Publications by authors named "Torbjørn Rundmo"

10 Publications

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Risk perception, worry, and pedestrian behaviour in the Norwegian population.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Dec 3;133:105294. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pedestrians' risk perception and worry, and how worry influence pedestrians' behaviour. Worry is regarded as a feeling that emerges as a result of an individual's cognitive assessment of risk. The study was based on a questionnaire survey carried out among a representative sample (n = 2000) of the Norwegian population. The results showed differences in how people perceived risk and how worried they were about being exposed to different hazards (traffic accident, harassment, theft, and terror) as a pedestrian during night-time and daytime. As expected, pedestrians perceived their risk as higher and were more worried being exposed to hazards during night-time than in daytime. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that risk perception was a significant predictor variable for worry during both night-time and daytime. Additionally, worry was found to influence pedestrian behaviour. Worry was moderately associated with walking frequency during night-time, and how often individuals walked alone outdoors during night-time. These associations were stronger for people without access to a private car. No associations were found between worry and walking frequency during daytime. The results of the study contribute to the understanding of the association between pedestrians' risk perceptions and worry, and how worry influence walking frequency. From both a pro-environmental and a health promoting perspective, it is important that people choose to walk or cycle for their daily travels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.105294DOI Listing
December 2019

Seasonal variation in risk perception and travel behaviour among cyclists in a Norwegian urban area.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Mar 7;124:40-49. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.

The main purpose of the article is to examine the association between risk perception and cyclists' decision as to whether to cycle during the different seasons of the year. The study on which the article is based included worry as a feeling that emerges as a result of an individual's cognitive assessment of risk, attitudes toward traffic rules, risk tolerance and safety priority. The study was based on a questionnaire survey carried out among cyclists from Trondheim Municipality in Norway (n = 291) during spring 2017. The results revealed seasonal differences in perceived risk and that risk perception was an important predictor of both the decision as to whether to cycle and the frequency of cycling during wintertime. The same results were not found for cycling during the other seasons of the year. Additionally, an association was found between risk perception and worry. The respondents were more worried when cycling in winter conditions compared with cycling in summer conditions, and worry was a strong predictor of travel mode behaviour. The authors found that when the respondents' perception of risk was very low, they were not worried and hence their behaviour was not affected. Perceived risk and worry were only associated with cycling behaviour during wintertime. These findings may be used as a guide in measures implemented to increase the number of cyclists during winter and in communications to the public about the risks linked to cycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.12.021DOI Listing
March 2019

Associations between work family conflict, emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal pain, and gastrointestinal problems in a sample of business travelers.

Scand J Psychol 2015 Feb 3;56(1):105-13. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

The aim of the study was to examine the associations among work-family conflict (WFC), emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal (MS) pain, and gastrointestinal problems on a sample of business travelers (n = 2,093). An additional aim was to examine differences in the mentioned relationships among three traveler groups: commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. The study was conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company, and the company's business travel database was utilized to examine business travel. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed significant relations between WFC and emotional exhaustion and between emotional exhaustion and health problems. Contrary to the expectations, no direct association was found between WFC and health problems. However, we found that emotional exhaustion mediated the relation between WFC and health outcomes. The results from multi-group analysis revealed that associations among WFC, emotional exhaustion, and health-outcomes showed a similar pattern for commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. However, the association between emotional exhaustion and MS pain proved to be significantly stronger for the commuter group compared to the national and international travel groups. Practical implications and the consequences of these findings for future research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12177DOI Listing
February 2015

Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

Accid Anal Prev 2014 Nov 15;72:391-400. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

NTNU Samfunnsforskning, Studio Apertura, Dragvoll Allé 38 B, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Psychology, Dragvoll, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.

There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.028DOI Listing
November 2014

Culture related to road traffic safety: a comparison of eight countries using two conceptualizations of culture.

Accid Anal Prev 2014 Jan 25;62:319-28. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Gediz University, Department of Psychology, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western cultural orientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.10.018DOI Listing
January 2014

Road traffic safety beliefs and driver behaviors among personality subtypes of drivers in the Norwegian population.

Traffic Inj Prev 2013 ;14(7):690-6

Gediz University, Department of Psychology, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To identify personality clusters of drivers in a population-based sample and to examine differences in safety beliefs, driver behaviors, and demographics between these clusters.

Methods: A mailed self-completion questionnaire survey was conducted in a random sample of Norwegian drivers obtained from the Norwegian Population Registry (n = 1731).

Results: Cluster analysis reflected 4 personality subtypes of drivers. The first cluster consisted of drivers with low normlessness and sensation seeking but high anxiety. The second cluster reported elevated scores on all 3 measured traits, whereas the third cluster had low scores on all traits. The fourth cluster reported low anxiety but high normlessness and sensation seeking. People in the latter cluster reported unsafe road traffic safety beliefs and driver behaviors. These individuals were also more likely to be males and adolescents. People with low normlessness and sensation seeking coupled with high anxiety reported the safest beliefs and behaviors, and this cluster mainly contained females and older individuals.

Conclusions: Countermeasures aimed to reduce the frequency of road traffic accidents should be targeted to specific personality risk groups. Personality traits may also be used in early identification and intervention among risky drivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2012.759655DOI Listing
January 2014

Transport mode preferences, risk perception and worry in a Norwegian urban population.

Accid Anal Prev 2013 Jan 12;50:698-704. Epub 2012 Jul 12.

SINTEF, Transport Research, Trondheim, Norway.

The main aim of the present study was to compare risk perception among Norwegians (n=512) living in the region of Oslo. This study was part of an ERANET 13 project entitled PETRIS, Perception of transport risk in France and Norway. The data collection was carried out in January 2011. The response rate was 51 percent. The results showed that respondents, divided in two groups according to their transport mode preferences, assessed differently risk perception in public and private transportation. Respondents who preferred collective transportation assessed the probability of experiencing criminality in collective transport modes as higher than those who preferred private modes. They were also more worried of experiencing accidents, criminality, and terror attacks in collective transportation. The relationship between transport mode preferences and use, risk perception and worry are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.06.020DOI Listing
January 2013

Interrelations between patients' personal life events, psychosocial distress, and substance use.

Subst Use Misuse 2010 Jun;45(7-8):1161-79

Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Central Norway, Stjørdalen, Norway.

This study investigated interrelations between life events, psychosocial distress, self-efficacy, and substance use among patients manifesting substance use disorders. Gender differences in these interrelations were also explored. Patients (N = 352) were recruited during 2008 and 2009 from 16 Norwegian facilities. These patients completed a questionnaire with validated measurement instruments. Interrelations were investigated by SEM analysis. The results suggested that negative life events facilitated substance use and psychological distress. Positive life events were associated with self-efficacy, but weakly related to substance use. The results supported the notion that males are more prone to use substances when faced upon negative life events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826080903567863DOI Listing
June 2010

Attitudes towards traffic safety, driving behaviour and accident involvement among the Norwegian public.

Ergonomics 2004 Apr;47(5):555-72

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

The present study aims at identifying determinants of risk behaviour and accident involvement in traffic. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey carried out among a representative sample of Norwegian drivers drawn from the driver's licence register. The data was collected in year 2000 and 2001 (n=2614). The questionnaire included measures of attitudes, risk behaviour and involvement in accidents and near accidents. The results showed that attitudes towards traffic safety issues influenced involvement in risk behaviour in traffic, especially attitudes towards rule violations and speeding. Risk behaviour had an effect on involvement in near accidents and accidents. Variations in attitudes and risk behaviour were related to age and gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140130410001658709DOI Listing
April 2004

Risk-taking attitudes among young drivers: the psychometric qualities and dimensionality of an instrument to measure young drivers' risk-taking attitudes.

Scand J Psychol 2002 Jul;43(3):227-37

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

Adolescents are proportionately more frequently involved in traffic accidents than are other age groups. A strategy for promoting road safety is to change the attitudes likely to influence driving behavior. However, the lack of valid and reliable instruments to measure risk-taking attitudes makes it difficult to evaluate the effects of measures aimed at changing attitudes among young drivers and their passengers. The present study tested the psychometric qualities of a scale intended to measure adolescents' risk-taking attitudes to driving. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey carried out among 3,942 adolescents and young adults, aged 16-23 years, in Norway in 1998/1999. Using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, 11 dimensions of risk-taking attitudes were identified. Parametric as well as nonparametric methods were applied to test the homogeneity of items within each attitude dimension. The reliability and validity of the dimensions were satisfactory. The attitude dimensions were significantly correlated with self-reported driving behavior, as well as accident frequency. The application of the new measurement instrument in studies aimed at evaluating safety campaigns is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9450.00291DOI Listing
July 2002
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