or using perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCL) for subretinal fluid drainage.

Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of endoscope-assisted vitrectomy in patients with uncomplicated RRD.

Methods: We examined 127 eyes from consecutive patients who underwent repair of RRD by 23- or 25-gauge endoscope-assisted vitrectomy, with a minimum follow-up of 3 months. Eyes with the following criteria were excluded: Giant retinal tears, grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy, dense vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment secondary to other ocular diseases, and prior retinal or vitreous surgery. All cases underwent subretinal fluid drainage, endolaser photocoagulation and fundus inspection were performed under ophthalmic endoscopic observation. Success rate, visual acuity, surgery time and complications were evaluated.

Results: Primary and final success rate was 98.4% (125/127) and 100% (127/127), respectively, Surgery time was 59.6±26.3 minutes. The best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 20/100 to 20/20 (<0.0001). There were 2 cases (1.6%) of creation of a peripheral drainage retinotomy and 4 cases (3.1%) of using PFCL to suppress movement of the detached retina, but there were no cases of creation of a posterior drainage retinotomy or using PFCL for subretinal fluid drainage. There was 1 case of presumed endophthalmitis after surgery. There were 12 hypotonous cases at postoperative day 1 and one of them needed additional scleral sutures at postoperative day 4 for prolonged hypotony.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the efficacy of endoscope-assisted vitrectomy for patients with uncomplicated RRD. To perform endoscope-assisted vitrectomy safely, sufficient closure of sclerotomies is necessary at the end of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S147690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5694206PMC
November 2017

Targeted Inactivation of DNA Photolyase Genes in Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes).

Photochem Photobiol 2017 01 28;93(1):315-322. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Radiation Biology and Medical Genetics, Department of Genome Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) exhibit sequence and structural conservation, but their functions are divergent. Photolyase is a DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes the light-dependent repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoproducts, whereas cryptochrome acts as a photoreceptor or circadian clock protein. Two types of DNA photolyase exist: CPD photolyase, which repairs cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), and 6-4 photolyase, which repairs 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). Although the Cry-DASH protein is classified as a cryptochrome, it also has light-dependent DNA repair activity. To determine the significance of the three light-dependent repair enzymes in recovering from solar UV-induced DNA damage at the organismal level, we generated mutants in each gene in medaka using the CRISPR genome editing technique. The light-dependent repair activity of the mutants was examined in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in skin tissue. Light-dependent repair of CPD was lost in the CPD photolyase-deficient mutant, whereas weak repair activity against 6-4PPs persisted in the 6-4 photolyase-deficient mutant. These results suggest the existence of a heretofore unknown 6-4PP repair pathway and thus improve our understanding of the mechanisms of defense against solar UV in vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.12658DOI Listing
January 2017

Direct lactic acid production from beech wood by transgenic white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

J Biotechnol 2016 Dec 13;239:83-89. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

A lactic acid (LA)-producing strain of the hyper-lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 with the lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene from Bifidobacterium longum (Blldh) was constructed. When the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase gene-knocked down and Blldh-expressing transformant was cultured with beech wood meal, the transformant was able to successively delignify and ferment the substrate. Supplementation of calcium carbonate into the culture medium, significantly increased the level of LA accumulation. Direct LA production (at 0.29g/l) from wood was confirmed, and additional inclusion of exogenous cellulase in this fermentation yielded significant further improvement in LA accumulation (up to 1.44g/l). This study provides the first report of direct production of LA by fermentation from woody biomass by a single microorganism, and indicates that transgenic white-rot fungi have a potential use for development of simple/easy applications for wood biorefinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.10.014DOI Listing
December 2016

Bioremediation of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida.

J Hazard Mater 2017 Jan 22;321:586-590. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

Clothianidin (CLO) is a member of the neonicotinoid pesticides, which have been widely used worldwide over the last two decades. However, its toxicity for bees and neurological toxicity for humans are urgent problems. Here, the degradation of CLO by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida was examined in nitrogen-limited liquid medium. After incubation for 20days at 30°C, 37% of CLO was degraded in the cultures. High-resolution ESI-MS and NMR analyses of the culture supernatant identified N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-yl-methyl)-N'-methylurea (TZMU) as a metabolite of CLO degradation. The addition of cytochrome P450 inhibitors to the culture medium markedly reduced the degradation of CLO by P. sordida. And manganese peroxidase, a major ligninolytic enzyme secreted by this fungus, were not carried out CLO degradation. The effects of CLO and TZMU on the viability of the neuronal cell line Neuro2a demonstrated that P. sordida effectively degrades CLO into a metabolite that lacks neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.09.049DOI Listing
January 2017

Analysis of ethanol fermentation mechanism of ethanol producing white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60 by RNA-seq.

BMC Genomics 2016 08 11;17(1):616. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan.

Background: The white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60 shows valuable properties such as high ethanol yield from several lignocellulosic materials, although white-rot fungi commonly degrade woody components to CO2 and H2O. In order to identify genes involved in ethanol production by Phlebia sp. MG-60, we compared genes differentially expressed by the ethanol producing fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60 and the model white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium under ethanol fermenting and non-fermenting conditions using next-generation sequencing technologies.

Results: mRNAs from mycelia of Phlebia sp. MG-60 and P. chrysosporium under fermenting and non-fermenting conditions were sequenced using the MiSeq system. To detect differentially expressed genes, expression levels were measured in fragments per kilobase of exon per million mapped reads (FPKM). Differentially expressed genes were annotated using BLAST searches, Gene Ontology classifications, and KEGG pathway analysis. Functional analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed that genes involved in glucose uptake, glycolysis, and ethanol synthesis were widely upregulated in Phlebia sp. MG-60 under fermenting conditions.

Conclusions: In this study, we provided novel transcriptomic information on Phlebia sp. MG-60, and these RNA-seq data were useful in targeting genes involved in ethanol production for future genetic engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2977-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982002PMC
August 2016

Effects of Homologous Expression of 1,4-Benzoquinone Reductase and Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase Genes on Wood Decay in Hyper-Lignin-Degrading Fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

Curr Microbiol 2016 Oct 30;73(4):512-8. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan.

We investigated the function of 1,4-benzoquinone reductase (BQR)- and homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD)-like genes in wood degradation by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, which exhibits high ligninolytic activity and selectivity. We determined homologous expression in the genomic and cDNA sequences of BQR- and HGD-like genes in P. sordida YK-624 (PsBQR and PsHGD). Both genes shared high homology (≥90 % amino acid sequence similarity) with the corresponding genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. These genes were co-transformed with a reporter gene into an uracil auxotrophic mutant of P. sordida YK-624. The PsBQR and PsHGD co-transformants exhibited lower holocellulolytic activity and higher ligninolytic selectivity than the control transformants. In liquid culture with vanillin, both co-transformants significantly accelerated vanillin degradation. Thus, we suggest that the rapid metabolism of low-molecular weight lignin fragments, due to the homologous expression of BQR- and HGD-like genes, affects quinone redox cycling to produce hydroxyl radicals, thereby decreasing holocellulose degradation and increasing ligninolytic selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-016-1089-6DOI Listing
October 2016

Radiation-Induced RhoGDIβ Cleavage Leads to Perturbation of Cell Polarity: A Possible Link to Cancer Spreading.

J Cell Physiol 2016 11 14;231(11):2493-505. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Life Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Shoubara, Hiroshima, Japan.

The equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis is tightly balanced to maintain tissue homeostasis in normal tissues and even in tumors. Achieving and maintaining such a balance is important for cancer regrowth and spreading after cytotoxic treatments. Caspase-3 activation and tumor cell death following anticancer therapy as well as accompanying cell death pathways are well characterized, but their association to homeostasis of cancerous tissue and tumor progression remains poorly understood. Here we proposed a novel mechanism of cancer spreading induced by caspase-3. RhoGDIβ, known as a direct cleavage substrate of caspase-3, is overexpressed in many epithelial cancers. The N-terminal-truncated RhoGDIβ (ΔN-RhoGDIβ) is accumulated in caspase-3-activated cells. Stable expression of ΔN-RhoGDIβ in HeLa cells did not induce apoptosis, but impaired directional cell migration in a wound-healing assay accompanied by a perturbed direction of cell division at the wound edge. Subcellular protein fractionation experiments revealed that ΔN-RhoGDIβ but not wild-type RhoGDIβ was present in the detergent-soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions and preferentially associated with Cdc42. Furthermore, Cdc42 activity was constitutively inhibited by stable expression of ΔN-RhoGDIβ, resulting in increased radiation-induced compensatory proliferation linking to RhoA activation. Thus, ΔN-RhoGDIβ dominant-negatively regulates Cdc42 activity and contributes to loss of polarity-related functions. The caspase-3-cleaved RhoGDIβ is a possible determinant to promote cancer spreading due to deregulation of directional organization of tumor cell population and inhibition of default equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis after cytotoxic damage. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2493-2505, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.25362DOI Listing
November 2016

Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Cumberland ankle instability tool.

Disabil Rehabil 2017 01 15;39(1):50-58. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

a Department of Sports Medicine , Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba , Ibaraki , Japan.

Purpose To study validity and reliability of a Japanese version of the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool and to determine the optimal cutoff score. Methods In this study, the questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted into Japanese. The psychometric properties tested in the Japanese version of the CAIT were measured for criteria validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability in 111 collegiate soccer athletes. We also established the questionnaire cutoff score for discriminating between individuals with and without CAI. Results There was a significant correlation between the Japanese version of the CAIT and the Karlsson score (r = 0.604, p < 0.001). The questionnaire had a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.833) and reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.826, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.732-0.888]. The optimal cutoff score was ≤25, which was consistent with previous reports. Conclusions The Japanese version of the CAIT has been shown to be a valid and reliable questionnaire for determining the presence of CAI. We expect that researchers and clinicians will use the Japanese version of the CAIT in Japan. Implications for Rehabilitation Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI), which not only increases recurrence rate of ankle sprain but also decreases athletic performance, is a residual symptom after ankle sprain. Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool, which has the reliability and validity to assess CAI, will be critically useful in assessment procedure for CAI. It is preferable for clinicians and researchers to use the native language version of the CAIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2016.1138555DOI Listing
January 2017

Improvement of ethanol production by recombinant expression of pyruvate decarboxylase in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

J Biosci Bioeng 2016 Jul 4;122(1):17-21. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan; Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

To improve ethanol production by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, the pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene was cloned from and reintroduced into this hyper lignin-degrading fungus; the gene encodes a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation. We screened 16 transformant P. sordida YK-624 strains that each expressed a second, recombinant PDC gene (pdc) and then identified the transformant strain (designated GP7) with the highest ethanol production. Direct ethanol production from hardwood was 1.41 higher with GP7 than with wild-type P. sordida YK-624. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased PDC activity was caused by elevated recombinant pdc expression. Taken together, these results suggested that ethanol production by P. sordida YK-624 can be improved by the stable expression of an additional, recombinant pdc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2015.12.002DOI Listing
July 2016

Molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum by homologous expression of laccase gene.

AMB Express 2015 Dec 22;5(1):81. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan.

The basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 can degrade Japanese cedar wood efficiently. To construct a strain better suited for biofuel production from Japanese cedar wood, we developed a gene transformation system for G. trabeum KU-41 using the hygromycin phosphotransferase-encoding gene (hpt) as a marker. The endogenous laccase candidate gene (Gtlcc3) was fused with the promoter of the G. trabeum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and co-transformed with the hpt-bearing pAH marker plasmid. We obtained 44 co-transformants, and identified co-transformant L#61, which showed the highest laccase activity among all the transformants. Moreover, strain L#61 was able to degrade lignin in Japanese cedar wood-containing medium, in contrast to wild-type G. trabeum KU-41 and to a typical white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. By using strain L#61, direct ethanol production from Japanese cedar wood was improved compared to wild type. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus and direct ethanol production from softwoods by co-transformation with laccase overproduction constructs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-015-0173-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688280PMC
December 2015

Chemopreventive effect of resveratrol and apocynin on pancreatic carcinogenesis via modulation of nuclear phosphorylated GSK3β and ERK1/2.

Oncotarget 2015 Dec;6(40):42963-75

Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Despite progress in clinical cancer medicine in multiple fields, the prognosis of pancreatic cancer has remained dismal. Recently, chemopreventive strategies using phytochemicals have gained considerable attention as an alternative in the management of cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of resveratrol (RV) and apocynin (AC) in N-Nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamster. RV- and AC-treated hamsters showed significant reduction in the incidence of pancreatic cancer with a decrease in Ki-67 labeling index in dysplastic lesions. RV and AC suppressed cell proliferation of human and hamster pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting the G1 phase of the cell cycle with cyclin D1 downregulation and inactivation of AKT-GSK3β and ERK1/2 signaling. Further, decreased levels of GSK3β(Ser9) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression in the nuclear fraction were observed in cells treated with RV or AC. Nuclear expression of phosphorylated GSK3β(Ser9) was also decreased in dysplastic lesions and adenocarcinomas of hamsters treated with RV or AC in vivo. These results suggest that RV and AC reduce phosphorylated GSK3β(Ser9) and ERK1/2 in the nucleus, resulting in inhibition of the AKT-GSK3β and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the present study indicates that RV and AC have potential as chemopreventive agents for pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767484PMC
December 2015

In Vivo Spectrum of UVC-induced Mutation in Mouse Skin Epidermis May Reflect the Cytosine Deamination Propensity of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers.

Photochem Photobiol 2015 Nov 13;91(6):1488-96. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Although ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has a genotoxicity for inducing skin cancers, the skin may tolerate UVC component because the epidermal layer prevents this short wavelength range from passing through. Here, UVC genotoxicity for mouse skin was evaluated in terms of DNA damage formation and mutagenicity. UVC induced UVR photolesions and mutations remarkably in the epidermis but poorly in the dermis, confirming the barrier ability of the epidermis against shorter UVR wavelengths. Moreover, the epidermis itself responded to UVC mutagenicity with mutation induction suppression, which suppressed the mutant frequencies to a remarkably low, constant level regardless of UVC dose. The mutation spectrum observed in UVC-exposed epidermis showed a predominance of UV-signature mutation, which occurred frequently in 5'-TCG-3', 5'-TCA-3' and 5'-CCA-3' contexts. Especially, for the former two contexts, the mutations recurred at several sites with more remarkable recurrences at the 5'-TCG-3' sites. Comparison of the UVC mutation spectrum with those observed in longer UVR wavelength ranges led us to a mechanism that explains why the sequence context preference of UV-signature mutation changes according to the wavelength, which is based on the difference in the mCpG preference of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation among UVR ranges and the sequence context-dependent cytosine deamination propensity of CPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.12525DOI Listing
November 2015

SUMOylation of xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein regulates DNA damage recognition during nucleotide excision repair.

Sci Rep 2015 Jun 4;5:10984. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

1] Biosignal Research Center, Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan [2] Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan [3] Cellular Physiology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198, Japan.

The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein complex is a key factor that detects DNA damage and initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. Although biochemical and structural studies have elucidated the interaction of XPC with damaged DNA, the mechanism of its regulation in vivo remains to be understood in more details. Here, we show that the XPC protein undergoes modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins and the lack of this modification compromises the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions. In the absence of SUMOylation, XPC is normally recruited to the sites with photolesions, but then immobilized profoundly by the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) complex. Since the absence of UV-DDB alleviates the NER defect caused by impaired SUMOylation of XPC, we propose that this modification is critical for functional interactions of XPC with UV-DDB, which facilitate the efficient damage handover between the two damage recognition factors and subsequent initiation of NER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep10984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4455304PMC
June 2015