Publications by authors named "Tongtong Wang"

133 Publications

The BMP antagonist gremlin 1 contributes to the development of cortical excitatory neurons, motor balance and fear responses.

Development 2021 Jul 12;148(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for early forebrain development and cortical formation. How the endogenous modulators of BMP signaling regulate the structural and functional maturation of the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that expression of the BMP antagonist Grem1 marks committed layer V and VI glutamatergic neurons in the embryonic mouse brain. Lineage tracing of Grem1-expressing cells in the embryonic brain was examined by administration of tamoxifen to pregnant Grem1creERT; Rosa26LSLTdtomato mice at 13.5 days post coitum (dpc), followed by collection of embryos later in gestation. In addition, at 14.5 dpc, bulk mRNA-seq analysis of differentially expressed transcripts between FACS-sorted Grem1-positive and -negative cells was performed. We also generated Emx1-cre-mediated Grem1 conditional knockout mice (Emx1-Cre;Grem1flox/flox) in which the Grem1 gene was deleted specifically in the dorsal telencephalon. Grem1Emx1cKO animals had reduced cortical thickness, especially layers V and VI, and impaired motor balance and fear sensitivity compared with littermate controls. This study has revealed new roles for Grem1 in the structural and functional maturation of the developing cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.195883DOI Listing
July 2021

MiR-29ab1 Cluster Resists Muscle Atrophy Through Inhibiting MuRF1.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

The State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Skeletal muscle has great plasticity. An increase in protein degradation can cause muscle atrophy. Atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) are dramatically upregulated in various muscle atrophy. Inhibition of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 protects against muscle atrophy. MiR-29 plays an important regulatory role in skeletal muscle development. However, the function of miR-29 in skeletal muscle protein metabolism is not clear. To investigate the function of miR-29, we generated miR-29 knockout mice and the miR-29ab1 cluster overexpression mice. The disruption of miR-29 led to severe atrophy of skeletal muscle during puberty, and the muscle-specific overexpression of the miR-29ab1 cluster protected against denervation-induced and fasting-induced muscle atrophy. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-29a, b mimics in myotubes resisted the muscle atrophy. MuRF1 was the direct target gene of miR-29a, b. These results demonstrate that miR-29ab1 cluster plays a critical role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle. MiR-29ab1 cluster is the excellent inhibitor of MuRF1, ultimately indicating that miR-29ab1 cluster is good therapeutic molecule candidate for adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2021.0267DOI Listing
July 2021

Structural basis for sterol sensing by Scap and Insig.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(13):109299

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. Electronic address:

The sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway monitors the cellular cholesterol level through sterol-regulated association between the SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) and the insulin-induced gene (Insig). Despite structural determination of the Scap and Insig-2 complex bound to 25-hydroxycholesterol, the luminal domains of Scap remain unresolved. In this study, combining cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) analysis and artificial intelligence-facilitated structural prediction, we report the structure of the human Scap/Insig-2 complex purified in digitonin. The luminal domain loop 1 and a co-folded segment in loop 7 of Scap resemble those of the luminal/extracellular domain in NPC1 and related proteins, providing clues to the cholesterol-regulated interaction of loop 1 and loop 7. An additional luminal interface is observed between Scap and Insig. We also show that Scap(D428A), which inhibits SREBP activation even under sterol depletion, exhibits an identical conformation with the wild-type protein when complexed with Insig-2, and its constitutive suppression of the SREBP pathway may also involve a later step in protein trafficking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109299DOI Listing
June 2021

The BMP antagonist gremlin 1 contributes to the development of cortical excitatory neurons, motor balance and fear responses.

Development 2021 Jul 12;148(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for early forebrain development and cortical formation. How the endogenous modulators of BMP signaling regulate the structural and functional maturation of the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that expression of the BMP antagonist Grem1 marks committed layer V and VI glutamatergic neurons in the embryonic mouse brain. Lineage tracing of Grem1-expressing cells in the embryonic brain was examined by administration of tamoxifen to pregnant Grem1creERT; Rosa26LSLTdtomato mice at 13.5 days post coitum (dpc), followed by collection of embryos later in gestation. In addition, at 14.5 dpc, bulk mRNA-seq analysis of differentially expressed transcripts between FACS-sorted Grem1-positive and -negative cells was performed. We also generated Emx1-cre-mediated Grem1 conditional knockout mice (Emx1-Cre;Grem1flox/flox) in which the Grem1 gene was deleted specifically in the dorsal telencephalon. Grem1Emx1cKO animals had reduced cortical thickness, especially layers V and VI, and impaired motor balance and fear sensitivity compared with littermate controls. This study has revealed new roles for Grem1 in the structural and functional maturation of the developing cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.195883DOI Listing
July 2021

The real-time investigation of the nickel-iron hydroxide catalyzed oxygen evolution reaction with interdigitated array electrodes.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 24;32(37). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Interdisciplinary Research Center of Smart Sensing, Xidian University, Shaanxi, 710126, People's Republic of China.

Electrocatalysis of oxygen evolution reaction (OER), one of the most important members in clean and efficient energy conversion, requires increasing studies on reaction process analysis, catalyst investigation and evaluation and so on throughexperiments. The bottleneck is the difficulties on clear and precise understanding towards the multi-step reactions with fast reaction rates. Interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with sensitive responses on the generation, transfer and collection of reaction products are proposed and utilized as a convenient and effective tool tomonitor and characterize the reaction thermodynamics and kinetics information. Herein, nickel-iron hydroxide, a promising and novel OER catalyst, is chosen as the candidate to demonstrate the merit of IDA on studying the OER. With the generator-collector mode, the real-time oxygen evolution process is monitored precisely with the IDA collector, distinguished it from the general catalytic current which is normally recorded with conventional electrochemical method. In another word, the actual faradaic efficiency was observed experimentally with IDA electrodes, which is often misled as 100% in many works. The diffusion of the reaction products has been 'seen' as well with the generator-collector mode. This general tool (IDA) may make more contributions on the study of reaction process of all electrocatalytical reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0a14DOI Listing
June 2021

Single-cell transcriptomic analysis reveals a hepatic stellate cell-activation roadmap and myofibroblast origin during liver fibrosis.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and portal fibroblasts (PFs) are the major sources of collagen-producing myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis, depending on different etiologies. However, the mechanisms by which their dynamic gene expression directs the transition from the quiescent to the activated state-as well as their contributions to fibrotic myofibroblasts-remain unclear. Here, we analyze the activation of HSCs and PFs in CCL - and bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced fibrosis mouse models, using single-cell RNA-sequencing and lineage tracing. We demonstrate that HSCs, rather than PFs, undergo dramatic transcriptomic changes, with the sequential activation of inflammatory, migrative, and ECM-producing programs. The data also reveal that HSCs are the exclusive source of myofibroblasts in CCL -treated liver, while PFs are the major source of myofibroblasts in early cholestatic liver fibrosis. Single-cell and lineage-tracing analysis also uncovers differential gene expression features between HSCs and PFs; for example, nitric oxide (NO) receptor soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is exclusively expressed in HSCs, but not in PFs. The sGC stimulator Riociguat potently reduced liver fibrosis in CCL -treated livers but showed no therapeutic efficacy in BDL livers. This study provides a transcriptional roadmap for the activation of HSCs during liver fibrosis and yields comprehensive evidence that the differential transcriptomic features of HSCs and PFs, along with their relative contributions to liver fibrosis of different etiologies, should be considered in developing effective anti-fibrotic therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31987DOI Listing
June 2021

[Retracted] miR-126 inhibits papillary thyroid carcinoma growth by targeting LRP6.

Oncol Rep 2021 Jul 3;46(1). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Nanguan, Changchun, Jilin 13033, P.R. China.

Following the publication of this paper, it was drawn to the Editors' attention by a concerned reader that certain of the western blotting data shown in Figs. 4C, 5B and 6D were strikingly similar to data appearing in different form in other articles by different authors. Owing to the fact that the contentious data in the above article were already under consideration for publication, or had already been published, elsewhere prior to its submission to , the Editor has decided that this paper should be retracted from the Journal. After having been in contact with the authors, they agreed with the decision to retract the paper. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in 34: 2202‑2210, 2015; DOI: 10.3892/or.2015.4165].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185516PMC
July 2021

Facile Synthesis of Cyanide and Isocyanides from CO.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 24;60(31):16965-16969. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S3H6, Canada.

The reaction of K[N(SiMe ) ] with CO proceeds in C D or THF affording K CN and O(SiMe ) under mild conditions as confirmed by crystallographic characterization of K(18-crown-6)CN. Similarly reaction of the alkali metal amides, M[N(SiR )R'] (M=Li, K; R=Ph, Me; R'=alkyl, aryl) provides the corresponding C labeled isocyanide RN C and MOSiR , generally in high yields. In some instances, the use of the sterically bulky Ph Si-substituent is required to preclude 1,2-silyl migration affording the silylcarbamoyl salt M[Me SiC(O)NR']. These reactions have been used to obtain 19 examples of C labelled isocyanides, and several examples of gram scale reactions are reported. The mechanism of the reactions is probed via reliable DFT calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105909DOI Listing
July 2021

Recyclable and Magnetically Functionalized Metal-Organic Framework Catalyst: IL/[email protected] for the Cycloaddition Reaction of CO with Epoxides.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 9;13(19):22836-22844. Epub 2021 May 9.

School of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, P.R. China.

A recyclable and magnetic nanocomposite catalyst (IL/[email protected]) was synthesized via grafting ionic liquid (IL) [AEMIm]BF into magnetically functionalized metal-organic framework [email protected] in a water-ethanol media. The properties of IL/[email protected] were fully characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, density-functional theory, and a magnetic property measurement system. IL/[email protected] showed high activity in the solvent-free cycloaddition of CO with epoxides under mild conditions. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture, and the recycled catalyst maintained high performance for several cycles. The synergistic effect of the Lewis acid and base sites in IL/[email protected] contributes to its greater reactivity than individual IL or HKUST-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03345DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Significance of Abnormalities in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma.

Turk J Haematol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Hematology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To identify the clinical significance of and common cytogenetic abnormalities.

Material And Methods: 114 patients with newly diagnosed MM and 3 abnormalities were selected from two large patient cohorts of collaborating hospitals from 2010 to 2017. The characteristics and outcomes of these patients were analyzed. and other common mutations in MM patients were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Kaplan-Meier curves and Log-rank test were applied for survival analysis. Cox proportional hazard model for covariate analysis was used to determine the prognostic factors.

Results: By extensive data analysis, we find amplification is a strong positive predictor for complete response (CR) to therapy and positively correlated with patient survival. The number of simultaneous genomic abnormalities with mutation has a modest impact on patient survival. Within these mutations, 1q21 amplification is associated with decreased CR (OR=4.209) and FGFR3 levels are positively correlated with patient progression-free and overall survival.

Conclusion: abnormalities at the diagnosis of MM are of great clinical significance in predicting patient response to therapy and survival. Further, 1q21 and FGFR3 mutations could potentially be used in combination with status, to better predict patient survival and guide for selecting high-risk patients to advance patient treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjh.galenos.2021.2021.0064DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of Fluorofenidone Against Paraquat-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis Based on Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 1;27:e930166. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital Affiliated with Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) is an anti-fibrotic small-molecule compound. Its mechanism of action on paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary fibrosis is still unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-eight SD rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, PQ group, PQ+AKF-PD group, and AKF-PD group. The pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by Masson and HE staining. The UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis was performed to detect the differences in metabolites among groups, then the possible mechanisms of the anti-pulmonary fibrosis effects of fluorofenidone were further revealed by network pharmacology analysis. Biological methods were used to verify the results of the network pharmacology analysis. RESULTS The results showed that fluorofenidone treatment significantly alleviated paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Metabolomics analysis showed that 18 metabolites were disordered in the serum of paraquat-poisoned rats, of which 13 were restored following fluorofenidone treatment. Network pharmacology analysis showed that the drug screened a total of 12 targets and mainly involved multiple signaling pathways and metabolic pathways to jointly exert anti-pulmonary fibrosis effects. Autophagy is the main pathway of fluorofenidone in treatment pulmonary fibrosis. The western blot results showed that fluorofenidone upregulated the expression of LC3-II/I and E-cadherin, and downregulated the expression of p62, alpha-SMA, and TGF-ß1, which validated that fluorofenidone could inhibit the development of paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by increasing autophagy. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, metabolomics combined with network pharmacology research strategy revealed that fluorofenidone has a multi-target and multi-path mechanism of action in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023277PMC
April 2021

Fluorofenidone attenuates paraquat‑induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and autophagy.

Mol Med Rep 2021 06 31;23(6). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital Affiliated with Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410005, P.R. China.

Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide that is severely toxic to humans and animals. Pulmonary fibrosis is a disorder that can result from PQ poisoning. Fluorofenidone (AKF‑PD) is a novel small molecule pyridone drug with a widespread and clear anti‑organ fibrosis effect; however, its mechanism of action on PQ poisoning‑induced pulmonary fibrosis is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of AKF‑PD on PQ poisoning‑induced pulmonary fibrosis. Human alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiC) and Sprague‑Dawley rats were treated with AKF‑PD in the presence or absence of PQ. Hematoxylin‑eosin and Masson staining were used to observe the morphological changes in lung tissue. Cell Counting Kit‑8 and lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to evaluate the viability of HPAEpiC cells. ELISA was used to detect inflammatory factors and the collagen content. Finally, the effects of AKF‑PD on pulmonary fibrosis, as well as the underlying mechanisms, were evaluated via western blotting, reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. AKF‑PD effectively alleviated PQ‑induced pulmonary fibrosis and reduced the expression of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Moreover, AKF‑PD treatment effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and upregulated autophagy. Overall, these findings suggested that AKF‑PD can alleviate PQ‑induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and by upregulating autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025463PMC
June 2021

Delineating proinflammatory microenvironmental signals by ex vivo modeling of the immature intestinal stroma.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 30;11(1):7200. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

The intestinal stroma provides an important microenvironment for immune cell activation. The perturbation of this tightly regulated process can lead to excessive inflammation. We know that upregulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the intestinal epithelium plays a key role in the inflammatory condition of preterm infants, such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, the surrounding stromal contribution to excessive inflammation in the pre-term setting awaits careful dissection. Ex vivo co-culture of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) or adult murine intestinal stromal cells with exogenous monocytes was undertaken. We also performed mRNAseq analysis of embryonic and adult stromal cells treated with vehicle control or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), followed by pathway and network analyses of differentially regulated transcripts. Cell characteristics were compared using flow cytometry and pHrodo red phagocytic stain, candidate gene analysis was performed via siRNA knockdown and gene expression measured by qPCR and ELISA. Embryonic stromal cells promote the differentiation of co-cultured monocytes to CD11bCD11c mononuclear phagocytes, that in turn express decreased levels of CD103. Global mRNAseq analysis of stromal cells following LPS stimulation identified TLR signaling components as the most differentially expressed transcripts in the immature compared to adult setting. We show that CD14 expressed by CD11bCD45 embryonic stromal cells is a key inducer of TLR mediated inflammatory cytokine production and phagocytic activity of monocyte derived cells. We utilise transcriptomic analyses and functional ex vivo modelling to improve our understanding of unique molecular cues provided by the immature intestinal stroma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86675-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010037PMC
March 2021

Enhanced ammonium removal on biochar from a new forestry waste by ultrasonic activation: Characteristics, mechanisms and evaluation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 8;778:146295. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China; Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The adsorption treatment of ammonium-containing wastewater has attracted significant global attention. Most enhanced adsorption methods employ chemical modification, and there are few reports on physical activation. We present a physical activation to explore whether physical ultrasound may enhance the adsorption performance and comprehensive utilisation of a new forestry waste, Caragana korshinskii was used as a feedstock to prepare activated biochar (ACB) by controlling the pyrolysis temperatures and ultrasound parameters. The optimal parameters were determined via batch adsorption of NH, and the adsorption characteristics were assessed by 8 kinds of models and influence experiments. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of ACB during the pyrolysis process were investigated, and the ultrasonic activation and adsorption mechanisms were discussed using multiple characterisation techniques. Additionally, the cost analysis, the safety of the ultrasonic process and disposal method also were evaluated. The results showed that the ultrasonic activation significantly enhanced the NH adsorption efficiency of biochar by approximately 5 times. ACB exhibited the best performance at 500 °C with an ultrasonic activation time of 480 min, frequency of 45 kHz, and power of 700 W. The ultrasonic activation reduced the biochar ash and induced pore formation, which increased the specific surface area through cavitation corrosion and micro-acoustic flow mechanism. The NH adsorption mechanisms comprised physicochemical processes, of which physical adsorption was dominant. The preparation cost of 1 kg ACB was about 0.42 US dollar, and no secondary pollution occurred in the activation process. The findings prove that ultrasonic technology is efficient and convenient for enhancing biochar adsorption performance, and thus is suitable for industrial applications and promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146295DOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation and Characterization of TiO₂ Nanowires Modified Organically with Coupling Agents.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 09;21(9):4870-4876

School of Chemical Engineering, Xuzhou Institute of Technology, Xuzhou 221111, China.

Anatase-type one-dimensional TiO₂ nanowire was prepared by hydrothermal method. The nanowires were modified by three kinds of silane coupling agents, such as KH550, KH560 and KH570. Flocculation was caused when the amount of modifier reached a certain level. When KH570 was used at 3.0 percent, at 80 °C, 4 h, and pH value between 9 and 10, modified nanowires had the highest 56.5 percent lipophilization degree, the lowest 0.562 per/nm² surface hydroxyl number, and the maximal 121.2° static contact angle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19152DOI Listing
September 2021

Stromal DLK1 promotes proliferation and inhibits differentiation of the intestinal epithelium during development.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 04 20;320(4):G506-G520. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

The stem/progenitor cells of the developing intestine are biologically distinct from their adult counterparts. Here, we examine the microenvironmental cues that regulate the embryonic stem/progenitor population, focusing on the role of Notch pathway factor delta-like protein-1 (DLK1). mRNA-seq analyses of intestinal mesenchymal cells (IMCs) collected from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) or adult IMCs and a novel coculture system with E14.5 intestinal epithelial organoids were used. Following addition of recombinant DLK1 (rDLK) or siRNA (), epithelial characteristics were compared using imaging, replating efficiency assays, qPCR, and immunocytochemistry. The intestinal phenotypes of littermate and mice were compared using immunohistochemistry. Using transcriptomic analyses, we identified morphogens derived from the embryonic mesenchyme that potentially regulate the developing epithelial cells, to focus on Notch family candidate DLK1. Immunohistochemistry indicated that DLK1 was expressed exclusively in the intestinal stroma at E14.5 at the top of emerging villi, decreased after birth, and shifted to the intestinal epithelium in adulthood. In coculture experiments, addition of rDLK1 to adult IMCs inhibited organoid differentiation, whereas knockdown in embryonic IMCs increased epithelial differentiation to secretory lineage cells. mice had restricted Ki67 cells in the villi base and increased secretory lineage cells compared with embryos. Mesenchyme-derived DLK1 plays an important role in the promotion of epithelial stem/precursor expansion and prevention of differentiation to secretory lineages in the developing intestine. Using a novel coculture system, transcriptomics, and transgenic mice, we investigated differential molecular signaling between the intestinal epithelium and mesenchyme during development and in the adult. We show that the Notch pathway factor delta-like protein-1 (DLK1) is stromally produced during development and uncover a new role for DLK1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem/precursor expansion and differentiation to secretory lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00445.2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Optimized Conductivity and Spin States in N-Doped LaCoO for Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 5;13(2):2447-2454. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China.

The spin state of antibonding orbital (e) occupancy in LaCoO is recognized as a descriptor for its oxygen electrocatalysis. However, the Co(III) cation in typical LaCoO (LCO) favors low spin state, which is mediocre for absorbing oxygen-containing groups involved in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), thus hindering its further development in electrocatalysis. Herein, both experimental and theoretical results reveal the enhancement of bifunctional electrocatalytic activity in LaCoO by N doping. More specifically, electron energy loss spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference devices magnetic analysis demonstrate that the Co(III) cation in N-doped LaCoO (LCON) achieves a moderate e occupancy (≈1) compared with its low spin state in LaCO. First-principle calculation results reveal that N dopants play a bifunctional role of tuning the spin-state transition of Co(III) cations and increasing the electrical conductivity of LCO. Thus, the optimized LCON exhibits an OER overpotential of 1.69 V at the current density of 50 mA/cm (1.94 V for pristine LCO) and yields an ORR limiting current density of 5.78 mA/cm (4.01 mA/cm for pristine LCO), which offers a new strategy to simultaneously modulate the magnetic and electronic structures of LCO to further enhance its electrocatalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c16150DOI Listing
January 2021

The anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effect of Brucea javanica oil in ascitic tumor-bearing mice: The detection of brusatol and its role.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 16;134:111122. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Brucea javanica oil (BJO), one of the main products of Brucea javanica, has been widely used in treating different kinds of malignant tumors. Quassinoids are the major category of anticancer phytochemicals of B. javanica. However, current researches on the anti-cancer effect of BJO mainly focused on oleic acid and linoleic acid, the common major components of dietary edible oils, essential and characteristic components of B. javanica like quassinoids potentially involved remained unexplored. In the current investigation, we developed an efficient HPLC method to detect brusatol, a characteristic quassinoid, and comparatively scrutinized the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (anti-HCC) effect of BJO, brusatol-free BJO (BF-BJO), and brusatol-enriched BJO (BE-BJO) against hepatoma 22 (H22) in mice. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to identify the components in BJO. BE-BJO was extracted with 95 % ethanol. The anti-tumor effect of BJO, BF-BJO and BE-BJO was comparatively investigated, and the potential underlying mechanism was explored in H22 ascites tumor-bearing mice. The results indicated that BJO and BE-BJO significantly prolonged the survival time of H22 ascites tumor-bearing mice, while BF-BJO exhibited no obvious effect. BJO and BE-BJO exhibited pronounced anti-HCC activity by suppressing the growth of implanted hepatoma H22 in mice, including ascending weight, abdominal circumference, ascites volume and cancer cell viability, with a relatively wide margin of safety. BJO and BE-BJO significantly induced H22 cell apoptosis by upregulating the miRNA-29b gene level and p53 expression. Furthermore, BJO and BE-BJO treatment substantially downregulated Bcl-2 and mitochondrial Cytochrome C protein expression, and upregulated expression levels of Bax, Bad, cytosol Cytochrome C, caspase-3 (cleaved), caspase‑9 (cleaved), PARP and PARP (cleaved) to induce H22 cells apoptosis. Brusatol was detected in BJO and found to be one of its major active anti-HCC components, rather than fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid. The anti-HCC effect of BJO and BE-BJO was intimately associated with the activation of miRNA-29b, p53-associated apoptosis and mitochondrial-related pathways. Our study gained novel insight into the material basis of BJO in the treatment of HCC, and laid a foundation for a novel specific standard for the quality evaluation of BJO and its commercial products in terms of its anti-cancer application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111122DOI Listing
February 2021

Utilization of Jujube Biomass to Prepare Biochar by Pyrolysis and Activation: Characterization, Adsorption Characteristics, and Mechanisms for Nitrogen.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 8;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan 430012, China.

The rapid advancement of jujube industry has produced a large amount of jujube biomass waste, requiring the development of new methods for utilization of jujube resources. Herein, medium-temperature pyrolysis is employed to produce carbon materials from jujube waste in an oxygen-free environment. Ten types of jujube biochar (JB) are prepared by modifying different pyrolysis parameters, followed by physical activation. The physicochemical properties of JB are systematically characterized, and the adsorption characteristics of JB for NO and NH are evaluated via batch adsorption experiments. Furthermore, the pyrolysis and adsorption mechanisms are discussed. The results indicate that the C content, pH, and specific surface area of JB increase with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature from 300 °C to 700 °C, whereas the O and N contents, yield, zeta potential, and total functional groups of JB decrease gradually. The pyrolysis temperature more significantly effects the biochar properties than pyrolysis time. JB affords the highest adsorption capacity for NO (21.17 mg·g) and NH (30.57 mg·g) at 600 °C in 2 h. The Langmuir and pseudo-second-order models suitably describe the isothermal and kinetic adsorption processes, respectively. The NO and NH adsorption mechanisms of JB may include surface adsorption, intraparticle diffusion, electrostatic interaction, and ion exchange. In addition, π-π interaction and surface complexation may also be involved in NH adsorption. The pyrolysis mechanism comprises the combination of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin decomposition involving three stages. This study is expected to provide a theoretical and practical basis for the efficient utilization of jujube biomass to develop eco-friendly biochar and nitrogenous wastewater pollution prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13245594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764758PMC
December 2020

Tunable ferromagnetic ordering in phosphorus adsorbed ReS nanosheets.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb;32(7):075701

Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, People's Republic of China.

Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are considered as promising materials for electronic, optoelectronic and spintronic devices due to their outstanding properties. Herein, based on rhenium disulfide (ReS) nanosheets, we realized the intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism with the adsorption of P adatoms (P-ReS). Experiments indicate that the saturation magnetization (M ) can be tuned by the P ratios, where the maximum M can reach up to 0.0174 emu g. Besides, density functional theory (DFT) calculation results demonstrate that the strong hybridization between Re d and P p orbitals is the main reason of inducing ferromagnetism in P-ReS system. This work provides a novel method to engineer the magnetism of TMDs, endowing them with the possibility of spintronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abb62aDOI Listing
February 2021

The Balance of Stromal BMP Signaling Mediated by GREM1 and ISLR Drives Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

Gastroenterology 2021 Mar 14;160(4):1224-1239.e30. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background & Aims: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), key constituents of the tumor microenvironment, either promote or restrain tumor growth. Attempts to therapeutically target CAFs have been hampered by our incomplete understanding of these functionally heterogeneous cells. Key growth factors in the intestinal epithelial niche, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), also play a critical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, the crucial proteins regulating stromal BMP balance and the potential application of BMP signaling to manage CRC remain largely unexplored.

Methods: Using human CRC RNA expression data, we identified CAF-specific factors involved in BMP signaling, then verified and characterized their expression in the CRC stroma by in situ hybridization. CRC tumoroids and a mouse model of CRC hepatic metastasis were used to test approaches to modify BMP signaling and treat CRC.

Results: We identified Grem1 and Islr as CAF-specific genes involved in BMP signaling. Functionally, GREM1 and ISLR acted to inhibit and promote BMP signaling, respectively. Grem1 and Islr marked distinct fibroblast subpopulations and were differentially regulated by transforming growth factor β and FOXL1, providing an underlying mechanism to explain fibroblast biological dichotomy. In patients with CRC, high GREM1 and ISLR expression levels were associated with poor and favorable survival, respectively. A GREM1-neutralizing antibody or fibroblast Islr overexpression reduced CRC tumoroid growth and promoted Lgr5 intestinal stem cell differentiation. Finally, adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8)-mediated delivery of Islr to hepatocytes increased BMP signaling and improved survival in our mouse model of hepatic metastasis.

Conclusions: Stromal BMP signaling predicts and modifies CRC progression and survival, and it can be therapeutically targeted by novel AAV-directed gene delivery to the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.11.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of Pb and Cd by a new agricultural waste-Caragana korshinskii biomass derived biochar.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 16;28(11):13800-13818. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

In order to explore the comprehensive utilisation and recycling technology of Caragana korshinskii resources, a new agricultural biomass waste, 15 kinds of Caragana korshinskii biochar (CB) were prepared by controlling the pyrolysis temperature and time at the anaerobic environment. Moreover, we pay more attention to deriving the adsorption mechanisms and exploring the difference in adsorption characteristics of Pb and Cd. The optimal preparation conditions and the batch adsorption experiments were evaluated, and the adsorption characteristics and mechanisms were discussed using 8 theoretical adsorption models and multiple characterisation methods. The results showed that the CB prepared at 650 °C for 3 h presented the best performance. The Langmuir and Freundlich models can well simulate the isotherm adsorption process of CB for Pb and Cd, respectively. The adsorption kinetics of CB for Pb and Cd were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium for Pb and Cd was reached within 3 h, and their maximum adsorption capacity reached 220.94 mg g and 42.43 mg g, respectively. In addition, the best addition amount was 3 g L and 2.2 g L for Pb and Cd, respectively. The optimum pH range was 3-6 for Pb and 6-7.5 for Cd. The adsorption mechanisms of CB for Pb and Cd were physicochemical composite adsorption processes, mainly including physical sorption on surface sites, intraparticle diffusion, electrostatic adsorption, ion/ligand exchange, cationic-π interactions, surface complexation and precipitation. Furthermore, the ash of CB also presented a positive effect on the adsorption of Pb. Compared with other cellulose- and lignin-based biomass materials, CB showed low cost and efficient performance without complicated modification conditions. Therefore, this study demonstrates that CB is a promising raw material in water pollution control to immobilise heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11571-9DOI Listing
March 2021

The cellular basis of distinct thirst modalities.

Nature 2020 12 14;588(7836):112-117. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Fluid intake is an essential innate behaviour that is mainly caused by two distinct types of thirst. Increased blood osmolality induces osmotic thirst that drives animals to consume pure water. Conversely, the loss of body fluid induces hypovolaemic thirst, in which animals seek both water and minerals (salts) to recover blood volume. Circumventricular organs in the lamina terminalis are critical sites for sensing both types of thirst-inducing stimulus. However, how different thirst modalities are encoded in the brain remains unknown. Here we employed stimulus-to-cell-type mapping using single-cell RNA sequencing to identify the cellular substrates that underlie distinct types of thirst. These studies revealed diverse types of excitatory and inhibitory neuron in each circumventricular organ structure. We show that unique combinations of these neuron types are activated under osmotic and hypovolaemic stresses. These results elucidate the cellular logic that underlies distinct thirst modalities. Furthermore, optogenetic gain of function in thirst-modality-specific cell types recapitulated water-specific and non-specific fluid appetite caused by the two distinct dipsogenic stimuli. Together, these results show that thirst is a multimodal physiological state, and that different thirst states are mediated by specific neuron types in the mammalian brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2821-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718410PMC
December 2020

TEOA Inhibits Proliferation and Induces DNA Damage of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Cells Through Activation of the ROS-Dependent p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2020 4;11:554736. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Phase I Clinical Research Center, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of lymphoma, accounting for approximately 30% to 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). The administration of rituximab significantly improved the outcomes of DLBCL; however, the unavoidable development of resistance limits the long-term efficacy. Therefore, a new generation of less toxic drugs with higher chemotherapy response is required to prevent or reverse chemoresistance. TEOA is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound isolated from the roots of . Studies have confirmed that TEOA has significant cytotoxicity on gastrointestinal cancer cells. However, there are no relevant reports on DLBCL cells. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEOA in DLBCL cells. The results demonstrated that TEOA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in time-and dose-dependent manners. TEOA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was reversed by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). TEOA induced DNA damage, increased the level of γ-H2AX, and the phosphorylation of CHK1 and CHK2. In addition, TEOA induced the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway and pretreated with p38 inhibitor SB20358 or ROS scavenger could block TEOA-induced DNA damage. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS mediated activation of the p38 MAPK signal pathway plays an important role in initiating TEOA-induced DNA damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.554736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500465PMC
September 2020

Gambogic acid inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human acute T‑cell leukemia cells by inducing autophagy and downregulating β‑catenin signaling pathway: Mechanisms underlying the effect of Gambogic acid on T‑ALL cells.

Oncol Rep 2020 Oct 11;44(4):1747-1757. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of General Practice, Wangjiangshan Institute, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014, P.R. China.

The main active compound of Garcinia hanburyi (referred to as gamboge) is gambogic acid (GA), which has long been a Chinese herbal medicine for treating several types of cancer. However, the potential therapeutic role and mechanisms of GA in T‑cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T‑ALL) remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of GA on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy in T‑ALL cell lines were investigated. The possible mechanisms underlying GA activity were also examined. The results showed that GA inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and activated autophagy in T‑ALL cell lines (Jurkat and Molt‑4 cells). Findings confirmed that GA has an antileukemia effect against peripheral blood lymphocyte cells in patients with ALL. GA inhibited phospho‑GSK3β S9 (p‑GSK3β S9) protein levels to inactivate Wnt signaling and suppress β‑catenin protein levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of GA on T‑ALL was reversed by overexpression of β‑catenin. Thus, GA can inhibit the growth and survival of T‑ALL cells. GA also had antileukemic activity, at least in part, through the downregulation of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7726DOI Listing
October 2020

Antarctic Krill Derived Nonapeptide as an Effective Iron-Binding Ligand for Facilitating Iron Absorption via the Small Intestine.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Oct 24;68(40):11290-11300. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, P. R. China.

A novel nonapeptide DTDSEEEIR identified from Antarctic krill () iron-binding peptides was used in this study to analyze its iron-binding sites and structural changes after iron coordination. The enzymatic resistance and transport of DTDSEEEIR-iron during gastrointestinal digestion and absorption as well as the relationship between the DTDSEEEIR stability and the enhancement of iron absorption were further explored. Results revealed that iron ions spontaneously bound to the carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amino groups of the DTDSEEEIR peptide, which induced the folding of DTDSEEEIR to form a more orderly structure. The DTDSEEEIR peptide remained stable to a certain extent (79.60 ± 0.19%) after gastrointestinal digestion and the coordination of iron improved the digestive stability of the DTDSEEEIR peptide (93.89 ± 1.37%). Moreover, the stability of DTDSEEEIR across intestinal epithelium had a positive effect on iron absorption, which implied that DTDSEEEIR might carry iron ions through intestinal epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03223DOI Listing
October 2020

The AT1 receptor autoantibody causes hypoglycemia in fetal rats via promoting the STT3A-GLUT1-glucose uptake axis in liver.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 12 29;518:111022. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Metabolic Disorder Related Cardiovascular Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Remodeling-related Cardiovascular Diseases, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

Blood glucose is of great importance to development and metabolic homeostasis in fetuses. Stimulation of harmful factors during gestation induces pathoglycemia. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA), a newly discovered gestational harmful factor, has been shown to induce intrauterine growth restriction in fetuses and glucose disorders in adults. However, whether and how AT1-AA influences the blood glucose level of fetuses during gestation is not yet clear. The purpose of the current study was to observe the fetal blood glucose level of AT1-AA-positive pregnant rats during late pregnancy and to determine the roles that hepatic glucose transporters play in this process. We established AT1-AA-positive pregnant rats by injecting AT1-AA into the caudal veins of rats in the 2nd trimester of gestation. Although the fetal blood glucose level in the 3rd trimester of gestation decreased, hepatic glucose uptake increased detected. Through separating membrane and cytosolic proteins, we demonstrated that both the expression and membrane transport ratio of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is responsible for glucose transport in fetal hepatocytes, were upregulated, accompanied by increased expression of N-glycosyltransferase STT3A, which contributes to the N-glycosylation of GLUT1. In vitro, we identified that AT1-AA increased glucose uptake, the expression and membrane transport ratio of GLUT1 and the expression of STT3A in HepG2 cell lines via separating membrane and cytosolic proteins and immunofluorescence, resulting in the decreased glucose content in the medium. The GLUT1 inhibitor WZB117 reversed the decreases in glucose content in the medium, the increases in glucose uptake, the increases in the expression and membrane transport ratio of GLUT1 caused by AT1-AA. The N-glycosyltransferase inhibitor NGI as well as si-STT3A reversed the AT1-AA-induced upregulation of the STT3A-GLUT1-glucose uptake effect. This study demonstrates that AT1-AA lowers the blood glucose level of fetuses via the STT3A-GLUT1-glucose uptake axis in liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2020.111022DOI Listing
December 2020

The Eco-Friendly Biochar and Valuable Bio-Oil from : Pyrolysis Preparation, Characterization, and Adsorption Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jul 31;13(15). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Carbonization of biomass can prepare carbon materials with excellent properties. In order to explore the comprehensive utilization and recycling of biomass, 15 kinds of biochar (CB) were prepared by controlling the oxygen-limited pyrolysis process. Moreover, we pay attention to the dynamic changes of microstructure of CB and the by-products. The physicochemical properties of CB were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), BET-specific surface area (BET-SSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimal preparation technology was evaluated by batch adsorption application experiment of NO, and the pyrolysis mechanism was explored. The results showed that the pyrolysis temperature is the most important factor in the properties of CB. With the increase of temperature, the content of C, pH, mesoporous structure, BET-SSA of CB increased, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) decreased and then increased, but the yield and the content of O and N decreased. The CEC, pH, and BET-SSA of CB under each pyrolysis process were 16.64-81.4 cmol·kg, 6.65-8.99, and 13.52-133.49 m·g, respectively. CB contains abundant functional groups and mesoporous structure. As the pyrolysis temperature and time increases, the bond valence structure of C 1s, Ca 2p, and O 1s is more stable, and the phase structure of CaCO is more obvious, where the aromaticity increases, and the polarity decreases. The CB prepared at 650 °C for 3 h presented the best adsorption performance, and the maximum theoretical adsorption capacity for NO reached 120.65 mg·g. The Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order model can well describe the isothermal and kinetics adsorption process of NO, respectively. Compared with other cellulose and lignin-based biomass materials, CB showed efficient adsorption performance of NO without complicated modification condition. The by-products contain bio-soil and tail gas, which are potential source of liquid fuel and chemical raw materials. Especially, the bio-oil of CB contains α-d-glucopyranose, which can be used in medical tests and medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13153391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435931PMC
July 2020

Studies on nutritional intervention of rice starch- oleic acid complex (resistant starch type V) in rats fed by high-fat diet.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Oct 13;246:116637. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, China.

In this study, rice starch-oleic acid complex with well-controlled digestibility was chosen as a supplementary diet for rats fed with high fat diet. Our results demonstrated that rice starch-oleic acid complex supplementation significantly decreased body weight, improved serum lipid profiles, hepatic metabolism and altered the composition of gut microbiota of rats, which might be related to the higher resistant starch (RS) level. Interestingly, rice starch-oleic acid complex supplementation contributed to the proliferation and growth of butyrate-producing bacteria. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that the genus Turicibacter and Romboutsia genus were positively correlated to HDL-c and SOD level. Meanwhile, based on the metagenomic data, Bifidobacteria genus might be a main primary degrader after rice starch-oleic acid complex intake, which was associated with the changes of key starch-degradation enzymes. Overall, our results provided basic data for the rational design of rice starch-based foods with nutritional functions and physiological benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116637DOI Listing
October 2020

Diverse effects of rutin and quercetin on the pasting, rheological and structural properties of Tartary buckwheat starch.

Food Chem 2021 Jan 18;335:127556. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Institute of Food and Nutrition Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affaris, Haidian, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

We investigated the interactions of two main phenolics, rutin and quercetin, with starch, the primary component of Tartary buckwheat. The addition of rutin or quercetin significantly affected the structural and physicochemical properties of the starch, and rutin showed a stronger effect than quercetin, particularly at a dose of 6% (w/w). Rutin better enhanced the aggregation of starch pastes and gel formation than quercetin according to our pasting, rheological and thermal property analyses. A scanning electron microscopy analysis of its morphology showed that rutin was more easily dispersed in starchy matrix than quercetin and acted as rigid fillers for gels. The nuclear magnetic resonance results showed different binding sites due to the steric hindrance of the rutin disaccharide groups (rutinose). These findings provide fundamental information about applying rutin during the whole grain processing of Tartary buckwheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127556DOI Listing
January 2021
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