Publications by authors named "Tony Worthington"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Revised Understanding of Clostridioides difficile Spore Germination.

Trends Microbiol 2020 09 23;28(9):744-752. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Aston University, School of Life and Health Sciences, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

The dormant resistant spores of Clostridioides difficile are transformed into metabolically active cells through the process of germination. Spore germination in C. difficile is regulated by the detection of bile salt germinants and amino acid cogerminants by pseudoproteases CspC and CspA, respectively. The germinant signal is transduced to the serine protease CspB, which processes the cortex lytic enzyme SleC, leading to degradation of the spore cortex peptidoglycan and subsequent reactivation of the spore. Divergent C. difficile germination models have been proposed to explain interactions between key regulators and transduction of germinant and cogerminant signals. This review summarises advances in understanding C. difficile germination and outlines current models of germination regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2020.03.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells adhere to and inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 23;67(12):1789-1795. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

1​University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ, UK.

We have cultured and phenotyped human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (AT MSCs) and inoculated these cultures with bacteria common to infected skin wounds, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whilst bacterial growth was measured by colony forming unit (c.f.u.) and biofilm assays. AT MSCs appeared to attach to the bacteria and to engulf S. aureus. Significantly fewer bacterial c.f.u. were present in AT MSC : bacterial co-cultures compared with bacteria cultured alone. Antibacterial activity, including an inhibition of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, was observed when bacteria were treated with conditioned medium harvested from the AT MSC :  bacterial co-cultures, irrespective of the bacterial species to which the AT MSCs had been exposed to previously. Hence, we have demonstrated that AT MSCs inhibit the growth of two common bacterial species. This was associated with bacterial adhesion, potential engulfment or phagocytosis, and the secretion of antibacterial factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000861DOI Listing
December 2018

The 'Antibiotic Apocalypse' - Scaremongering or Scientific Reporting?

Trends Microbiol 2017 03 23;25(3):167-169. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Antimicrobial resistance is dominating scientific media. We are warned of an impending 'antibiotic apocalypse', where mankind faces its biggest threat, untreatable microbes. However, the world is not ending. Scientists are responding to the threat; new knowledge and chemotherapeutics are being created to safeguard our future. The future is bright, not gloomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.016DOI Listing
March 2017

The influence of pH and fluid dynamics on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass.

Biomed Mater 2016 Feb 2;11(1):015006. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

School of Life & Health Science and Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, University of Aston, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the potential antibacterial properties that bioactive glasses may possess. However, there have been several conflicting reports on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass(®). Various mechanisms regarding its mode of action have been proposed, such as changes in the environmental pH, increased osmotic pressure, and 'needle-like' sharp glass debris which could potentially damage prokaryotic cell walls and thus inactivate bacteria. In this current study, a systematic investigation was undertaken on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass(®) on Escherichia coli NCTC 10538 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCO 6538 under a range of clinically relevant scenarios including varying Bioglass(®) concentration, direct and indirect contact between Bioglass(®) and microorganisms, static and shaking incubation conditions, elevated and neutralised pH environments. The results demonstrated that, under elevated pH conditions, Bioglass(®) particles have no antibacterial effect on S. aureus while a concentration dependent antibacterial effect against E. coli was observed. However, the antibacterial activity ceased when the pH of the media was neutralised. The results of this current study, therefore, suggest that the mechanism of antibacterial activity of Bioglass(®) is associated with changes in the environmental pH; an environment that is less likely to occur in vivo due to buffering of the system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-6041/11/1/015006DOI Listing
February 2016

Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations.

Biomed Res Int 2013 28;2013:530382. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

The School of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Coventry University, CV1 5FB, UK.

The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods, 52% of the isolates were type II (50% of culture-positive patients), while type IA strains accounted for 28% of isolates (42% patients). Type III (11% isolates; 21% patients) and type IB strains (9% isolates; 17% patients) were detected less frequently. The MIC values for all isolates were lowest for amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin (≤1 mg/L). The MIC for fusidic acid was 1-2 mg/L. The MIC for trimethoprim and gentamicin was 2 to ≥4  mg/L. The demonstration that type II and III strains, which are not frequently recovered from skin, predominated within our isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/530382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771251PMC
June 2014

Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

Eur Spine J 2013 Apr 10;22(4):690-6. Epub 2013 Feb 10.

Research Department, Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Hospital Lillebaelt, Middelfart, Institute of Regional Health Services Research, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Science Network, Ostre Houghvej 55, 5550, Middelfart, Denmark.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of infected herniated nucleus material in lumbar disc herniations and to determine if patients with an anaerobic infected disc are more likely to develop Modic change (MC) (bone oedema) in the adjacent vertebrae after the disc herniation. MCs (bone oedema) in vertebrae are observed in 6 % of the general population and in 35-40 % of people with low back pain. These changes are strongly associated with low back pain. There are probably a mechanical cause and an infective cause that causes MC. Several studies on nuclear tissue from herniated discs have demonstrated the presence of low virulent anaerobic microorganisms, predominantly Propionibacterium acnes, in 7-53 % of patients. At the time of a herniation these low virulent anaerobic bacteria may enter the disc and give rise to an insidious infection. Local inflammation in the adjacent bone may be a secondary effect due to cytokine and propionic acid production.

Methods: Patients undergoing primary surgery at a single spinal level for lumbar disc herniation with an MRI-confirmed lumbar disc herniation, where the annular fibres were penetrated by visible nuclear tissue, had the nucleus material removed. Stringent antiseptic sterile protocols were followed.

Results: Sixty-one patients were included, mean age 46.4 years (SD 9.7), 27 % female. All patients were immunocompetent. No patient had received a previous epidural steroid injection or undergone previous back surgery. In total, microbiological cultures were positive in 28 (46 %) patients. Anaerobic cultures were positive in 26 (43 %) patients, and of these 4 (7 %) had dual microbial infections, containing both one aerobic and one anaerobic culture. No tissue specimens had more than two types of bacteria identified. Two (3 %) cultures only had aerobic bacteria isolated. In the discs with a nucleus with anaerobic bacteria, 80 % developed new MC in the vertebrae adjacent to the previous disc herniation. In contrast, none of those with aerobic bacteria and only 44 % of patients with negative cultures developed new MC. The association between an anaerobic culture and new MCs is highly statistically significant (P = 0.0038), with an odds ratio of 5.60 (95 % CI 1.51-21.95).

Conclusion: These findings support the theory that the occurrence of MCs Type 1 in the vertebrae adjacent to a previously herniated disc may be due to oedema surrounding an infected disc. The discs infected with anaerobic bacteria were more likely (P < 0.0038) to develop MCs in the adjacent vertebrae than those in which no bacteria were found or those in which aerobic bacteria were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-013-2674-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631023PMC
April 2013

Antimicrobial efficacy of a novel eucalyptus oil, chlorhexidine digluconate and isopropyl alcohol biocide formulation.

Int J Mol Sci 2012 Oct 30;13(11):14016-25. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Microbiology, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Effective surface disinfection is a fundamental infection control strategy within healthcare. This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of novel biocide formulations comprising 5% and 2% eucalyptus oil (EO) combined with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) contained within a wipe. The efficacy of this novel antimicrobial formulation to remove and eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Candida albicans from steel surfaces was investigated. Adpression studies of pre-contaminated wipes were also utilised to assess their potential to induce cross-contamination between hard surfaces. Furthermore, the bactericidal nature of the EO-formulation was established in addition to time-kill. The EO-containing formulations demonstrated bactericidal antimicrobial efficacy against all microorganisms and did not induce surface cross-contamination. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the 5% and 2% EO formulations in their ability to remove microorganisms from steel surfaces, however both significantly (p < 0.05) removed more than the control formulations. Microbial biofilms were eliminated within 10 min (p < 0.05) when exposed to the EO formulations. Our novel EO-formulation demonstrated rapid antimicrobial efficacy for potential disinfection and elimination of microbial biofilms from hard surfaces and may therefore be a useful adjunct to current infection control strategies currently employed within healthcare facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms131114016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509563PMC
October 2012

Reply to Weber and Rutala.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012 Jun;33(6):645-6

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/665719DOI Listing
June 2012

Preparation and characterization of amino acids-based trimethoprim salts.

Pharmaceutics 2012 Feb 16;4(1):179-96. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Aston Pharmacy School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Trimethoprim (TMP) is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor which prevents the conversion of dihydrofolic acid into tetrahydrofolic acid, resulting in the depletion of the latter and leading to bacterial death. Oral bioavailability of TMP is hindered by both its low solubility and low permeability. This study aims to prepare novel salts of TMP using anionic amino acids; aspartic and glutamic acid as counter ions in order to improve solubility and dissolution. TMP salts were prepared by lyophilisation and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both the amino acids formed salts with TMP in a 1:1 molar ratio and showed a 280 fold improvement in solubility. Investigation of the microbiological activity of the prepared salts against TMP sensitive Escherichia coli showed that the new salts not only retained antibacterial activity but also exhibited higher zone of inhibition which was attributed to improved physicochemical characters such as higher solubility and dissolution. The results are an important finding that could potentially impact on faster onset of antibacterial activity and reduced therapeutic dose when administered to patients. Studies are underway investigating the effect of ion-pairing TMP with amino acids on the permeability profile of the drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics4010179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3834905PMC
February 2012

Genetic characterization of clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile using an optimized RAPD protocol and PCR ribotyping reveals strain diversity between two tertiary referral Trusts in the West Midlands, UK.

J Med Microbiol 2011 Sep 21;60(Pt 9):1287-1291. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Aston University, School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Epidemiological investigations of Clostridium difficile often focus on differences between separate geographical areas. In this investigation, two populations of C. difficile recovered from separate tertiary referral Trusts within the West Midlands, UK, were characterized using both PCR ribotyping and an optimized RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) protocol. The PCR ribotyping and RAPD methodologies identified differences between the two C. difficile populations, in both the prevalence and the diversity of types identified. The use of PCR ribotyping in conjunction with RAPD further categorized different types within defined PCR ribotypes, identifying different types within the same PCR ribotype and therefore providing a greater discriminatory power than either of the methods when used alone. The differences observed in this study between the two Trusts in the distribution of both RAPD 'type' and PCR ribotype demonstrate the diversity that is present amongst isolates of C. difficile within a relatively small geographical area and warrants a need for further investigation into the local epidemiology of C. difficile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.030999-0DOI Listing
September 2011

Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil.

BMC Infect Dis 2010 Sep 22;10:278. Epub 2010 Sep 22.

Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic.

Method: Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min.

Conclusion: The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2955684PMC
September 2010

Thiosemicarbazones active against Clostridium difficile.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008 Mar 18;18(5):1708-11. Epub 2008 Jan 18.

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

A set of closely related furylidene thiosemicarbazones was prepared and screened against various clinically important Gram-positive bacteria. One compound containing an ethylene spacer and a 5-nitrofuryl group was found to have promising activity against Clostridium difficile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.01.041DOI Listing
March 2008

Evaluation of routine microbiological techniques for establishing the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci.

J Med Microbiol 2007 Feb;56(Pt 2):172-176

Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK.

Microbiological diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) is often based on isolation of indistinguishable micro-organisms from an explanted catheter tip and blood culture, confirmed by antibiograms. Whether phenotypic identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) allows an accurate diagnosis of CR-BSI to be established was evaluated. Eight patients with a diagnosis of CR-BSI had CoNS isolated from pure blood cultures and explanted catheter tips which were considered as indistinguishable strains by routine microbiological methods. For each patient, an additional three colonies of CoNS isolated from the blood and five from the catheter tip were subcultured and further characterized by antibiogram profiles, analytical profile index (API) biotyping and PFGE. PFGE distinguished more strains of CoNS compared to API biotyping or antibiograms (17, 10 and 11, respectively). By PFGE, indistinguishable micro-organisms were only isolated from pure blood and catheter tip cultures in four out of eight (50%) patients thus supporting the diagnosis of CR-BSI. In another patient, indistinguishable micro-organisms were identified in both cultures; however, other strains of CoNS were also present. The remaining three patients had multiple strains of CoNS, none of which were indistinguishable in the tip and blood cultures, thus questioning the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Phenotypic characterization of CoNS lacked discriminatory power. Current routine methods of characterizing a limited number of pooled colonies may generate misleading results as multiple strains may be present in the cultures. Multiple colonies should be studied using a rapid genotypic characterization method to confirm or refute the diagnosis of CR-BSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.46568-0DOI Listing
February 2007

Diagnosis of central venous catheter related infection in adult patients.

J Infect 2005 Nov 19;51(4):267-80. Epub 2005 Aug 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Intravascular catheters are one of the main causes of bacteraemia and septicaemia in hospitalised patients and continue to be associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Two main types of infections occur, they can be either localised at the catheter insertion site of systemic with a septicaemia. The clinical parameters related to these infections are presented. The laboratory diagnosis of these infections is also extensively reviewed and recommendations are made as to the most appropriate diagnostic method to be used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2005.06.007DOI Listing
November 2005

Description and critical appraisal of principal components analysis (PCA) methodology applied to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

J Microbiol Methods 2006 Apr 1;65(1):87-95. Epub 2005 Aug 1.

Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Principal components analysis (PCA) has been described for over 50 years; however, it is rarely applied to the analysis of epidemiological data. In this study PCA was critically appraised in its ability to reveal relationships between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in comparison to the more commonly employed cluster analysis and representation by dendrograms. The PFGE type following SmaI chromosomal digest was determined for 44 multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MR-HA-MRSA) isolates, two multidrug-resistant community-acquired MRSA (MR-CA-MRSA), 50 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates (from the University Hospital Birmingham, NHS Trust, UK) and 34 community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates (from general practitioners in Birmingham, UK). Strain relatedness was determined using Dice band-matching with UPGMA clustering and PCA. The results indicated that PCA revealed relationships between MRSA strains, which were more strongly correlated with known epidemiology, most likely because, unlike cluster analysis, PCA does not have the constraint of generating a hierarchic classification. In addition, PCA provides the opportunity for further analysis to identify key polymorphic bands within complex genotypic profiles, which is not always possible with dendrograms. Here we provide a detailed description of a PCA method for the analysis of PFGE profiles to complement further the epidemiological study of infectious disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2005.06.017DOI Listing
April 2006

Molecular analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus reveals an absence of plasmid DNA in multidrug-resistant isolates.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2005 Jun;44(3):297-302

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

The number, diversity and restriction enzyme fragmentation patterns of plasmids harboured by 44 multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MR-HA-MRSA) isolates, two multidrug-resistant community-acquired MRSA (MR-CA-MRSA), 50 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates (from the University Hospital Birmingham, NHS Trust, UK) and 34 community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates (from general practitioners in Birmingham, UK) were compared. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type following SmaI chromosomal digest and SCCmec element type assignment were ascertained for each isolate. All MR-HA-MRSA and MR-CA-MRSA isolates possessed the type II SCCmec, harboured no plasmid DNA and belonged to one of five PFGE types. Forty-three out of 50 HA-MRSA isolates and all 34 CA-MRSA isolates possessed the type IV SCCmec and all but 10 of the type IV HA-MRSA isolates and nine CA-MRSA isolates carried one or two plasmids. The 19 non-multidrug-resistant isolates (NMR) that did not harbour plasmids were only resistant to methicillin whereas all the NMR isolates harbouring at least one plasmid were resistant to at least one additional antibiotic. We conclude that although plasmid carriage plays an important role in antibiotic resistance, especially in NMR-HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, the multidrug resistance phenotype from HA-MRSA is not associated with increased plasmid carriage and indeed is characterised by an absence of plasmid DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.12.014DOI Listing
June 2005

Induction of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in J774.2 cells and murine macrophages by lipoteichoic acid and related cell wall antigens from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

J Med Microbiol 2005 Apr;54(Pt 4):315-321

Molecular Biosciences Research Group, Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospital Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK.

Staphylococcus epidermidis causes infections associated with medical devices including central venous catheters, orthopaedic prosthetic joints and artificial heart valves. This coagulase-negative staphylococcus produces a conventional cellular lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and also releases a short-glycerophosphate-chain-length form of LTA (previously termed lipid S) into the medium during growth. The relative pro-inflammatory activities of cellular and short-chain-length exocellular LTA were investigated in comparison with peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid from S. epidermidis and LPS from Escherichia coli O111. The ability of these components to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] and nitric oxide was investigated in a murine macrophage-like cell line (J774.2), and in peritoneal and splenic macrophages. On a weight-for-weight basis the short-chain-length exocellular LTA was the most active of the S. epidermidis products, stimulating significant amounts of each of the inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide, although it was approximately 100-fold less active than LPS from E. coli. By comparison the full-chain-length cellular LTA and peptidoglycan were less active and the wall teichoic acid had no activity. As an exocellular product potentially released from S. epidermidis biofilms, the short-chain-length exocellular LTA may act as the prime mediator of the host inflammatory response to device-related infection by this organism and act as the Gram-positive equivalent of LPS in Gram-negative sepsis. The understanding of the role of short-chain-length exocellular LTA in Gram-positive sepsis may lead to improved treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.45872-0DOI Listing
April 2005

Analysis of clinical isolates of Propionibacterium acnes by optimised RAPD.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2003 Nov;228(1):51-5

Microbiology Research, Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was evaluated as a genotypic method for typing clinical strains of Propionibacterium acnes. RAPD can suffer from problems of reproducibility if parameters are not standardised. In this study the reaction conditions were optimised by adjusting template DNA concentration and buffer constituents. All isolates were typeable using the optimised RAPD protocol which was found to be highly discriminatory (Simpson's diversity index, 0.98) and reproducible. Typing of P. acnes by optimised RAPD is an invaluable tool for the epidemiological investigation of P. acnes for which no other widely accepted method currently exists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(03)00720-1DOI Listing
November 2003