Publications by authors named "Tore H Johansen"

2 Publications

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Conformational structure of gaseous 3-chloropropanoyl chloride by electron diffraction, normal coordinate analysis, and ab initio molecular orbital, and density functional theory calculations.

J Phys Chem A 2006 Sep;110(38):11136-44

Department of the Applied Sciences, Narvik University College, N-8505 Narvik, Norway.

The molecular and conformational structures of 3-chloropropanoyl chloride (CH(2)Cl-CH(2)-C(=O)Cl) have been studied by using gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) data obtained at 22 degrees C (295 K) and ab initio molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations up to the levels of MP4(SDQ) and B3LYP using larger basis sets. Normal coordinate calculations (NCA) taking into account nonlinear vibrational effects were also used in the analyses. The title compound may have up to four low-energy conformers in the gas phase, labeled according to the position of each of the two chlorine atoms in relation to the CCC propanoyl backbone, labeling the carbonyl chlorine torsion angle first: AA, AG, GG, and GA; where A is anti (ideal C-C-C-Cl torsion angle of approximately 180 degrees) and G is gauche (ideal C-C-C-Cl torsion angle of approximately 60 degrees). It has been judged from the experimental GED data and the theoretical calculations, as well as from previously published infrared (IR) studies on the molecule in both the liquid phase and in argon-trapped matrices at 10 K, that the gas phase consists of a mixture of at least three conformers: AA (most stable), AG, and GG, with the possibility of a smaller contribution (<10%) from the higher-energy GA form. The GA conformer cannot be ruled out by the GED experimental data. Relevant structural parameter values obtained from the GED least-squares refinements, with calculated ab initio MO MP2/6-31+G(2d,p) values used as constraints, were as follows (AA values with estimated 2sigma uncertainties): Bond lengths (r(h1)): r(C-C(=O)) = 1.505(4) A, r(C-CH(2)Cl) = 1.520(4) A, r(C=O) = 1.197(4) A, r(C(=O)-Cl) = 1.789(3) A, and r(C-Cl) = 1.782(3) A. Bond angles (angle(h1)): angle CCC = 111.5(11) degrees , angle CCO = 127.0(5) degrees, angle CC(O)Cl = 112.5(3) degrees, and angle CCCl = 110.3(3) degrees. Torsion angles (phi(C-C) = phi(ClCCC)): for AA, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 180 degrees (assumed for true C(s) symmetry); for AG, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = -140(5) degrees, phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 76(13) degrees; for GG, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = 46(8) degrees, phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 77(14) degrees; for GA, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = 67.9 degrees (assumed), phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 177.8 degrees (assumed). The non-AA conformers all have chiral C(1) symmetry with twice the statistical weight (multiplicity) of C(s). The MP2/6-31+G(2d,p) calculated composition (%) based on the zero-point energy (ZPE) corrected energy differences, and the statistical weights for conformers: AA/AG/GG/GA = 28/35/28/9 was assumed in the final GED refinement. The more recent literature concerning the title molecule, as well as for several related molecules, has been examined and a survey has been attempted in the present article. The new experimental results for 3-chloropropanoyl chloride are discussed and compared with the previously published findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp064187dDOI Listing
September 2006

1,2-Dibromoethyl-trichlorosilane (CH2BrCHBrSiCl3): conformational structure and vibrational properties by gas-phase electron diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and ab initio molecular orbital and density functional theory calculations.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2005 May;61(7):1307-19

Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Hoegskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

The molecular structure and conformational properties of 1,2-dibromoethyl-trichlorosilane (CH2BrCHBrSiCl3) have been investigated using gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) data recorded at a temperature of 100 degrees C, together with ab initio molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy in the liquid and solid phases, and normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The molecule exists in the gas- and liquid phases as a mixture of three conformers, gauche(-) [G(-)], with a refined torsion angle phi(BrCCBr)=-71(6) degrees, anti [A], with a torsion angle phi(BrCCBr) approximately -170 degrees , and gauche(+) [G(+)], with a torsion angle phi(BrCCBr) approximately +70 degrees . The second torsion angle of importance, the rotation about the CSi bond, has been refined to a value of +175(13) degrees . Torsion angles were only refined for the more abundant G(-) conformer. In the solid phase, only the G(-) conformer was observed. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra have provided an estimate of the relative conformational entropies, DeltaS. The obtained composition from GED refinements was (%) G(-)/A/G(+)=64(27)/23(13)/13(18) (values with estimated 2sigma uncertainties), giving a conformational stability order in agreement with both the Raman enthalpy measurements and the ab initio MO and DFT calculations using the 6-311G(d) basis set and scaled zero-point energies. Relevant structural parameter values obtained from the GED refinements (with the ab initio HF values used as constraints) were as follows (G(-) values with estimated 2sigma uncertainties): bond lengths (r(g)):r(C-C)=1.501(18)A, r(SiC)=1.865(15)A, r(CBr)=1.965(8)A (average), r(SiCl)=2.028(3)A (average). Bond angles ( anglealpha):angleCCSi=114.1(33) degrees , angleC1C2Br=114.0(21) degrees , angleCSiCl=109.6(7) degrees (average). Experimental IR/Raman and obtained vibrational wavenumbers based on both the unscaled, fixed-scaled as well as the scale-refined quantum-mechanical force fields [HF/6-311G(d)] are presented. The results are discussed and compared with some similar molecules from the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2004.08.003DOI Listing
May 2005
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