Publications by authors named "Toril Fagerheim"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular and Clinical Characteristics of a National Cohort of Paediatric Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients in Norway.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2019 ;6(3):349-359

Oslo University Hospital, Unit for Congenital and Inherited Neuromuscular Disorders, Oslo, Norway.

Background: As new gene-related treatment options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are being developed, precise information about the patients' genetic diagnosis and knowledge about the diversities of natural history in DMD is vital.

Objective: To obtain detailed insight into the genetic and clinical characteristics of paediatric DMD in Norway.

Methods: 94 boys with DMD, aged 0-18 years, were identified over a period of 3.5 years, yielding a national prevalence of 13.5×10-5 boys. 73 boys (78%) were recruited to full genetic and clinical or limited (genetic only) evaluation.

Results: Molecular analysis disclosed 64% deletions, 18% duplications and 18% point mutations. The mean age of diagnosis was 3.9±2.0 years. 78% were treated with glucocorticoids from age 5.8±1.5 years. 23 boys (35%) had lost ambulation at an age of 10.7±2.0 years. 17% were treated for left ventricular dysfunction from age 12.1±3.0 years and 12% had received night-time non-invasive positive pressure ventilation from age 13.0±2.5 years.

Conclusions: The distribution of mutation types and sites was similar to previous studies but with more duplications and fewer point mutations. Any genotype-phenotype correlations were not uncovered. The boys were diagnosed early but there is still diagnostic delay among boys presenting with late motor development. Glucocorticoid treatment was widespread, especially among the younger boys. The clinical results of this comprehensive nationwide study highlight the large variability of disease progression in DMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-190402DOI Listing
February 2020

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C in Norway: Clinical characteristics, mutation spectrum and minimum prevalence.

Neuromuscul Disord 2018 08 15;28(8):639-645. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

National Neuromuscular Centre, University Hospital of North Norway, Norway; Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of North Norway, Norway.

Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is considered rare and phenotypic descriptions are scarce for the different subgroups. Mutations in the SH3TC2 gene, causing recessive demyelinating CMT type 4C have been found in several Norwegian CMT patients over the last years. We aimed to estimate a minimum prevalence and to study the genotypic and phenotypic variability of CMT4C in Norway. Patients were selected from diagnostic registries in medical genetic centers in Norway for cases of CMT4C. All patients were invited to complete a questionnaire and give medical consent to the use of clinical data from medical hospital records. A total of 35 patients from 31 families were found with CMT4C, which gives a minimum prevalence of 0.7/100,000 in Norway. Six new mutations were identified. Most patients had debut in the first decade with foot deformities, distal limb paresis, sensory ataxia and scoliosis. Proximal lower limb paresis and cranial nerve involvement was seen in about half of the patients. CMT4C is the most common recessive CMT in Norway. In addition to the classic distal limb affection, early debut, scoliosis, proximal paresis, cranial nerve affection and sensory ataxia are the most prominent features of CMT4C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2018.06.004DOI Listing
August 2018

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome in siblings with biallelic COL3A1 sequence variants and marked clinical variability in the extended family.

Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Jun 10;23(6):796-802. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

1] Department of Pathology, Seattle, WA,USA [2] Department of Medicine (Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (vEDS), also known as EDS type IV, is considered to be an autosomal dominant disorder caused by sequence variants in COL3A1, which encodes the chains of type III procollagen. We identified a family in which there was marked clinical variation with the earliest death due to extensive aortic dissection at age 15 years and other family members in their eighties with no complications. The proband was born with right-sided clubfoot but was otherwise healthy until he died unexpectedly at 15 years. His sister, in addition to signs consistent with vascular EDS, had bilateral frontal and parietal polymicrogyria. The proband and his sister each had two COL3A1 sequence variants, c.1786C>T, p.(Arg596*) in exon 26 and c.3851G>A, p.(Gly1284Glu) in exon 50 on different alleles. Cells from the compound heterozygote produced a reduced amount of type III procollagen, all the chains of which had abnormal electrophoretic mobility. Biallelic sequence variants have a significantly worse outcome than heterozygous variants for either null mutations or missense mutations, and frontoparietal polymicrogyria may be an added phenotype feature. This genetic constellation provides a very rare explanation for marked intrafamilial clinical variation due to sequence variants in COL3A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2014.181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795069PMC
June 2015

Segregation analysis in families with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease allows reclassification of putative disease causing mutations.

BMC Med Genet 2014 Jan 21;15:12. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of North-Norway, NO9038 Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The identification of disease causing, or putative disease causing, mutations in index patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) allows for genetic testing of family members. Relevant variants identified in index patients are of either definite, likely or uncertain pathogenicity. The main objective of this study was to make an evaluation of the family investigations performed as part of the assessment of genetic variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS).

Methods: Between 2004 and 2010 molecular genetic family investigations were requested for 87 family members from 41 families harbouring PMP22dup or genetic variants in GJB1, MPZ, MFN2 and NEFL. Relatives were tested for the family mutation and data from the requisitions were evaluated by means of statistical tools.

Results: The results within each indication category are presented and discussed in detail. Twenty-two relatives (9 affected) from eight families were included in the segregation analyses, which invoked reclassification of three MFN2 mutations, two of which were de novo substitutions (c.2146_2148dup, c.692C > T). One MFN2 substitution was downgraded due to non-segregation (c.1709 A > G), and a MPZ substitution (c.103 G > A) upgraded due to segregation with the phenotype in the family.

Conclusions: The results allow for the evaluation of the patient phenotypes ascertained in families, as opposed to the phenotypic descriptions of index patients. They indicate that de novo MFN2 mutations are regularly found in patients with a classical CMT2 phenotype. They also demonstrate the importance of a precise clinical and neurophysiologic diagnosis of affected family members. This particularly applies for the examination of variants of uncertain clinical significance. Finally, the fact that 14,6% of affected relatives tested for (probable or certain) pathogenic mutations were mutation negative, demonstrates that clinical evaluation alone is not always sufficient in order to determine their diagnosis. We believe that the results will aid in the estimation and planning of resources required for the various aspects of family evaluations in CMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-15-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3900263PMC
January 2014

Diagnostic laboratory testing for Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT): the spectrum of gene defects in Norwegian patients with CMT and its implications for future genetic test strategies.

BMC Med Genet 2013 Sep 21;14:94. Epub 2013 Sep 21.

Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø NO9038, Norway.

Background: Current genetic test algorithms for Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) disease are based on family details and comprehensive clinical and neurophysiological data gathered under ideal conditions for clinical assessment. However, in a diagnostic laboratory setting relying on external test requisitions and patient samples, such conditions are not always met. Our objective was therefore to perform a retrospective evaluation of the data given in laboratory request forms and to assess their quality and applicability with regard to the recommended algorithms for CMT diagnostics. As we are the main test centre for CMT in Norway our results also provide an overview of the spectrum of gene defects in the Norwegian CMT population.

Methods: Genetic testing was performed according to polyneuropathy type; demyelinating/mixed: PMP22 duplication, MPZ, EGR2, LITAF, NEFL, PMP22, GJB1, axonal: MFN2, MPZ, NEFL, and GJB1.

Results: Diagnostic testing of index patients was requested in 435 of the 549 cases. Seventy-two (16.6%) positive molecular genetic findings were made. The majority (94.6%) of mutation positive cases showed disease onset before 50 years of age. PMP22 (duplication), MPZ, GJB1 and MFN2 mutations constituted 95.8% of the positive findings. Within the nerve conduction study groups, mutation detection rates were; demyelinating 33.8%; mixed 29.0%; axonal 8.8%; unspecified 16.5%.

Conclusion: We suggest a simplified algorithm intended for referral centres, dealing with DNA/blood samples, which involves the assessment of age at onset and neurophysiological data followed by testing of four genes; PMP22 (duplication), MPZ, GJB1 and MFN2. Patients negative for mutations in those four genes should be subjected to evaluation at an interdisciplinary inherited neuropathy clinic with the capacity for extended molecular genetic analysis by next generation sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-14-94DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849068PMC
September 2013

Hereditary motor neuron disease in a large Norwegian family with a "H46R" substitution in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene.

Neuromuscul Disord 2012 Jun 2;22(6):511-21. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

Department of Clinical Medicine - Medical Genetics, University of Tromsø, NO9037 Tromsø, Norway.

Mutant genes associated with Charcot Marie Tooth type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may cause overlapping clinical phenotypes. We performed whole genome linkage analysis, haplotype analysis, sequencing and detailed clinical and neurophysiological investigations in a large Norwegian kindred with a condition that clinically had been classified as Charcot Marie Tooth type 2. The mutation c.140A>G, p.His47Arg (alias p.His46Arg or H46R) in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) segregated with the disease. The patients present a hereditary motor neuropathy-like clinical picture and long survival (mean 29years). To our knowledge, this is the first extensive report describing a large non-Japanese kindred. The prognostic implications of the condition seen in this family have little in common with what is normally associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and illustrates the complexity of the genetic etiology of lower motor neuron disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2012.01.011DOI Listing
June 2012

Fukutin-related protein resides in the Golgi cisternae of skeletal muscle fibres and forms disulfide-linked homodimers via an N-terminal interaction.

PLoS One 2011 23;6(8):e22968. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Division of Child and Adolescent Health, Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) is an inheritable autosomal, recessive disorder caused by mutations in the FuKutin-Related Protein (FKRP) gene (FKRP) located on chromosome 19 (19q13.3). Mutations in FKRP are also associated with Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (MDC1C), Walker-Warburg Syndrome (WWS) and Muscle Eye Brain disease (MEB). These four disorders share in common an incomplete/aberrant O-glycosylation of the membrane/extracellular matrix (ECM) protein α-dystroglycan. However, further knowledge on the FKRP structure and biological function is lacking, and its intracellular location is controversial. Based on immunogold electron microscopy of human skeletal muscle sections we demonstrate that FKRP co-localises with the middle-to-trans-Golgi marker MG160, between the myofibrils in human rectus femoris muscle fibres. Chemical cross-linking experiments followed by pairwise yeast 2-hybrid experiments, and co-immune precipitation, demonstrate that FKRP can exist as homodimers as well as in large multimeric protein complexes when expressed in cell culture. The FKRP homodimer is kept together by a disulfide bridge provided by the most N-terminal cysteine, Cys6. FKRP contains N-glycan of high mannose and/or hybrid type; however, FKRP N-glycosylation is not required for FKRP homodimer or multimer formation. We propose a model for FKRP which is consistent with that of a Golgi resident type II transmembrane protein.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022968PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3160285PMC
January 2012

Identification of p.A684V missense mutation in the WFS1 gene as a frequent cause of autosomal dominant optic atrophy and hearing impairment.

Am J Med Genet A 2011 Jun 28;155A(6):1298-313. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Optic atrophy (OA) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are key abnormalities in several syndromes, including the recessively inherited Wolfram syndrome, caused by mutations in WFS1. In contrast, the association of autosomal dominant OA and SNHL without other phenotypic abnormalities is rare, and almost exclusively attributed to mutations in the Optic Atrophy-1 gene (OPA1), most commonly the p.R445H mutation. We present eight probands and their families from the US, Sweden, and UK with OA and SNHL, whom we analyzed for mutations in OPA1 and WFS1. Among these families, we found three heterozygous missense mutations in WFS1 segregating with OA and SNHL: p.A684V (six families), and two novel mutations, p.G780S and p.D797Y, all involving evolutionarily conserved amino acids and absent from 298 control chromosomes. Importantly, none of these families harbored the OPA1 p.R445H mutation. No mitochondrial DNA deletions were detected in muscle from one p.A684V patient analyzed. Finally, wolframin p.A684V mutant ectopically expressed in HEK cells showed reduced protein levels compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly indicating that the mutation is disease-causing. Our data support OA and SNHL as a phenotype caused by dominant mutations in WFS1 in these additional eight families. Importantly, our data provide the first evidence that a single, recurrent mutation in WFS1, p.A684V, may be a common cause of ADOA and SNHL, similar to the role played by the p.R445H mutation in OPA1. Our findings suggest that patients who are heterozygous for WFS1 missense mutations should be carefully clinically examined for OA and other manifestations of Wolfram syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.33970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100366PMC
June 2011

Causes of hearing impairment in the Norwegian paediatric cochlear implant program.

Int J Audiol 2010 Aug;49(8):596-605

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty Division Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Norway.

Severe to profound hearing impairment (HI) is estimated to affect around 1/2000 young children. Advances in genetics have made it possible to identify several genes related to HI. This information can cast light upon prognostic factors regarding the outcome in cochlear implantation, and provide information both for scientific and genetic counselling purposes. From 1992 to 2005, 273 children from 254 families (probands) were offered cochlear implants in Norway. An evaluation of the causes of HI, especially regarding the genes GJB2, GJB6, SLC26A4, KCNQ1, KCNE1, and the mutation A1555G in mitochondrial DNA was performed in 85% of the families. The number of probands with unknown cause of HI was thus reduced from 120 to 68 (43% reduction). Ninety-eight (46%) of the probands had an identified genetic etiology of their HI. A relatively high prevalence of Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome was found. The main causes of severe and profound HI were similar to those found in other European countries. GJB2 mutations are a common cause of prelingual HI in Norwegian cochlear implanted children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992021003743269DOI Listing
August 2010

Genotypes and haplotypes in the insulin-like growth factors, their receptors and binding proteins in relation to plasma metabolic levels and mammographic density.

BMC Med Genomics 2010 Mar 19;3. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital Radiumhospitalet, Montebello 0310, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Increased mammographic density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for breast cancer. It is believed that one third of breast cancers are derived from breasts with more than 50% density. Mammographic density is affected by age, BMI, parity, and genetic predisposition. It is also greatly influenced by hormonal and growth factor changes in a woman's life cycle, spanning from puberty through adult to menopause. Genetic variations in genes coding for hormones and growth factors involved in development of the breast are therefore of great interest. The associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes from the IGF pathway on mammographic density and circulating levels of IGF1, its binding protein IGFBP3, and their ratio in postmenopausal women are reported here.

Methods: Samples from 964 postmenopausal Norwegian women aged 55-71 years were collected as a part of the Tromsø Mammography and Breast Cancer Study. All samples were genotyped for 25 SNPs in IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IGFALS and IGFBP3 using Taqman (ABI). The main statistical analyses were conducted with the PROC HAPLOTYPE procedure within SAS/GENETICS (SAS 9.1.3).

Results: The haplotype analysis revealed six haploblocks within the studied genes. Of those, four had significant associations with circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 and/or mammographic density. One haplotype variant in the IGF1 gene was found to be associated with mammographic density. Within the IGF2 gene one haplotype variant was associated with levels of both IGF1 and IGFBP3. Two haplotype variants in the IGF2R were associated with the level of IGF1. Both variants of the IGFBP3 haplotype were associated with the IGFBP3 level and indicate regulation in cis.

Conclusion: Polymorphisms within the IGF1 gene and related genes were associated with plasma levels of IGF1, IGFBP3 and mammographic density in this study of postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1755-8794-3-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2853484PMC
March 2010

Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury.

Neurosurgery 2009 Apr;64(4):698-704; discussion 704

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objective: To investigate relations between predictors and outcomes, and especially to identify predictors influencing the time trend in recovery after mild traumatic brain injury.

Methods: We included 59 patients with mild head injury in a prospective study. They underwent comprehensive assessment with neurological and neuroradiological examinations, serum S-100B analysis, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping. Neuropsychological testing was performed before and 6 months after discharge. Linear mixed models were used to assess associations between baseline predictors and neurocognitive performance and its change.

Results: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not. There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement.

Conclusion: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000340978.42892.78DOI Listing
April 2009

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and hearing impairment: infection of fibroblast cells with HCMV induces chromosome breaks at 1q23.3, between loci DFNA7 and DFNA49 -- both involved in dominantly inherited, sensorineural, hearing impairment.

Mutat Res 2008 Jan 25;637(1-2):56-65. Epub 2007 Jul 25.

Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of North-Norway, N-9038, Tromsø, Norway.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection in developed countries and is responsible for a substantial fraction of sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI) in children. The risk of hearing impairment is associated with viral load in urine and blood collected during the first postnatal month. However, although inner ear abnormalities are observed in some children with HCMV-induced SNHI, the exact mechanism whereby congenital HCMV infection causes hearing impairment is unknown. Earlier studies using standard cytogenetic mapping techniques showed that infection of S-phase human fibroblast cells with HCMV resulted in two specific, site-directed, chromosome breaks at band positions 1q21 and 1q42 which include loci involved in dominantly and recessively inherited hearing impairment, respectively. These findings suggested that cells infected with HCMV might provide a reservoir for genetic damage and, in a clinical perspective, a scenario could be envisioned whereby hearing impairment could result from early DNA damage of dividing fetal cells rather than viral replication and cell lysis. In this work we demonstrate, using fine mapping techniques, that HCMV infection in S-phase fibroblast cells induces genetic damage at 1q23.3, within a maximal region of 37 kb, containing five low copy repeat (LCR) elements. The breakpoint is situated between two hearing impairment (HI) loci, DFNA49 and DFNA7, and in close proximity to the MPZ gene previously shown to be involved in autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (CMT1B) with auditory neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2007.07.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2259117PMC
January 2008

A novel missense mutation in ACTG1 causes dominant deafness in a Norwegian DFNA20/26 family, but ACTG1 mutations are not frequent among families with hereditary hearing impairment.

Eur J Hum Genet 2006 Oct 14;14(10):1097-105. Epub 2006 Jun 14.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genomics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The gamma-actin gene (ACTG1) encodes a major cytoskeletal protein of the sensory hair cells of the cochlea. Recently, mutations in ACTG1 were found to cause autosomal dominant, progressive, sensorineural hearing impairment linked to the DFNA20/26 locus on chromosome 17q25.3 in four American families and in one Dutch family. We report here the linkage of autosomal dominant, progressive, sensorineural hearing impairment in a large Norwegian family to the DFNA20/26 locus. Sequencing of ACTG1 identified a novel missense mutation (c.1109T>C; p.V370A) segregating with the hearing loss. Functional analysis in yeast showed that the p.V370A mutation restricts cell growth at elevated temperature or under hyperosmolar stress. Molecular modelling suggested that the p.V370A mutation modestly alters a site for protein-protein interaction in gamma-actin and thereby modestly alters gamma-actin-based cytoskeletal structures. Nineteen Norwegian and Danish families with autosomal, dominant hearing impairment were analyzed for mutations in ACTG1 by sequencing, but no disease-associated mutations were identified. Finally, a long-term follow-up of the hearing loss progression associated with the p.V370A mutation in ACTG1 is provided. The present study expands our understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship of this deafness gene and provides a sensitive and simple functional assay for missense mutations in this gene, which may assist future molecular diagnosis of autosomal-dominant hearing impairment. Finally, the present results do not indicate that mutations in ACTG1 are a frequent cause of autosomal-dominant postlingual sensorineural hearing impairment in Norway nor Denmark.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201670DOI Listing
October 2006

Genome-wide homozygosity mapping localizes a gene for autosomal recessive non-progressive infantile ataxia to 20q11-q13.

Hum Genet 2003 Aug 17;113(3):293-5. Epub 2003 Jun 17.

Department of Audiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, DK-2400, Copenhagen NV, Denmark.

Autosomal recessive ataxias represent genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Unsteady gait is often accompanied by poor coordination of limbs, speech, and eye movements. To date, seven genes have been identified. In addition, five chromosomal loci have been localized in non-related families. Here, we report homozygosity mapping of a novel locus to a 19.5-cM region on chromosome 20q11-q13 in a large inbred Norwegian family with infantile non-progressive ataxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-003-0967-8DOI Listing
August 2003
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