Publications by authors named "Toshio Gocho"

8 Publications

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Prediction of treatment response from the microenvironment of tumor immunity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

Med Mol Morphol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1 W16, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8543, Japan.

To supplement clinical decision-making in the management of cervical cancer, various prognostic factors, including tumor immune microenvironments, were examined in patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the expression of CD8, FoxP3, HLA-1, PD-L1, and XRCC4 in 100 cases of cervical cancer. The observed tumor immune microenvironments were also classified into three types: inflamed, excluded, and cold type. Less FoxP3+ T cells and cold-type tumor were found to be poor prognostic factors in addition to non-SCC, large pre-treatment tumor volume, and three or less cycles of concurrent chemotherapy based on multivariate analysis. Cold-type tumors had significantly worse prognoses than the other two types, whereas inflamed- and excluded-type tumors showed similar 5-year disease-specific survival (P < 0.001; 0% vs. 60.3% vs. 72.3%). Radiotherapy could overcome the inhibitory immune microenvironment that occurs in excluded type. Individualized combination therapy adapted to pre-treatment tumor immunity may be necessary to improve radiotherapy outcomes in cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00795-021-00290-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Association between cancer immunity and treatment results in uterine cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020 Oct;50(11):1290-1297

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate proteins related to tumor immune response and treatment outcome from radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective immunohistochemical staining of 81 patients with uterine cervical cancer who underwent definitive radiotherapy. We examined the expression of programmed death ligand 1, human leukocyte antigen class I, tumor-infiltrating CD8+, and forkhead box P3+ (FoxP3+) T cells in tumor tissues.

Results: In biopsy specimen, patients with a higher number of CD8+ T cells and FoxP3+ T cells had a better disease-specific survival than patients with a lower number of CD8+ T cells and FoxP3+ cells (P = 0.018 and P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis showed that equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) of the minimum dose to 90% of the high-risk clinical target volume, FoxP3+ T cells and expression of human leukocyte antigen class I were significant prognostic factors. When the EQD2 is 70 Gy or more, a higher local control rate is obtained regardless of the number of CD8- or FoxP3-positive cells. When EQD2 is <70 Gy, the number of CD8-positive cells has a significant impact on treatment outcome: the recurrence rate (local recurrence rate + distant metastasis rate) was 46.2% in the group with a CD8 value of 230 or higher, whereas the recurrence rate was 75.7% in the group with a CD8 value of less than 230.

Conclusion: The combination of CD8 or FoxP3 with EQD2 can be potentially useful to predict the treatment results of radiotherapy for cervical cancer, leading to individualized optimal selection of treatment for cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa149DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of the urethral α/β ratio and tissue repair half-time for iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental external beam radiotherapy.

Brachytherapy 2020 May - Jun;19(3):290-297. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess the correlation between postimplant dosimetric quantifiers and the genitourinary (GU) toxicity of low-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

Methods And Materials: The minimum urethral dose (UD10, 30, and 90) and the percent volume of the urethra receiving the prescription dose (V100, V150) were calculated from the postimplant dose-volume histograms of 182 patients. We then calculated various urethral biologically equivalent doses (uBEDs) using different values of the α/β ratio and tissue repair half-time (t1/2) and examined the correlations with GU toxicity.

Results: Common dosimetric quantifiers, such as UD90 (brachytherapy) + UD50 (external beam radiotherapy), showed no correlation with Grade ≥ 2 GU toxicity. There was a significant correlation between Grade ≥2 GU toxicity and uBED when the α/β value was 0.5 or 1 Gy and t1/2 was 0.5-2.5 h. An uBED (α/β = 1.0, t1/2 = 0.5) had the largest hazard ratio for GU toxicity, and it was also significantly correlated with Grade ≥ 2 GU toxicity according to multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: We observed a significant correlation of uBED with GU toxicity when α/β was 0.5 or 1.0 Gy and t1/2 was 0.5-2.5 h. As the simple formula we used has not been verified in basic experiments, more data are needed to validate our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2020.02.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Retrospective DVH analysis of point A based intracavitary brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer.

J Radiat Res 2020 Mar;61(2):265-274

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, S1 W16, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8543, Japan.

Combining external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is important for definitive treatment of cervical cancer. In cervical cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, we evaluated treatment outcomes in relation to dose-volume histogram parameters, including the computed tomography (CT)-based high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) for ICBT. Between 2010 and 2015, 89 consecutive cervical cancer patients were mostly treated with 40 Gy of EBRT in 20 fractions and 18 Gy of ICBT prescribed to point A in 3 fractions. CT scans were obtained during ICBT. The HR-CTV D90 was calculated and the total doses of ICBT and EBRT were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2). When the patients were divided into four groups according to EQD2 of the HR-CTV D90, the 3-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 95.2, 78.4, 52.7 and 42.9% for patients receiving >80 , 70-80 , 60-70 and <60 Gy, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between EQD2 of the HR-CTV D90 and the HR-CTV volume at first ICBT (r = -0.713). Local recurrence was more frequent when the HR-CTV volume was ≥22 cc and EQD2 of the HR-CTV D90 was <70 Gy. Multivariate analysis showed that EQD2 of the HR-CTV D90 and concurrent chemotherapy (≥4 cycles) were significant determinants of overall survival. HR-CTV D90 was an important prognostic indicator for local recurrence. HR-CTV D90 >70 Gy is required for the better local control, especially in patients with a larger HR-CTV (≥22 cc at initial ICBT).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrz099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246069PMC
March 2020

Association between radiotherapy-induced alteration of programmed death ligand 1 and survival in patients with uterine cervical cancer undergoing preoperative radiotherapy.

Strahlenther Onkol 2020 Aug 17;196(8):725-735. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1W16, Chuo-Ku, 060-8543, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate radiotherapy-induced changes in the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-1) in patients with uterine cervical cancer, as well as infiltration of CD8+ and Forkhead box P3+ (FoxP3+) T lymphocytes into tumor tissue and the prognostic value of these parameters.

Materials And Methods: We performed immunohistochemical analysis of pre-radiotherapy biopsies and corresponding post-radiotherapy resected tissues in 104 uterine cervical cancer patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. We scored the expression of various proteins to distinguish positive from negative samples.

Results: PD-L1-expressing tumor cells (PD-L1 TC) increased significantly after chemoradiotherapy (p = 0.043). CD8+ T cell infiltration (p = 0.002) and FoxP3+ T cell infiltration (p = 0.003) decreased significantly after chemoradiotherapy. Expression of PD‑1, PD-L1-expressing immune cells (PD-L1 IC), and HLA‑1 did not change after chemoradiotherapy. In biopsy specimens obtained before chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, greater infiltration of CD8+ T cells (p = 0.001) and FoxP3+ T cells (p = 0.003) were significant predictors of better overall survival (OS). In surgical specimens obtained after chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, greater infiltration of PD-L1 TC was the only significant predictor of better OS (p < 0.001) and was related to a significantly lower probability of out-of-field recurrence (p = 0.005).

Conclusion: Chemoradiotherapy induced an immunologic shift that increased PD-L1 TC. Chemoradiotherapy has immunological effects that can influence the results of treatment for uterine cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-019-01571-1DOI Listing
August 2020

Influence of PD-L1 expression in immune cells on the response to radiation therapy in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Radiother Oncol 2018 11 21;129(2):409-414. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: To investigate influences of proteins involved with tumor immunity on outcomes of radiotherapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).

Material And Methods: We performed immunohistochemical staining to examine expressions of p16 and proteins involved with tumor immunity in 92 OPSCC patients treated with radiotherapy.

Results: Patients with abundant infiltrating CD8-positive cells had the significantly better overall survival (OS) rate than patients with fewer CD8-positive cells (p = 0.026). Patients with higher PD-L1 expression in tumor cells (TC 1-3) had a better outcome than those with low PD-L1 expression in tumor cells (TC 0) for both OS (p = 0.019) and progression-free survival (PFS) rate (p = 0.032). Patients with high PD-L1 expression in infiltrating immune cells (IC 3) showed significantly better OS (p = 0.009) and PFS (p = 0.011) than those with low PD-L1 expression (IC 0-2). Patients with p16-negative and IC 3 showed similar OS to patients with p16-positive and IC 0-2. P16-positive tumors had a significantly higher CD8-positive cell infiltration and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells than p16-negative tumors.

Conclusions: In addition to tumor p16 expression, PD-L1 expression in TC and IC can be useful for predicting the response of OPSCC to radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2018.08.023DOI Listing
November 2018

Prediction of acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary radiation toxicity in prostate cancer patients using lymphocyte microRNA.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2018 Feb;48(2):167-174

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background: To search for novel biomarkers that can predict acute radiation toxicity, we conducted microRNA expression analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs).

Methods: The discovery cohort was 69 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy between October 2007 and October 2010. The validation cohort was 72 patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy between May 2008 and March 2014. After13 microRNAs were selected by TaqMan® Array analysis in a preliminary experiment, expression of these microRNAs in all samples was analyzed by RT-PCR.

Results: In the discovery cohort, the average prostate volume, the rectal volume receiving 70 Gy, and expression of miR-410 and miR-221 were significant risk factors for Grade 1-2 gastrointestinal toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.807. The maximum dose to the urinary bladder, prostate volume, pretreatment urinary function score, and miR-99a and miR-221 expression were risk factors for Grade 2 genitourinary toxicity. The corresponding AUC was 0.796. In the validation cohort, reproducibility of these markers was confirmed for gastrointestinal toxicity, but not for genitourinary toxicity.

Conclusion: Combining radiation dose parameters with microRNA expression in PBLs may be useful for predicting acute gastrointestinal toxicity of radiation therapy, thus contributing to personalized treatment of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyx181DOI Listing
February 2018

Influence of XRCC4 expression in esophageal cancer cells on the response to radiotherapy.

Med Mol Morphol 2017 Mar 23;50(1):25-33. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University Schoolo of Medicine, S1W16, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8543, Hokkaido, Japan.

DNA double-strand break (DSB) is one of the most serious forms of damage induced by ionizing irradiation and is mainly repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair. Immunohistochemical analysis of proteins involved in NHEJ, such as XRCC4 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4), Ku86 and DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunits), may be useful for predicting tumor radiosensitivity. We examined 92 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ECSS) who were treated by radiotherapy between 1999 and 2008. Immunohistochemical examination of tumor tissue for Ki-67 and DSB-related proteins, including XRCC4, Ku86, and DNA-PKcs, was performed using pretreatment biopsy specimens. Low expression of XRCC4 was detected in 31 of 92 examined samples (33.7 %). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 67.7 % in the low expression group and 31.0 % in the high expression group (P = 0.00). Multivariate analysis confirmed that advanced T-stage (HR 3.24, P = 0.01), radiation dose less than 66 Gy (HR 2.23, P = 0.02), absence of systemic chemotherapy (HR 2.59, P = 0.05), and high expression of XRCC4 (HR 12.0, P = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors for predicting poor OS. Other DSB-related proteins and Ki-67 were not predictive factors. XRCC4 expression might have an influence on results of radiotherapy for patients with ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00795-016-0144-5DOI Listing
March 2017