Publications by authors named "Toshio Hamatani"

42 Publications

Assisted reproductive technology in Japan: A summary report for 2018 by the Ethics Committee of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Reprod Med Biol 2021 Jan 20;20(1):3-12. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine The University of Tokyo Tokyo Japan.

Purpose: Since 2007, the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) has collected cycle-based data for assisted reproductive technology (ART) in an online registry. Here, we present the characteristics and treatment outcomes of ART cycles registered during 2018.

Methods: The Japanese ART registry consists of cycle-specific information for all ART treatment cycles implemented at 621 participating facilities. We conducted descriptive analyses for such cycles registered for 2018.

Results: In total, 454 893 treatment cycles and 56 979 neonates were reported in 2018: both increased from 2017. The mean maternal age was 38.0 years (standard deviation ± 4.7). Of 247 402 oocyte retrievals, 118 378 (47.8%) involved freeze-all-embryos cycles; fresh embryo transfer (ET) was performed in 50 463 cycles: a decreasing trend since 2015. A total of 199 914 frozen-thawed ET cycles were reported, resulting in 69 357 pregnancies and 49 360 neonates born. Single ET (SET) was performed in 82.2% of fresh transfers and 83.4% of frozen-thawed cycles, with singleton pregnancy/live birth rates of 97.2%/97.2% and 97.0%/97.2%, respectively.

Conclusions: Total ART cycles and subsequent live births increased in 2018. SET was performed in over 80% of cases, and the mode of ET has shifted continuously from using fresh embryos to frozen-thawed ones compared with previous years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmb2.12358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812461PMC
January 2021

Infertility treatment hinders the careers of working women in Japan.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2020 Oct 17;46(10):1940-1950. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Women undergoing infertility treatment often need to balance work and fertility treatment. Therefore, we evaluated the quality of life (QOL) and impact of infertility treatment on Japanese working women and their careers.

Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire at 18 clinics in Japan. Responses were collected from 835 women, 713 of whom were working. The participants were divided into three groups based on treatment stage. Data were collected using the FertiQoL and an original questionnaire created by the authors. The Mann-Whitney U test and a multinomial logistic analysis were used.

Results: Approximately 90% of the participants felt that treatment could hinder their work and 8% had quit their jobs. Low QOL was associated with sadness and despair due to infertility and mood disorders, disruptions to life and work, and the complicated medications and procedures involved in treatment. Social isolation and the effect of fertility treatment on daily life and work strongly hindered the careers of working women in the third stage of treatment (in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection). Approximately 70% of the participants required support to subsidize treatment costs and sought shorter working hours and flextime systems. Only 55% informed their workplaces about the fertility treatment, but about 70% easily gained understanding by informing them.

Conclusions: For many working women, infertility treatment posed barriers to their careers, which could explain the low QOL. Urgent introduction of a support system is necessary in Japan, and understanding and social acceptance of infertility appears to be important.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14387DOI Listing
October 2020

Assisted reproductive technology in Japan: A summary report for 2017 by the Ethics Committee of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Reprod Med Biol 2020 Jan 21;19(1):3-12. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Urology Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Purpose: The Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) has collected cycle-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) data in an online registry since 2007. Herein, we present the characteristics and treatment outcomes of ART cycles registered during 2017.

Methods: We collected cycle-specific information for all ART cycles implemented at participating facilities and performed descriptive analysis.

Results: In total, 448,210 treatment cycles and 56,617 neonates (1 in 16.7 neonates born in Japan) were reported in 2017, increased from 2016; the number of initiated fresh cycles decreased for the first time ever. The mean patient age was 38.0 years (standard deviation 4.6). A total 110,641 of 245,205 egg retrieval cycles (45.1%) were freeze-all cycles; fresh embryo transfer (ET) was performed in 55,720 cycles. A total 194,415 frozen-thawed ET cycles were reported, resulting in 66,881 pregnancies and 47,807 neonates born. Single ET (SET) was performed in 81.8% of fresh transfers and 83.4% of frozen cycles, with singleton pregnancy/live birth rates of 97.5%/97.3% and 96.7%/96.6%, respectively.

Conclusions: Total ART cycles and subsequent live births increased continuously in 2017, whereas the number of initiated fresh cycles decreased. SET was performed in over 80% of cases, and ET shifted from using fresh embryos to frozen ones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmb2.12307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955594PMC
January 2020

Impact of Oxidative Stress on Age-Associated Decline in Oocyte Developmental Competence.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 22;10:811. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Reproductive capacity in women starts to decline beyond their mid-30s and pregnancies in older women result in higher rates of miscarriage with aneuploidy. Age-related decline in fertility is strongly attributed to ovarian aging, diminished ovarian reserves, and decreased developmental competence of oocytes. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanisms of age-related decline in oocyte quality, focusing on oxidative stress (OS) in oocytes. The primary cause is the accumulation of spontaneous damage to the mitochondria arising from increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oocytes, generated by the mitochondria themselves during daily biological metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction reduces ATP synthesis and influences the meiotic spindle assembly responsible for chromosomal segregation. Moreover, reproductively aged oocytes produce a decline in the fidelity of the protective mechanisms against ROS, namely the ROS-scavenging metabolism, repair of ROS-damaged DNA, and the proteasome and autophagy system for ROS-damaged proteins. Accordingly, increased ROS and increased vulnerability of oocytes to ROS lead to spindle instability, chromosomal abnormalities, telomere shortening, and reduced developmental competence of aged oocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882737PMC
November 2019

Zscan5b Deficiency Impairs DNA Damage Response and Causes Chromosomal Aberrations during Mitosis.

Stem Cell Reports 2019 06 30;12(6):1366-1379. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) begins after fertilization and is essential for establishing pluripotency and genome stability. However, it is unclear how ZGA genes prevent mitotic errors. Here we show that knockout of the ZGA gene Zscan5b, which encodes a SCAN domain with C2H2 zinc fingers, causes a high incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and leads to the development of early-stage cancers. After irradiation, Zscan5b-deficient ESCs displayed significantly increased levels of γ-H2AX despite increased expression of the DNA repair genes Rad51l3 and Bard. Re-expression of Zscan5b reduced γ-H2AX content, implying a role for Zscan5b in DNA damage repair processes. A co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that Zscan5b bound to the linker histone H1, suggesting that Zscan5b may protect chromosomal architecture. Our report demonstrates that the ZGA gene Zscan5b is involved in genomic integrity and acts to promote DNA damage repair and regulate chromatin dynamics during mitosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6565874PMC
June 2019

Chemotactic behavior of egg mitochondria in response to sperm fusion in mice.

Heliyon 2018 Nov 16;4(11):e00944. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Reproductive Biology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan.

Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells and their positioning contributes to fertilization and early developmental processes. We report that sperm fusion triggers Ca oscillations and mitochondrial movement toward fused sperm (mitochondrial chemotaxis) in mouse eggs. Mitochondria functioned in Ca storage and were colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during Ca oscillations. Mitochondria then moved toward the fused sperm. Sperm extracts lacking nuclei induced Ca oscillations, but did not promote mitochondrial chemotaxis. Our results suggest that sperm fusion motivates Ca oscillation-independent mitochondrial chemotaxis. This phenomenon indicates that egg mitochondria interact with sperm materials, presumably nuclear substances, and their network tethers egg and sperm nuclei at the early stage of zygote formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240845PMC
November 2018

Membrane protein CD9 is repositioned and released to enhance uterine function.

Lab Invest 2019 02 6;99(2):200-209. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Tetraspanin CD9 is essential for sperm-egg fusion and also contributes to uterine repair through microexosome formation. Microexosomes share CD9 with exosomes and are released from eggs and uterine epithelial cells. However, the mechanism for the formation of microexosomes remains unknown. To address this issue, we examined membrane localization and extracellular release of CD9 proteins using uterine epithelial cells and secretions in mice and humans. In mice, CD9 localized predominantly on the basal region of the plasma membrane and relocated to the apical region upon embryo implantation. Furthermore, extracellular CD9 proteins were detected in uterine secretions of mice and women undergoing infertility treatment, but were below detectable levels in supernatants of pluripotent stem cells. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that membrane projections were shortened and the number of mitochondria was reduced in uterine epithelial cells lacking Cd9 genes. Our results suggest that CD9 repositioning and release affect both membrane structures and mitochondrial state in the uterus, and contribute to female fertility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-018-0145-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Degradation of phosphate polymer polyP enhances lactic fermentation in mice.

Genes Cells 2018 Oct 1;23(10):904-914. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Reproductive Biology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.

In bacteria, a polymer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) (inorganic polyphosphate; polyP) is enzymatically produced and consumed as an alternative phosphate donor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production to protect against nutrient starvation. In vertebrates, polyP has been dismissed as a "molecular fossil" due to the lack of any known physiological function. Here, we have explored its possible role by producing transgenic (TG) mice widely expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae exopolyphosphatase 1 (ScPPX1), which catalyzes hydrolytic polyP degradation. TG mice were produced and displayed reduced mitochondrial respiration in muscles. In female TG mice, the blood concentration of lactic acid was enhanced, whereas ATP storage in liver and brain tissues was reduced significantly. Thus, we suggested that the elongation of polyP reduces the intracellular Pi concentration, suppresses anaerobic lactic acid production, and sustains mitochondrial respiration. Our results provide an insight into the physiological role of polyP in mammals, particularly in females.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gtc.12639DOI Listing
October 2018

Autophagy-disrupted LC3 abundance leads to death of supporting cells of human oocytes.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2018 Sep 21;15:107-114. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal Care, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan.

Autophagic recycling of cell parts is generally termed as the opposite of cell death. Here, we explored the relation between cell death and autophagy by examining granulosa cell layers that control oocyte quality, which is important for the success of fertilization. Granulosa cell layers were collected from infertile women and morphologically divided into four types, viz., mature (MCCs), immature (ICCs), and dysmature cumulus cells (DCCs), and mural granulosa cells (MGCs). Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), which is involved in autophagosome formation, was expressed excessively in DCCs and MGCs, and their chromosomal DNA was highly fragmented. However, autophagy initiation was limited to MGCs, as indicated by the expression of membrane-bound LC3-II and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), an enzyme that converts LC3-I to LC3-II. Although pro-LC3 was accumulated, autophagy was disabled in DCCs, resulting in cell death. Our results suggest the possibility that autophagy-independent accumulation of pro-LC3 proteins leads to the death of human granulosa cells surrounding the oocytes and presumably reduces oocyte quality and female fertility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104557PMC
September 2018

Ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 inhibitor PYR-41 retards sperm enlargement after fusion to the egg.

Reprod Toxicol 2018 03 3;76:71-77. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Department of Reproductive Biology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is initiated by a single ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBE1), is involved in male reproduction via spermatogenesis and function in mammals. Here we explored the influence of UBE1-specific inhibitor, 4[4-(5-nitro-furan-2-ylmethylene)-3,5-dioxo-pyrazolidin-1-yl]-benzoic acid ethyl ester (pyrazone-41 or PYR-41) in female reproduction. UBE-1 was detected by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in mouse eggs and was localized mainly under the egg plasma membrane. PYR-41 pretreatment suppresses the development of eggs into two-cell embryos. Specifically, pretreatment retarded sperm enlargement and meiotic chromosomal division after sperm-egg fusion. PYR-41 pretreatment disturbed β-catenin, a well-known target protein for ubiquitination, localization under the egg plasma membrane and on spindle microtubules in wild-type eggs. Otherwise, PYR-41 treatment had no effect on the two-cell development of eggs lacking β-catenin. Our results raise the possibility that inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system suppresses sperm enlargement through impaired β-catenin-mediated mechanism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2018.01.001DOI Listing
March 2018

Clinical efficacy of a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and swim-up techniques for semen processing in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.

Asian J Androl 2017 Mar-Apr;19(2):208-213

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 1608582, Japan.

To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a procedure comprising a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and modified swim-up techniques for the removal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the semen of HIV-1 infected males, a total of 129 couples with an HIV-1 positive male partner and an HIV-1 negative female partner (serodiscordant couples) who were treated at Keio University Hospital between January 2002 and April 2012 were examined. A total of 183 ejaculates from 129 HIV-1 infected males were processed. After swim-up, we successfully collected motile sperms at a recovery rate as high as 100.0% in cases of normozoospermia (126/126 ejaculates), oligozoospermia (6/6), and asthenozoospermia (36/36). The recovery rate of oligoasthenozoospermia was 86.7% (13/15). In processed semen only four ejaculates (4/181:2.2%) showed viral nucleotide sequences consistent with those in the blood of the infected males. After using these sperms, no horizontal infections of the female patients and no vertical infections of the newborns were observed. Furthermore, no obvious adverse effects were observed in the offspring. This protocol allowed us to collect HIV-1 negative motile sperms at a high rate, even in male factor cases. We concluded that our protocol is clinically effective both for decreasing HIV-1 infections and for yielding a healthy child.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1008-682X.173442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312220PMC
February 2017

Factors affecting pregnancy outcomes in young women treated with fertility-preserving therapy for well-differentiated endometrial cancer or atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2016 Jan 15;14. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 1608582, Japan.

Background: Patients hoping to preserve their fertility receive conservative treatment with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EC) or atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) . Such treatment generally involves frequent intrauterine operations, including dilation and curettage (D&C) and endometrial biopsy (EMB), which could result in endometritis, endometrial thinning, or intrauterine adhesion. In turn, any of these outcomes could adversely affect implantation and pregnancy development. The current study thus aimed to identify factors that might affect pregnancy following conservative treatment by MPA.

Methods: We compared a pregnancy group (45 patients) with a non-pregnancy group (53 patients) of MPA-treated patients to evaluate the factors affecting clinical pregnancy establishment. We undertook a multivariate logistic regression analysis based on factors shown by univariate analysis to be significantly different between the groups. Univariate analysis identified number of D&C, endometrial thickness, duration of MPA administration, age of pregnancy permission (the age at which a patient was first allowed to attempt pregnancy after disappearance of the lesion), period of disappearance of lesions, and recurrence as independent variables.

Results: The odds ratios (95 % confidence interval) of multivariate analysis for disease recurrence, endometrial thickness during ovulation, and age of pregnancy permission were 0.283 (0.102-0.785), 1.677 (1.251-2.248), and 0.889 (0.792-0.998), respectively. There was no significant difference in the other independent variables between groups.

Conclusions: We identified three factors considered to affect pregnancy establishment following conservative treatment with MPA: recurrence, endometrial thickness during ovulation, and the age of the pregnancy permission. Introduction of infertility treatment including assisted reproductive technology (ART) soon after achieving tumor disappearance by MPA would therefore be beneficial for patients with disease recurrence, thin endometrium, or a higher age of pregnancy permission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-015-0136-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4714532PMC
January 2016

Conditional deletion of CD98hc inhibits osteoclast development.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2016 Mar 2;5:203-210. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Department of Microbiology, College of Life and Health Science, Chubu University, 1200 Matumoto-Chou, Kasugai-City, Aichi-Prefecture 487-8501, Japan.

The CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) regulates virus-induced cell fusion and monocyte fusion, and is involved in amino acid transportation. Here, we examined the role that CD98hc plays in the formation of osteoclasts using CD98hcLysM-cre peritoneal macrophages (CD98hc-defect macrophages). Peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with co-cultured with osteoblasts in the presence of 1,25(OH) vitamin D, and thereafter stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining solution. The multinucleated osteoclast formation was severely impaired in the peritoneal macrophages isolated from the CD98hcdefect mice compared with those from wild-type mice. CD98hc mediates integrin signaling and amino acid transport through the CD98 light chain (CD98lc). In integrin signaling, suppression of the M-CSF-RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, JNK and p130Cas were observed at the triggering phase in the CD98h-defect peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, we showed that the general control non-derepressible (GCN) pathway, which was activated by amino acid starvation, was induced by the CD98hc-defect peritoneal macrophages stimulated with RANKL. These results indicate that CD98 plays two important roles in osteoclast formation through integrin signaling and amino acid transport.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2015.11.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5600448PMC
March 2016

Pregnancy Outcomes After Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A 13-Year Experience in a Single Tertiary-Care Center.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 Jan;26(1):163-8

*Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; †Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Aichi, Japan; ‡Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To investigate pregnancy outcomes in women after abdominal radical trachelectomy (RT) for early-stage cervical cancer.

Methods: The patients' background, fertility, and pregnancy outcomes were reviewed in a total of 61 pregnancies in 48 of 172 women who underwent abdominal RT at Keio University Hospital between September 2002 and December 2013.

Results: There were 5 women with stage IA1, 2 with stage IA2, and 41 with stage IB1. Histological types were as follows: squamous cell carcinoma (n = 36), adenocarcinoma (n = 10), and adenosquamous cell carcinoma (n = 2). The pregnancy rate of women attempting to conceive after abdominal RT was 44% (48/109). The mean ± SD duration from abdominal RT to conception was 3.1 ± 1.9 years. Of 61 pregnancies, 42 pregnancies were achieved by fertility treatment (in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, 39; intrauterine insemination, 3). After excluding one pregnancy without detailed clinical information, there were 42 live births (5 in 22-27 weeks, 11 in 28-33weeks, 20 in 34-36 weeks, and 6 in 37-38 weeks), 13 miscarriages, and 5 ongoing pregnancies. While there were 10 first trimester miscarriages, 3 pregnancies ended in the second trimester owing to chorioamnionitis. The mean gestational age at birth was 33 weeks of pregnancy. Thirty-seven neonates were appropriate-for-date, and one was small-for-date. Six pregnancies exhibited massive bleeding from the residual cervix in the late pregnancy. Preterm birth less than 34 weeks of pregnancy was related to premature rupture of the membrane (P < 0.05). Chorioamnionitis was evident in 9 of 11 pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of the membrane followed by birth at less than 34 weeks of pregnancy. No parturients exhibited lochiometra and endometritis postpartum.

Conclusions: Abdominal RT provided favorable pregnancy outcomes, and fertility treatment could be advantageous to conception. Massive bleeding from the residual cervix as well as ascending infection might be characteristic features during pregnancy after abdominal RT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000000571DOI Listing
January 2016

Infertility etiologies are genetically and clinically linked with other diseases in single meta-diseases.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2015 Apr 15;13:31. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, 46010, Spain.

The present review aims to ascertain whether different infertility etiologies share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies and are associated with distinct and particular risks of later-life morbidity and mortality. In order to reach this aim, we use two different sources of information: (1) a public web server named DiseaseConnect ( http://disease-connect.org ) focused on the analysis of common genes and molecular mechanisms shared by diseases by integrating comprehensive omics and literature data; and (2) a literature search directed to find clinical comorbid relationships of infertility etiologies with only those diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. This literature search is performed because DiseaseConnect web server does not discriminate between pathologies emerging before, concomitantly or after infertility is manifested. Data show that different infertility etiologies not only share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies but they have distinct clinical relationships with other diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. In particular, (1) testicular and high-grade prostate cancer in male infertility; (2) non-fatal stroke and endometrial cancer, and likely non-fatal coronary heart disease and ovarian cancer in polycystic ovary syndrome; (3) osteoporosis, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders and dementia in premature ovarian failure; (4) breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations in diminished ovarian reserve; (5) clear cell and endometrioid histologic subtypes of invasive ovarian cancer, and likely low-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer, melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in endometriosis; and (6) endometrial and ovarian cancer in idiopathic infertility. The present data endorse the principle that the occurrence of a disease (in our case infertility) is non-random in the population and suggest that different infertility etiologies are genetically and clinically linked with other diseases in single meta-diseases. This finding opens new insights for clinicians and reproductive biologists to treat infertility problems using a phenomic approach instead of considering infertility as an isolated and exclusive disease of the reproductive system/hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In agreement with a previous validation analysis of the utility of DiseaseConnect web server, the present study does not show a univocal correspondence between common gene expression and clinical comorbid relationship. Further work is needed to untangle the potential genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic relationships that may be present among different infertility etiologies, morbid conditions and physical/cognitive traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-015-0029-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4404574PMC
April 2015

Sexual satisfaction of infertile couples assessed using the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS).

Sci Rep 2014 Jun 6;4:5203. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Recently, infertility treatment-related psychological effects are receiving increased attention. However, whether sexual satisfaction is reduced amongst infertile couples remains to be elucidated. In this study, sexual satisfaction of Japanese infertile couples was assessed using a validated questionnaire designed to assess the male and female partner individually, and the couple as a whole for the first time. This study randomly included 170 infertile couples seen at the outpatient clinic and 170 couples that had recently achieved spontaneous pregnancy. All couples were given the Japanese version of the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). In couples aged 35 years or older, the male partners showed significantly worse sexual satisfaction scores than the female partners. Sexual satisfaction also deteriorated with therapeutic interventions, with mental factors affected more than physical factors. Therapeutic interventions such as timed sexual intercourse and assisted reproductive technology were considered emotionally stressful for infertile couples, with sexual satisfaction accordingly lower in this group than in couples achieving spontaneous pregnancy. GRISS successfully evaluated lower sexual satisfaction associated with infertility, and hence is a useful tool for identifying couples whose sexual satisfaction could be enhanced by counselling or other stress-reduction modalities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5381476PMC
June 2014

Absence of CD9 reduces endometrial VEGF secretion and impairs uterine repair after parturition.

Sci Rep 2014 Apr 16;4:4701. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

Department of Reproductive Biology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.

In mammals, uterine epithelium is remodeled cyclically throughout adult life for pregnancy. Despite the expression of CD9 in the uterine epithelium, its role in maternal reproduction is unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by examining uterine secretions collected from patients undergoing fertility treatment and fertilization-competent Cd9(-/-) mice expressing CD9-GFP in their eggs (Cd9(-/-)TG). CD9 in uterine secretions was observed as extracellular matrix-like feature, and its amount of the secretions associated with repeated pregnancy failures. We also found that the litter size of Cd9(-/-)TG female mice was significantly reduced after their first birth. Severely delayed re-epithelialization of the endometrium was then occurred. Concomitantly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was remarkably reduced in the uterine secretions of Cd9(-/-)TG female mice. These results provide the first evidence that CD9-mediated VEGF secretion plays a role in re-epithelialization of the uterus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep04701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3988484PMC
April 2014

Derivation of human decidua-like cells from amnion and menstrual blood.

Sci Rep 2014 Apr 8;4:4599. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Department of Reproductive Biology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Ohkura Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan.

We induced differentiation of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs) and menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMCs) into endometrial stroma-like cells, which could be useful for cell therapy to support embryo implantation. Interestingly, the expression patterns of surface markers were similar among AMCs, MMCs, and endometrial stromal cells. In addition, whereas treatment with estrogen and progesterone was not very effective for decidualizing AMCs and MMCs, treatment with 8-Br-cAMP prompted remarkable morphological changes in these cells as well as increased expression of decidualization markers (prolactin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1) and attenuated expression of surface markers unique to mesenchymal stem cells. These results demonstrated that bone marrow-derived stem cells, which are considered a potential source of endometrial progenitor cells, as well as AMCs and MMCs show in vitro decidualization potential, which is characteristic of endometrial stromal cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep04599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978502PMC
April 2014

Age-associated telomere shortening in mouse oocytes.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2013 Nov 21;11:108. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Background: Oocytes may undergo two types of aging. The first is induced by exposure to an aged ovarian microenvironment before being ovulated, known as 'reproductive or maternal aging', and the second by either a prolonged stay in the oviduct before fertilization or in vitro aging prior to insemination, known as 'postovulatory aging'. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these aging processes remain to be elucidated. As telomere shortening in cultured somatic cells triggers replicative senescence, telomere shortening in oocytes during reproductive and postovulatory aging may predict developmental competence. This study aimed to ascertain the mechanisms underlying altered telomere biology in mouse oocytes during reproductive and postovulatory aging.

Methods: We studied Tert expression patterns, telomerase activity, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and telomere length in fresh oocytes from young versus reproductively-aged female mice retrieved from oviducts at 14 h post-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), in vivo or in vitro postovulatory-aged mouse oocytes at 23 h post-hCG. Oocytes were collected from super-ovulated C57BL/6 J mice of 6-8 weeks or 42-48 weeks of age. mRNA and protein expressions of the Tert gene were quantified using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunochemistry. Telomerase activity was measured by a telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, while telomere length was measured by Q-PCR and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses.

Results: The abundance of Tert expression in oocytes significantly decreased during reproductive and postovulatory aging. Immunofluorescent staining clearly demonstrated an altered pattern and intensity of TERT protein expression in oocytes during reproductive aging. Furthermore, relative telomerase activity (RTA) in oocytes from reproductively-aged females was significantly lower than that in oocytes from young females. In contrast, RTA in postovulatory-aged oocytes was similar to that in fresh oocytes. Oocytes from reproductively-aged females and postovulatory-aged oocytes showed higher ROS levels than oocytes from young females. Relative telomere length (RTL) was remarkably shorter in oocytes from reproductively-aged females compared to oocytes from young females. However, postovulatory aging had no significant effect on RTL of oocytes.

Conclusions: Long-term adverse effects of low telomerase activity and increased ROS exposure are likely associated with telomere shortening in oocytes from reproductively-aged female mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-11-108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3842639PMC
November 2013

β-catenin functions pleiotropically in differentiation and tumorigenesis in mouse embryo-derived stem cells.

PLoS One 2013 14;8(5):e63265. Epub 2013 May 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the balance between proliferation and differentiation throughout embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. β-Catenin, encoded by the Ctnnb1 gene, mediates an intracellular signaling cascade activated by Wnt. It also plays an important role in the maintenance of various types of stem cells including adult stem cells and cancer stem cells. However, it is unclear if β-catenin is required for the derivation of mouse embryo-derived stem cells. Here, we established β-catenin-deficient (β-cat(Δ/Δ)) mouse embryo-derived stem cells and showed that β-catenin is not essential for acquiring self-renewal potential in the derivation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, teratomas formed from embryo-derived β-cat(Δ/Δ) ESCs were immature germ cell tumors without multilineage differentiated cell types. Re-expression of functional β-catenin eliminated their neoplastic, transformed phenotype and restored pluripotency, thereby rescuing the mutant ESCs. Our findings demonstrate that β-catenin has pleiotropic effects in ESCs; it is required for the differentiation of ESCs and prevents them from acquiring tumorigenic character. These results highlight β-catenin as the gatekeeper in differentiation and tumorigenesis in ESCs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0063265PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653942PMC
December 2013

Successful implantation after reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity in the uterine cavity.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2013 May 11;11:37. Epub 2013 May 11.

Fertility Clinic Tokyo, 2-11-16 Ebisu-Nishi Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0021, Japan.

Background: Recently, the concept of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) in assisted reproductive technology has been enlarged. Chronic uterine inflammation is a known cause of implantation failure and is associated with high matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in uterine cavity flushing. MMP activity of women with RIF has been reported to be higher than that of fertile women. In the present retrospective study we evaluated the efficacy of treatment for high MMP activity in the uterine cavity of patients with RIF.

Methods: Of the 597 patients recruited to the study, 360 patients underwent MMP measurements and 237 patients did not (control group). All patients had failed to become pregnant, despite at least two transfers of good-quality embryos. Gelatinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in uterine flushing fluid was detected by enzymology (MMP test). All samples were classified into two groups (positive or negative) based on the intensity of the bands on the enzyme zymogram, which represents the degree of MMP activity. Patients who tested positive on the initial test were treated for 2 weeks with a quinolone antibiotic and a corticosteroid, and subsequently underwent a second MMP test. Negative results on the second MMP tests after treatment and subsequent rates of pregnancy and miscarriage were used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test and the chi-square test.

Results: Of the patients who underwent the MMP test, 15.6% had positive results (high MMP activity). After treatment, 89.3% of patients had negative results on the second MMP test. These patients had a significantly better pregnancy rate (42.0%) than the control group (26.6%), as well as a lower miscarriage rate (28.5% vs 36.5%, respectively).

Conclusions: A 2-week course of antibiotics and corticosteroids effectively improves the uterine environment underlying RIF by reducing MMP activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-11-37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3655829PMC
May 2013

Reproductive and obstetric outcomes after radical abdominal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer in a series of 31 pregnancies.

Hum Reprod 2013 Jul 26;28(7):1793-8. Epub 2013 Apr 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Study Question: What are the reproductive and obstetric outcomes in patients undergoing radical abdominal trachelectomy (RAT) for early-stage cervical cancer?

Summary Answer: When RAT was performed before a pregnancy achieved with fertility treatments, pregnancy rate of 36.2% was obtained and 71.4% of these women gave birth at ≥ 32 weeks of gestation.

What Is Known Already: Reproductive and obstetric outcomes after radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) are well documented; however, these outcomes after RAT have not been well studied.

Study Design, Size, Duration: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients at a single institution who underwent RAT and became pregnant. Reproductive and obstetric outcomes of 114 patients who had undergone RAT from September 2002 to December 2010 were investigated.

Participants/material, Setting, Methods: Women of reproductive age with early-stage cervical cancer who wished to preserve their fertility were documented.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: Patients' median age was 33 years (25-40 years). A total of 31 pregnancies were achieved in 25 patients and 6 patients had 2 pregnancies. Eighteen of 25 patients (72.0%) had infertility problems; 17 patients conceived with IVF-embryo transfer and 1 patient with intrauterine insemination. The pregnancy rate among patients who wished to conceive was 36.2% (25/69). Among 31 pregnancies in 25 patients, 4 patients had first trimester miscarriage and 1 patient had second trimester miscarriage. Excluding the five patients who miscarried and the five ongoing pregnancies, all the 21 patients had deliveries by Cesarean section. Four patients had a preterm birth in the second trimester and 17 patients delivered in the third trimester. Of the 17 pregnancies that reached the third trimester, 2 (11.8%) were preterm births between 29 and 32 weeks, 11 (64.7%) were delivered between 32 and 37 weeks and 4 (23.5%) at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: Because of the retrospective data collection, not all pregnancies may have been recorded.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Prospective multicenter studies are needed to determine if the results shown in this retrospective cohort can be generalized to all patients with early-stage cervical cancer who wish to undergo the fertility-sparing RAT procedure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/det118DOI Listing
July 2013

A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

Sci Rep 2012 5;2:930. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep00930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514685PMC
May 2013

Human spermatozoal RNAs.

Authors:
Toshio Hamatani

Fertil Steril 2012 Feb;97(2):275-81

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To provide a focused review of the scientific literature pertaining to spermatozoal RNA.

Design: Review of the literature and appraisal of relevant articles.

Setting: Not applicable.

Patient(s): Infertile male.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Spermatozoal RNAs as potential epigenetic modifiers in early embryo development and as clinical markers of male infertility.

Result(s): The nucleus of mature spermatozoa contains a complex population of mRNAs and miRNAs despite its transcriptionally inert state.

Conclusion(s): A specific set of functional RNAs are delivered into oocytes during fertilization and are thought to contribute extragenomically to early embryonic development. Even if spermatozoal RNAs is merely residual, it still has the potential to greatly improve the investigative and diagnostic potential of male infertility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.12.035DOI Listing
February 2012

Spermatozoal RNA profiling towards a clinical evaluation of sperm quality.

Authors:
Toshio Hamatani

Reprod Biomed Online 2011 Feb 13;22(2):103-5. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Human spermatozoal RNAs were recently profiled using microarrays and explored as clinical markers of male infertility. An appropriate study design with a considerable number of biological replicates (sperm samples) is necessary to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of these microarray data. If the genes identified as sperm quality markers by microarray studies are successfully attributed to the pathogenesis of male infertility, then the microarray strategy may be used as a clinical diagnostic tool for male infertility. On the other hand, spermatozoal RNAs may contain not only remnant RNAs after spermatogenesis, but also RNAs that may contribute extragenomically to early embryonic development. Therefore, spermatozoal RNA profiling may enable a better understanding of what is contributed to the oocyte by sperm, in addition to their genome, to facilitate early embryonic development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2010.12.001DOI Listing
February 2011

Acute stress may induce ovulation in women.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2010 May 26;8:53. Epub 2010 May 26.

Department of Functional Biology and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia 46100, Spain.

Background: This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge.

Methods: A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes.

Results: Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors.

Conclusion: Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-8-53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890612PMC
May 2010

Involvement of a novel preimplantation-specific gene encoding the high mobility group box protein Hmgpi in early embryonic development.

Hum Mol Genet 2010 Feb 14;19(3):480-93. Epub 2009 Nov 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Mining gene-expression-profiling data identified a novel gene that is specifically expressed in preimplantation embryos. Hmgpi, a putative chromosomal protein with two high-mobility-group boxes, is zygotically transcribed during zygotic genome activation, but is not transcribed postimplantation. The Hmgpi-encoded protein (HMGPI), first detected at the 4-cell stage, remains highly expressed in pre-implantation embryos. Interestingly, HMGPI is expressed in both the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm, and translocated from cytoplasm to nuclei at the blastocyst stage, indicating differential spatial requirements before and after the blastocyst stage. siRNA (siHmgpi)-induced reduction of Hmgpi transcript levels caused developmental loss of preimplantation embryos and implantation failures. Furthermore, reduction of Hmgpi prevented blastocyst outgrowth leading to generation of embryonic stem cells. The siHmgpi-injected embryos also lost ICM and trophectoderm integrity, demarcated by reduced expressions of Oct4, Nanog and Cdx2. The findings implicated an important role for Hmgpi at the earliest stages of mammalian embryonic development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddp512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798723PMC
February 2010

What can we learn from gene expression profiling of mouse oocytes?

Reproduction 2008 May;135(5):581-92

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi Shijuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Mammalian ooplasm supports the preimplantation development and reprograms the introduced nucleus transferred from a somatic cell to confer pluripotency in a cloning experiment. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of oocyte competence remain unknown. Recent advances in microarray technologies have allowed gene expression profiling of such tiny specimens as oocytes and preimplantation embryos, generating a flood of information about gene expressions. So, what can we learn from it? Here, we review the initiative global gene expression studies of mouse and/or human oocytes, focusing on the lists of maternal transcripts and their expression patterns during oogenesis and preimplantation development. Especially, the genes expressed exclusively in oocytes should contribute to the uniqueness of oocyte competence, driving mammalian development systems of oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, we discuss future directions for oocyte gene expression profiling, including discovering biomarkers of oocyte quality and exploiting the microarray data for 'making oocytes'.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-07-0430DOI Listing
May 2008

Buoyant density and sedimentation dynamics of HIV-1 in two density-gradient media for semen processing.

Fertil Steril 2008 Nov 31;90(5):1983-7. Epub 2007 Dec 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To compare buoyant density and sedimentation kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in two sperm-washing media, Percoll and Pureception.

Design: Laboratory study.

Setting: University hospital.

Patient(s): None.

Intervention(s): Buoyant density and sedimentation kinetics of HIV-1 particles (MOLT-4/LAI strain) were measured in Percoll and Pureception using isopyknic ultracentrifugation and continuous-density-gradient centrifugation.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The HIV-1 particles were detected and semiquantified using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for HIV-1 RNA.

Result(s): Calculated buoyant density of HIV-1 was approximately 1.042 in both media in isopyknic centrifugation. However, most HIV-1 particles were found in fractions with specific gravity less than 1.04 in both media, even after 40 minutes of density-gradient centrifugation at 1,600 g. Small viral accumulations were observed at the bottom of the tube in Pureception density gradients.

Conclusion(s): Although we found very high efficiency of HIV-1 removal using density-gradient centrifugation, a minute quantity of virus was found at the bottom of the gradient tube when Pureception was used as the medium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.09.025DOI Listing
November 2008

Elimination of HIV-1 from semen and application of the processed semen to assisted reproductive technology.

Reprod Med Biol 2007 Sep 6;6(3):151-156. Epub 2007 Aug 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

As HIV infection is becoming a controllable chronic infection after the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), patients with this infection are now able to make plans for the future. Numerous serodiscordant (HIV-positive men and HIV-negative women) couples seek medical assistance to have a child with minimum risk to the HIV-negative female partner and the child using processed (washed) sperm. HIV-1 elimination from the semen using density gradient centrifugation and the swim-up procedure, which is a standard processing procedure, depends on both sperm motility and the physical properties of the virus-containing particles. To establish a simple method for recovering sperm from poor quality semen, we developed the tilted-tube rotation method to generate a continuous density gradient, and using this continuous density gradient we have succeeded in recovering motile sperm, even from the semen of seropositive males with severe male factors. This review aims to summarize the recent progress in the underlying principles and technical aspects of semen processing for elimination of HIV-1. (Reprod Med Biol 2007; : 151-156).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0578.2007.00178.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907120PMC
September 2007