Publications by authors named "Tong Wu"

953 Publications

Cell-derived extracellular matrix materials for tissue engineering.

Tissue Eng Part B Rev 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Chinese PLA General Hospital, 104607, Institute of Orthopedics; Beijing Key Lab of Regenerative Medicine in Orthopedics; Key Lab of Musculoskeletal Trauma & War Injuries, Beijing, China.

The involvement of cell-derived extracellular matrix (CDM) in assembling tissue engineering scaffolds has yielded significant results. CDM possesses excellent characteristics, such as ideal cellular microenvironment mimicry and good biocompatibility, which make it a popular research direction in the field of bionanomaterials. CDM has significant advantages as an expansion culture substrate for stem cells, including stabilization of phenotype, reversal of senescence, and guidance of specific differentiation. In addition, the applications of CDM-assembled tissue engineering scaffolds for disease simulation and tissue organ repair are comprehensively summarized; the focus is mainly on bone and cartilage repair, skin defect or wound healing, engineered blood vessels, peripheral nerves, and periodontal tissue repair. We consider CDM a highly promising bionic biomaterial for tissue engineering applications and propose a vision for its comprehensive development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEB.2021.0147DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification of one novel epitope targeting p54 protein of African swine fever virus using monoclonal antibody and development of a capable ELISA.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Oct 7;141:19-25. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China. Electronic address:

African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most lethal viral diseases affecting both domestic pigs and wild boars. The acute infection of the ASF disease in domestic pigs leads to a 100% mortality rate with symptoms including high fever, vascular changes, cyanosis of the skin. Until now, there are no commercial vaccines and antiviral drugs available for ASF control. Therefore, the spread of ASF poses great economic losses to the pig industry and the ecosystems in the affected countries. A rapid and capable method was urgently needed to monitor ASFV-specific antibodies for controlling the spread of ASFV. In this study, we obtained one strain of monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the p54 protein of ASFV, and the target epitope of the mAb was determined to be YTHKDLENSL. The experimental results demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody could successfully recognize the exogenously expressed p54 protein and the chimeric virus constructed in our laboratory. The mAb could be used as a detection tool for the development of ASF vaccine strains. In addition, the ELISA established by using the obtained synthetic epitope peptide as the antigen had high sensitivity, good specificity and showed the great potential for ASF epidemic monitoring and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.10.008DOI Listing
October 2021

Association between functional physical capacity and cognitive performance under destabilizing walking conditions in older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Oct 9;155:111582. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Physical Therapy and Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, United States.

Background: Cognitive decline increases the risk of falls in older adults. Understanding the association between cognitive function, functional physical capacity, and falls may help identify targets for fall screening and intervention. This study examined (1) cognitive and functional physical capacity in community-dwelling older adults with and without a history of falls or the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism (Val/Met), and (2) the association between their cognitive and functional physical capacity, focusing on the cognitive performance during dual-task, challenging walking conditions.

Methods: Twenty-nine healthy, community-dwelling older adults attended two testing sessions for (1) functional assessments of physical capacity and global cognitive status, and (2) performing four cognitive tasks (visual and auditory Stroop tasks, Clock task, and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) during standing and while walking on the treadmill with and without medio-lateral treadmill platform sways.

Results: Participants with a fall history had reduced functional reach distance whereas individuals with Val/Met had reduced functional gait assessment (FGA) score compared to their controls. In addition, participants with a fall history or Val/Met showed reduced Clock task performance under dual-task conditions. Among all cognitive tasks, visual-Stroop performance, especially during the perturbed walking conditions, was significantly correlated with more physical capacity items. The performance of the other three cognitive tasks provided complementary information on those items not correlated with visual-Stroop performance.

Conclusions: Clock task performance can distinguish fallers from non-fallers as well as older adults with and without the BDNF gene polymorphism. Administering different types of cognitive tasks and under more challenging walking conditions can better reveal the association between cognitive and functional physical capacity in older adults. Fall screening and prevention intervention should integrate cognitive tasks into the functional physical capacity assessment and training regime, and progress to a more challenging condition such as introducing gait or balance perturbations during the assessment or training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111582DOI Listing
October 2021

Super-Assembled Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Frameworks for Real-Time Hypoxia-Triggered Drug Release and Monitoring.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P. R. China.

Hypoxia, induced by inadequate oxygen supply, is a key indication of various major illnesses, which necessitates the need to develop new nanoprobes capable of sensing hypoxia environments for the targeted system monitoring and drug delivery. Herein, we report a hypoxia-responsive, periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanocarrier for repairing hypoxia damage. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) capped azobenzene functionalization on the PMO surface could be effectively cleaved by azoreductase under a hypoxia environment. Moreover, the nanosystem is equipped with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair (tetrastyrene derivative (TPE) covalently attached to the PMO framework as the donor and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the mesopores as the receptor) for intracellular visualization and tracking of drug release in real-time. The design of intelligent nanocarriers capable of simultaneous reporting and treating of hypoxia conditions highlights a great potential in the biomedical domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c15067DOI Listing
October 2021

The Novel PRRSV Strain HBap4-2018 with a Unique Recombinant Pattern Is Highly Pathogenic to Piglets.

Virol Sin 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Swine Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, 200241, China.

Currently, various porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) variants emerged worldwide with different genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, increasing the difficulty of PRRS control. In this study, a PRRSV strain named HBap4-2018 was isolated from swine herds suffering severe respiratory disease with high morbidity in Hebei Province of China in 2018. The genome of HBap4-2018 is 15,003 nucleotides in length, and compared with NADC30-like PRRSV, nsp2 of HBap4-2018 has an additional continuous deletion of five amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome and ORF5 showed that HBap4-2018 belonged to lineage 8 of PRRSV-2, which was characterized by highly variable genome. However, HBap4-2018 was classified into lineage 1 based on phylogenetic analysis of nsp2, sharing higher amino acid homology (85.3%-85.5%) with NADC30-like PRRSV. Further analysis suggested that HBap4-2018 was a novel natural recombinant PRRSV with three recombinant fragments in the genome, of which highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) served as the major parental strains, while NADC30-like PRRSV served as the minor parental strains. Five recombination break points were identified in nsp2, nsp3, nsp5, nsp9 and ORF6, respectively, presenting a novel recombinant pattern in the genome. Piglets inoculated with HBap4-2018 presented typical clinical signs with a mortality rate of 60%. High levels of viremia and obvious macroscopic and histopathological lesions in the lungs were observed, revealing the high pathogenicity of HBap4-2018 in piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00453-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of Serum From Radiofrequency Ablation Patients Receiving General Anesthesia or Local Anesthesia on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cancer Cell Malignancy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:686294. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Whether anesthesia methods affect malignant biological behavior of cancer remains unresolved. In this study, we aim to compare the effects of general anesthesia (GA) and local anesthesia (LA) on serum collected from primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients presenting for radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

Methods: From August 2020 to December 2020, a prospective, randomized, and controlled study was conducted at Renji Hospital, which is affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. 25 qualified patients from 18 to 65 years of age undergoing RFA were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into two groups: the GA group ( = 14) and the LA group ( = 11). Venous blood was drawn from all patients preoperatively and 1 hour postoperatively. The serum collected was then used for the culturing of HepG2 cells. The malignant biological behaviors of HepG2 cells, including invasion, migration and proliferation, were observed after 24 hours of exposure to patients' serum. ELISA was used to compare expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and lymphokines (IFN-γ, IL-2) in patients' serum from both groups.

Results: HepG2 cells cultured with postoperative serum obtained from patients who received GA, but not LA, were associated with significantly increased cell invasion, migration and proliferation, compared to preoperative serum from the same patient group. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher, and lymphokines significantly lower in postoperative serum from GA patients compared to the corresponding preoperative serum.

Conclusion: GA affects the serum milieu of patients with HCC, promoting the malignant biological behavior of a human HCC cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.686294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495259PMC
September 2021

The impacts of urban structure on PM pollution depend on city size and location.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 6;292(Pt A):118302. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100085, China.

Many cities across the world face the challenge of severe fine particulate matter (PM) pollution. Among the many factors that affect PM pollution, there is an increasing interest in the impacts of urban structure. However, quantifying these impacts in China has been difficult due to differences of study area and scale in existing research, as well as limited sample sizes. Here, we conducted a continental study focusing on 301 prefectural cities in mainland China to investigate the effects of urban structure, including urban size and urban compactness, on PM concentrations. Based on PM raster and land cover data, we used quantile regression and a general multilinear model to estimate the effects and relative contributions of urban size and urban compactness on urban PM pollution, with explicit consideration for pollution level, urban size and geographical location. We found: (1) nationwide, the larger and more compact that cities were, the heavier the PM pollution tended to be. Additionally, this relationship became stronger with increasing levels of pollution. (2) In general, urban size played a more important role than urban form, and there were no significant interactive effects between the two metrics on urban PM concentrations at the national scale. (3) The impacts of urban size and form varied by city size and geographical location. The impacts of urban size were only significant for small or medium-large cities but not for large cities. Among large cities, only urban form had a significantly positive effect on urban PM concentrations. The further north and west that cities were, the more dependent PM pollution was on urban form, whereas the further south and east that cities were, the greater the impact of urban size. These results provide insights into how urban design and planning can be used to alleviate air pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118302DOI Listing
October 2021

Downregulation of MicroRNA-145-5p in Activated Microglial Exosomes Promotes Astrocyte Proliferation by Removal of Smad3 Inhibition.

Neurochem Res 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20th Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu, China.

In spinal cord injury, microglial activation plays an important role during the inflammatory process. Specifically, the cellular and molecular interactions between microglia and astrocytes are of critical importance. Cells can communicate with each other through the substances carried by exosomes, and overproliferated astrocytes would create a physical and chemical barrier that prevents neurite regeneration, thereby interfering with functional recovery. On the other hand, Smad3 is an important factor in the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of astrocytes. In this study, supernatant and purified exosomes were collected from LPS-treated microglia and co-cultured with astrocytes. The results showed that astrocytic proliferation was promoted with higher levels of Smad3. Furthermore, miRNA sequencing analysis was performed on microglial exosomes after inflammation. The results revealed a differential expression of miR-145-5p in the exosomes. The Dual-Luciferase assay showed that miR-145-5p could bind to Smad3 mRNA and regulate the levels of Smad3 protein at the post-transcriptional level. Subsequently, exosomes were transfected with miR-145-5p mimics, and astrocytes after mechanical injury were cultured with these exosomes for 24 h. The levels of Smad3 and phosphor-Smad3 proteins were analyzed by western blot and qRT-PCR. CCK8 and flow cytometry showed lower proliferation of astrocytes after co-culturing with the exosomes transfected with the miR-145-5p mimic. This study finds that miR-145-5p was found to be a negative regulator of astrocyte proliferation, and that its downregulation promotes smad3 activity and thus astrocyte proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03446-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Adjuvant therapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma: a meta-analysis.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Oct 7;16(1):196. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Retroperitoneal Tumor Surgery, Peking University International Hospital, 1ShengMingYuan Road, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.

Background: Adjuvant therapy is a promising treatment to improve the prognosis of cancer patients, however, the evidence base driving recommendations for adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) or chemotherapy (ACT) in retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) primarily hinges on observational data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy in the management of RPS patients.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, ASCO Abstracts, and Cochrane Library for comparative studies (until December 2020) of adjuvant therapy versus surgery alone. Data on the following endpoints were evaluated: overall survival (OS), local recurrence (LR), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS). Data were summarized as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Risk of bias of studies was assessed with Begg's and Egger's tests.

Results: A total of 15 trials were eligible, including 9281 adjuvant therapy and 21,583 surgery alone cases (20 studies for OS, six studies for RFS, two studies for LR, and two studies for MFS). Meta-analysis showed that ART was associated with distinct advantages as compared to surgery alone, including a longer OS (HR = 0.80, P < 0.0001), a longer RFS (HR = 0.61, P = 0.0002), and a lower LR (HR = 0.31, P = 0.005). However, this meta-analysis failed to demonstrate a benefit of ACT for RPS patients, including OS (HR = 1.11, P = 0.19), RFS (HR = 1.30, P = 0.09) and MFS (HR = 0.69, P = 0.09). In the sensitivity analysis, ACT was associated with a worse OS (HR = 1.19, P = 0.0002). No evidence of publication bias was observed.

Conclusions: Overall, the quality of the evidence was moderate for most outcomes. The evidence supports that ART achieved a generally better outcome as compared to surgery alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01774-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496039PMC
October 2021

PABPC4 Broadly Inhibits Coronavirus Replication by Degrading Nucleocapsid Protein through Selective Autophagy.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Oct 6:e0090821. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, and, as of yet, none of the currently available broad-spectrum drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. Host antiviral proteins play an important role in inhibiting viral proliferation. One of the isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), PABPC4, is an RNA-processing protein, which plays an important role in promoting gene expression by enhancing translation and mRNA stability. However, its function in viruses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the host protein, PABPC4, could be regulated by transcription factor SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs, covering four genera (, , , and ) of the family by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. PABPC4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. Ubiquitinated N protein was recognized by the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2, which delivered it to the autolysosomes for degradation, resulting in impaired viral proliferation. In addition to regulating gene expression, these data demonstrate a novel antiviral function of PABPC4, which broadly suppresses CoVs by degrading the N protein via the selective autophagy pathway. This study will shed light on the development of broad anticoronaviral therapies. Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, but none of the currently available drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. During viral infection, the host will activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and host restriction factors in maintaining the innate antiviral responses and suppressing viral replication. This study demonstrated that the host protein, PABPC4, interacts with the nucleocapsid (N) proteins from eight CoVs covering four genera (, , , and ) of the family. PABPC4 could be regulated by SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. This study significantly increases our understanding of the novel host restriction factor PABPC4 against CoV replication and will help develop novel antiviral strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.00908-21DOI Listing
October 2021

Significance of CD8 + T cell infiltration related biomarkers and the corresponding prediction model for the prognosis of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Oct 4;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Phase I Clinical Trial Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250012, Shandong, P.R. China.

Cytotoxic T cells expressing cell surface CD8 played a key role in anti-cancer immunotherapy, including kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). Here we set out to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the significance of CD8 T cell-related markers for patients with KIRC. We checked immune cell response in KIRC and identified cell type-specific markers and related pathways in the tumor-infiltrating CD8 T (TIL-CD8T) cells. We used these markers to explore their prognostic signatures in TIL-CD8 T by evaluating their prognostic efficacy and group differences at various levels. Through pan-cancer analysis, 12 of 63 up-regulated and 162 of 396 down-regulated genes in CD8+ T cells were found to be significantly correlated with the survival prognosis. Based on our highly integrated multi-platform analyses across multiple datasets, we constructed a 6-gene risk scoring model specific to TIL-CD8T. In this model, high TIL-CD8 sig score was corresponding to a higher incidence frequency of copy number variation and drug sensitivity to sorafenib. Moreover, the prognosis of patients with the same or similar immune checkpoint gene levels could be distinguished from each other by TIL-CD8 sig score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203584DOI Listing
October 2021

Hydrogen-Bonded Biohybrid Framework-Derived Highly Specific Nanozymes for Biomarker Sensing.

Anal Chem 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Nanozymes are of particular interest due to their enzyme-mimicking activity and high stability that are favorable in biomedical sensing and immunoassays. In this work, we report a highly specific N-doped nanozyme through pyrolysis of framework-confined bovine serum albumin (BSA). This strategy allows one to translate the low-cost and featureless BSA into a highly active enzyme mimic. The obtained carbon nanozyme (denoted as HBF-1-C800) displays 3- to 7-fold enhancement on peroxidase (POD) activity compared with the conventional carbon nanozymes and also shows ca. 5-fold activity enhancement compared to the reported N-doping graphene. Such excellent POD activity originates from high N-doping efficiency, protein-induced defective sites, and the intrinsic porous structure of HBF-1-C800, which provides abundantly accessible active sites and accelerates substrate diffusion simultaneously. Importantly, the HBF-1-C800 nanozyme has highly specific POD activity and also enables resistance to several harsh conditions that should denature natural enzymes. These features allow it with high accuracy, stability, and sensitivity for biosensing applications. Moreover, HBF-1-C800 has been designed as a promising platform for colorimetric biosensing of several biomarkers including HO, glutathione, and glucose, with wide linear ranges and low limits of detection that are satisfied with the disease diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c03381DOI Listing
October 2021

Brain Metastases From Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 22 Patients.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 16;12:730025. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Brain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer has followed a similar increasing trend to that of thyroid cancer in recent years. However, the characteristics and treatments for brain metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to understand this disease by analyzing patients with brain metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).

Methods: Between 2000 and 2020, the database of the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center was searched for differentiated thyroid cancer patients. We identified a cohort of 22 patients with brain metastases. The characteristics of the patients, histological features, treatments, and time of death were reviewed. The overall survival (OS) rate was calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. Survival curves of different subgroups were compared according to baseline characteristics and treatments received.

Results: A total of 22 (1.09%) out of 2013 DTC patients in the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center database were identified as having brain metastases. The overall median survival time was 17.5 months (range from 1-60 months) after diagnosis of brain metastasis. Performance statue (PS), tumor site, and neurosurgery impacted survival, according to Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognosis of skull metastasis was superior to that of intracranial types. Neurosurgery was the only type of treatment that had an impact on patient OS.

Conclusions: Brain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer has a poor prognosis. However, it can be improved by comprehensive treatment. PS of the patients can greatly affect survival. Skull metastases have improved prognosis over intracranial types. Radioiodine therapy (RAIT) appears to effectively improve the prognosis of patients with skull metastases from DTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.730025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481895PMC
September 2021

Epigallocatechin gallate and theaflavins independently alleviate cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian damage by inhibiting the overactivation of primordial follicles and follicular atresia.

Phytomedicine 2021 Nov 14;92:153752. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, National Clinical Research Center for Obstetrical and Gynecological Diseases, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CTX), which has been used to treat common female cancers for several years, often causes ovarian damage, early menopause and infertility. However, strategies for the effective prevention and treatment of CTX-induced ovarian damage are still lacking. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavins (TFs), key molecules derived from green tea or black tea, have been shown to exert preventive effects on many ageing-related diseases.

Purpose: We aimed to explore the potential preventive and protective effects of EGCG and TFs on CTX-induced ovarian damage and compare the two compounds.

Study Design: Six-week-old female mice were administered a low or high dose of EGCG or TFs. The low dose was equivalent to the average daily amount of tea consumed by a drinker.

Methods: We determined the oestrous cycle and serum hormone levels to evaluate ovarian endocrine function, and we performed mating tests for reproductivity. We also assessed the follicle count and AMH level to evaluate ovarian reserve, and we performed Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining to evaluate ovarian fibrosis. We conducted γ-H2AX and TUNEL analyses to evaluate DNA damage, and we also measured the relevant indicators of oxidative stress and follicular activation, including NRF2, HO-1, SOD2, AKT, mTOR and RPS6.

Results: EGCG and TFs treatment independently improved the ovarian endocrine function and reproductivity of mice that were administered CTX. EGCG and TFs also increased the ovarian reserve of these animals. Furthermore, EGCG and TFs alleviated oxidation-induced damage to ovarian DNA in mice by activating the NRF2/HO-1 and SOD2 pathways and reducing the apoptosis of growing follicles. At the same time, EGCG and TFs reduced the overactivation of primordial follicles by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/RPS6 pathway.

Conclusion: The present study showed that EGCG and TFs independently improved ovarian function in mice with CTX-induced ovarian damage, thereby providing useful information for designing a potential clinical strategy that will protect against chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153752DOI Listing
November 2021

Assess an innovative mDentistry eHygiene model amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network: Protocol for design, implementation, and usability testing.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, US.

Background: Amid COVID-19, and other possible future infectious disease pandemics, dentistry needs to consider modified dental examination regimens that render quality care, are cost effective, and ensure the safety of patients and the Dental Health Care Personnel (DHCP). Traditional dental examinations, more than 300 million per year in the US, rely on person-to-person tactile examinations, pose challenges to infection control, and consume large quantities of advanced level personal protective equipment (PPE). Therefore, our long-term goal is to develop an innovative mDentistry (mDent) mode that takes these issues into account. This model supplements the traditional dental practice with virtual visits, supported by mobile devices such as mobile telephones, tablets, and wireless infrastructure. The mDent model leverages the advantages of digital mHealth tools, such as intraoral cameras, to deliver virtual oral examinations, treatment planning, and interactive oral health management, on a broad population basis. The conversion of the traditional dental examinations to mDent virtual examinations builds upon i) reliability of teledentistry that uses intraoral photos and live videos to make diagnostic decisions, and ii) a rapid advancement of mHealth tools utilization.

Objective: In this pilot project, we design a two-stage implementation study to assess two critical components of the mDent model: virtual hygiene examination (eHygiene); and patient self-taken intraoral photos (SELFIE). Our specific aims are: i) Assess the acceptance and barriers of mDent eHygiene among patients and DHCP (AIM 1); ii) Assess the economic impact of mDent eHygiene (AIM 2); and iii) Assess patient's capability of generating intraoral photos using mHealth tools (exploratory AIM 3 SELFIE).

Methods: This study will access the rich resources of the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network, recruit 12 dentists, 12 hygienists and 144 patients from 12 practices. For AIM 1 and 2, we will use role-specific questionnaires to collect quantitative data on eHygiene acceptance and economic impact. The questionnaire components include participant characteristics, system usability scale, dentist-patient communication scale, practice operation cost and patient opportunity cost. We will further conduct a series of iterative qualitative research activities using individual interviews to further elicit feedback and suggestion for changes in the mDent eHygiene model. For AIM 3, we will use mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) to assess patient's capability of taking intra-oral photos, via analyzing obtained photos and recorded videos.

Results: The study is supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, USA. This study received 'single' IRB approval launched in August, 2021. Data collection and analysis are expected to conclude by December 2021 and March 2022, respectively.

Conclusions: The study results will inform the logistics of conducting virtual dental examinations and empowering patients with mHealth tools, providing better safety and preserving PPEs amid the COVID-19 and possible future pandemics.

Clinicaltrial: Not applicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/32345DOI Listing
September 2021

Reconfigurable Stochastic neurons based on tin oxide/MoS hetero-memristors for simulated annealing and the Boltzmann machine.

Nat Commun 2021 09 29;12(1):5710. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

Neuromorphic hardware implementation of Boltzmann Machine using a network of stochastic neurons can allow non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard combinatorial optimization problems to be efficiently solved. Efficient implementation of such Boltzmann Machine with simulated annealing desires the statistical parameters of the stochastic neurons to be dynamically tunable, however, there has been limited research on stochastic semiconductor devices with controllable statistical distributions. Here, we demonstrate a reconfigurable tin oxide (SnO)/molybdenum disulfide (MoS) heterogeneous memristive device that can realize tunable stochastic dynamics in its output sampling characteristics. The device can sample exponential-class sigmoidal distributions analogous to the Fermi-Dirac distribution of physical systems with quantitatively defined tunable "temperature" effect. A BM composed of these tunable stochastic neuron devices, which can enable simulated annealing with designed "cooling" strategies, is conducted to solve the MAX-SAT, a representative in NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. Quantitative insights into the effect of different "cooling" strategies on improving the BM optimization process efficiency are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26012-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Keratinocyte membrane-mediated nanodelivery system with dissolving microneedles for targeted therapy of skin diseases.

Biomaterials 2021 Sep 23;278:121142. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

There is a lack of actively targeting drug delivery carriers for the topical treatment of epidermal diseases, which results in drug waste and an increased incidence of toxic side effects in the clinic. We recently discovered that epidermal cells (HaCaT cells) have homologous targeting functions and developed HaCaT cell membrane-coated pH-sensitive micelles for therapeutic active targeting of skin disease. We encapsulated shikonin in these biomimetic nanocarriers and found that the nanocarriers accumulated mainly in the active epidermis when delivered with karaya gum-fabricated water-soluble microneedles. The nanocarriers were internalized by the target cells, resulting in swelling of histidine fragments with protonation and subsequent triggering of drug release, which increased the therapeutic efficacy of shikonin against imiquimod-induced psoriatic epidermal hyperplasia. This emerging biomimetic delivery strategy is a new approach for improving the treatment of skin diseases and is also very promising for use in the field of cosmetics. Additionally, we found abnormally high protein expression of Na/K-ATPase in diseased skin; thus, this protein may be a biomarker of psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121142DOI Listing
September 2021

Self-sustainable and recyclable ternary [email protected] nanocomposites: application in ultrasensitive SERS detection and highly efficient photocatalysis of organic dyes under visible light.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 16;7:23. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping, 136000 China.

Ternary noble metal-semiconductor nanocomposites (NCs) with core-shell-satellite nanostructures have received widespread attention due to their outstanding performance in detecting pollutants through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this work, ternary [email protected] NCs were designed and prepared by a galvanic replacement method. The effect of different amounts of Ag nanocrystals adsorbed on the surfaces of [email protected] on the SERS activity was investigated based on the SERS detection of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) reporter molecules. Based on electromagnetic field simulations and photoluminescence (PL) results, a possible SERS enhancement mechanism was proposed and discussed. Moreover, [email protected] NCs served as SERS substrates, and highly sensitive SERS detection of malachite green (MG) with a detection limit as low as 10 M was achieved. In addition, [email protected] NCs were recycled due to their superior self-cleaning ability and could catalyze the degradation of MG driven by visible light. This work demonstrates a wide range of possibilities for the integration of recyclable SERS detection and photodegradation of organic dyes and promotes the development of green testing techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00250-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433429PMC
March 2021

Advances in biomechanical and biochemical engineering methods to stimulate meniscus tissue.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):8540-8560. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, Peking University Third Hospital 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China.

Meniscal injuries can cause cartilage degeneration, which usually leads to the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and results in progressive destruction of the knee joint. Therefore, it is important to identify methods to stop or slow the development of OA after the onset of meniscal defects. The current surgical techniques for meniscal injuries are insufficient to prevent the progression of knee OA, which has accelerated the development of alternative tissue engineering strategies. Much progress has been made in the use of biomechanical and biochemical stimuli in the past decades to engineer neotissue akin to native meniscus. In this review, we focus on the current progress in biomechanical and biochemical stimuli-based strategies applied to meniscal tissue engineering, and explore how these factors influence meniscal regeneration. By understanding the functional mechanism that can stimulate regeneration in the meniscus, we hope that this review will provide a theoretical basis and strategies for meniscus tissue engineering.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430175PMC
August 2021

BASP1 is up-regulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and associated with a poor prognosis.

Asian J Surg 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, People's Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine,Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the relationship between expression of brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) tissue and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with TSCC.

Methods: Western blotting was performed to detect BASP1 expression in fresh-frozen specimens of tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue obtained from 6 patients with TSCC. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect BASP1 expression in 100 paraffin-embedded specimens of TSCC tissue. The chi-square test was used to analyze the association between BASP1 expression and a variety of clinicopathological parameters. A Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to further evaluate the impact of BASP1 on patient survival.

Results: The Oncomine database showed that BASP1 expression was increased in TSCC tissues. The PrognoScan and GEPIA databases suggested that a high level of BASP1 expression is related to a poor prognosis for patients with head and neck cancer. Experimental results showed that when compared to normal tissues adjacent to a cancer, BASP1 was more highly expressed in the TSCC tissues. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that BASP1 expression and the tumor's stage may be independent risk factors that affect the growth and prognosis of TSCC. A survival analysis showed that patients with a low level of BASP1 expression had a higher survival rate.

Conclusion: Overexpression of BASP1 was found to be associated with distant node metastasis and a poor prognosis among patents with TSCC. BASP1 could possibly serve as a molecular marker for diagnosing and treating the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.08.015DOI Listing
September 2021

Assess A Smartphone App (AICaries) that uses artificial intelligence to detect dental caries in children and provide interactive oral health education: Protocol for design and usability testing.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, US.

Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic childhood disease, with nearly 1.8 billion new cases per year globally. ECC afflicts approximately 55% of low-income and minority US preschool children, resulting in harmful short- and long-term effects on health and quality of life. Clinical evidence shows that caries is reversible if detected and addressed in its early stages. However, many low-income US children often have poor access to pediatric dental services. In this underserved group, dental caries is often diagnosed at a late stage when extensive restorative treatment is needed. With more than 85% of lower-income Americans owning a smartphone, mHealth tools, such as smartphone application, hold great promise to achieve patient-driven early detection and risk control of ECC.

Objective: This study aims to employ a community-based participatory research strategy to refine and test the usability of an artificial intelligence (AI) -powered smartphone app, AICaries, to be used by children's parents/caregivers for dental caries detection in their children.

Methods: Our previous work has led to the prototype of AICaries, which offers AI-powered caries detection using photos of children's teeth taken by the parents' smartphones, interactive caries risk assessment, and personalized education on reducing children's ECC risk. This AICaries study will utilize a 2-step qualitative study design to assess the feedback and usability of the app component, app flow and whether parents can take photo of children's teeth on their own. Specifically, in Step 1, we will conduct individual usability tests among 10 pairs of end-users (parents with young children) to facilitate app module modification and fine-tuning using Think-aloud and Instant Data Analysis strategies. In Step 2, we will conduct unmoderated field testing for app feasibility and acceptability among 32 pairs of parents with their young children to assess the usability and acceptability of AICaries, including assessing the number/quality of teeth images taken by the parents for their children and parents' satisfaction.

Results: The study is funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, USA. This study received IRB approval and launched in August, 2021. Data collection and analysis are expected to conclude by March 2022 and June 2022, respectively.

Conclusions: Using AICaries, parents can use their regular smartphones to take photo of their children's teeth and detect ECC aided by AICaries, so that they can actively seek treatment for their children at an early and reversible stage of ECC. Using AICaries, parents can also obtain essential knowledge on reducing their children's caries risk. Data from this study will support future clinical trial that evaluates the real-world impact of using this innovative smartphone app on early detection and prevention of ECC among low-income children.

Clinicaltrial:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/32921DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of Combined Hydrocortisone, Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine for Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Shock 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China.

Objective: This study aims to assess the effect of HAT therapy on patients with sepsis and septic shock.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library for studies on HAT therapy published up to November 11, 2020. The primary outcome was the duration of vasopressor use. Secondary outcomes were change of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score within 72 hours; death within intensive care unit (ICU), hospital, and 28 or 30 days; length of stay (LOS) in ICU and hospital; rate of procalcitonin (PCT) clearance and incidence of adverse events. We also used trial sequential analysis (TSA) to assess the reliability of the available evidence.

Results: Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven observational studies enrolling 1,559 patients were included (762 were treated with HAT, and 797 were treated with hydrocortisone alone, standard care or placebo). HAT therapy was associated with significant reductions in duration of vasopressor use (mean differences [MD], -14.68, [95% CI, -24.28 to -5.08], P = 0.003) in RCTs, but not in observational studies (MD, 11.21, [95% CI, -44.93 to 67.35], P = 0.70). HAT therapy was associated with less organ dysfunction at 72 hours both in RCTs (MD, -0.86, [95% CI, -1.32 to -0.40], P < 0.001) and observational studies (MD, -2.65, [95% CI, -5.29 to -0.01], P = 0.05). HAT therapy was associated with lower hospital mortality and higher PCT clearance in observational studies. Similar results for the primary outcome were found in the sensitivity analysis. TSA results suggested more trials to reach the required information size.

Conclusion: Among patients with sepsis and septic shock, a combination therapy of hydrocortisone, ascorbic acid and thiamine, compared with placebo, could reduce the duration of vasopressor use and SOFA scores during the first 72 hours.

Trial Registration: PROSPERO registration ID for this study is CRD42020170648 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=170648).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001781DOI Listing
March 2021

Native point defect modulated Cr-LaAlO as an excited contrast medium for near-infrared persistent deep-tissue bio-imaging.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 16;57(74):9366-9369. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Due to the synergistic effect of Cr dopant levels and defect state, the luminescence intensity and decay time in LaAlO are remarkably enhanced, and the emission wavelength from deep-red (Cr as the luminescent center) to NIR-II/III (defect states as the luminescent center) can be effectively tuned an energy transfer process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc04064bDOI Listing
September 2021

Ultrafast Interlayer Charge Separation, Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption, and Tunable Overpotential in Twisted Graphitic Carbon Nitride Bilayers for Water Splitting.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 13:e2104695. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Ultrafast Optical Physics, Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, P. R. China.

Moiré pattern superlattice formed by 2D van der Waals layered structures have attracted great attention for diverse applications. In experiments, the enhancement of catalytic performance in twisted bilayer systems is reported while its mechanism remains unclear. From high-accuracy first-principles and time-dependent ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics calculations, ultrafast interlayer charge transfer within 120 fs, excellent charge separation, improved visible-light absorption, and satisfactory overpotentials for the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions in twisted graphitic carbon nitride (g-C N ) bilayers are found, which are beneficial to photocatalytic, photo-electrocatalytic, or electrocatalytic water splitting. This work provides insightful guidance to advanced nanocatalysis based on twisted layered materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202104695DOI Listing
September 2021

Four Immune-Related Genes (FN1, UGCG, CHPF2 and THBS2) as Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Carbon Nanotube-Induced Mesothelioma.

Int J Gen Med 2021 29;14:4987-5003. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, People's Republic of China.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a highly aggressive cancer, was mainly attributed to asbestos exposure. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) share similar negative features to asbestos, provoking concerns about their contribution to MPM. This study was used to identify genes associated with CNT-induced MPM.

Methods: Microarray datasets were available in the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The limma method was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CNT-exposed MeT5A cells (GSE48855) or mice (GSE51636). Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction were conducted to screen hub DEGs. The mRNA expression levels of hub DEGs were validated on MPM samples of GSE51024, GSE2549 and GSE42977 datasets, and their diagnostic efficacy was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The prognostic values of hub DEGs were assessed using online tools based on The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Their functions were annotated by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) enrichment and correlation with immune cells and markers.

Results: WGCNA identified that two modules were associated with disease status. Thirty-one common DEGs in the GSE48855 and GSE51636 datasets were overlapped with the genes in these two modules. Twenty of them had a high degree centrality (≥4) in the PPI network. Four DEGs (FN1, fibronectin 1; UGCG, UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase; CHPF2, chondroitin polymerizing factor 2; and THBS2, thrombospondin 2) could predict the overall survival, and they were confirmed to be upregulated in MPM samples compared with controls. Also, they could effectively predict the MPM risk, with an overall accuracy of >0.9. DAVID analysis revealed FN1, CHPF2 and THBS2 functioned in cell-ECM interactions; UGCG influenced glycosphingolipid metabolism. All genes were positively associated with infiltrating levels of immune cells (macrophages or dendritic cells) and the expression of the dendritic cell marker (NRP1, neuropilin 1).

Conclusion: These four immune-related genes represent potential biomarkers for monitoring CNT-induced MPM and predicting the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S324365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412823PMC
August 2021

Machine Learning Approach Identified Multi-Platform Factors for Caries Prediction in Child-Mother Dyads.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 19;11:727630. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States.

Untreated tooth decays affect nearly one third of the world and is the most prevalent disease burden among children. The disease progression of tooth decay is multifactorial and involves a prolonged decrease in pH, resulting in the demineralization of tooth surfaces. Bacterial species that are capable of fermenting carbohydrates contribute to the demineralization process by the production of organic acids. The combined use of machine learning and 16s rRNA sequencing offers the potential to predict tooth decay by identifying the bacterial community that is present in an individual's oral cavity. A few recent studies have demonstrated machine learning predictive modeling using 16s rRNA sequencing of oral samples, but they lack consideration of the multifactorial nature of tooth decay, as well as the role of fungal species within their models. Here, the oral microbiome of mother-child dyads (both healthy and caries-active) was used in combination with demographic-environmental factors and relevant fungal information to create a multifactorial machine learning model based on the LASSO-penalized logistic regression. For the children, not only were several bacterial species found to be caries-associated (, and ) but also detection and lower toothbrushing frequency were also caries-associated. Mothers enrolled in this study had a higher detection of and and a higher plaque index. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the significant impact machine learning could have in prevention and diagnostic advancements for tooth decay, as well as the importance of considering fungal and demographic-environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.727630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417465PMC
August 2021

The different sensitivities of aerosol optical properties to particle concentration, humidity, and hygroscopicity between the surface level and the upper boundary layer in Guangzhou, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 30;803:150010. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

This study investigates the impact of aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) and related factors, i.e., relative humidity (RH), aerosol mass concentration (PM), and aerosol hygroscopicity, on aerosol optical properties, based on field measurements made in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China at the surface (1 November 2019 to 21 January 2020) and in the upper boundary layer (the 532-m Guangzhou tower from 1 February to 21 March 2020). In general, temporal variations in the ambient aerosol backscattering coefficient (β) and ALWC followed each other. However, the surface β and 532-m β had generally opposite diurnal variation patterns, caused by dramatic differences in PM and ambient RH between the surface and the upper boundary layer. The ambient 532-m RH was systematically higher than the surface RH, with the latter having a much pronounced diurnal cycle than the former. The surface PM concentration was systematically higher than the PM concentration at 532 m, and their diurnal cycle patterns were overall opposite. These dramatic differences reveal that the atmospheric variables, i.e., ambient RH and the PM concentration in the upper boundary layer, cannot be directly represented by the same variables at the surface. Vertical variability should be considered. Clear differences in the sensitivities of aerosol light scattering to ambient RH, PM, and aerosol hygroscopicity between the two levels were found and examined. Aerosol chemical composition played a minor role in causing the differences between the two levels. In particular, β was more sensitive to PM at the surface level but more to the ambient RH in the upper boundary layer. The larger contribution of aerosol loading to the variability in β at the surface implies that local emission controls can decrease β and further improve atmospheric visibility effectively at the surface during winter in the PRD region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150010DOI Listing
August 2021

Changes in , and oral health conditions following Prenatal Total Oral Rehabilitation among underserved pregnant women.

Heliyon 2021 Aug 26;7(8):e07871. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Objectives: To assess the oral health condition and oral microbial outcomes from receiving an innovative treatment regimen - Prenatal Total Oral Rehabilitation (PTOR).

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 15 pregnant women in the PTOR group who had a baseline visit before PTOR and three follow-up visits (immediate after, 2 weeks and 2 months) after receiving PTOR. A historical control group of additional 15 pregnant women was matched from a separate study based on a propensity score. Along with demographic and medical background, oral health conditions and perinatal oral health literacy were assessed. Oral samples (saliva and plaque) were analyzed to identify and quantify and species by culturing-dependent and -independent methods.

Results: Significant reductions of salivary were observed following PTOR, the effect remained until 2-month follow-up ( < 0.05). The carriage of salivary and plaque at the 2-month visit of the PTOR group was significantly lower than that of the control group ( < 0.05). Oral health conditions reflected by BOP and PI were significantly improved upon receiving PTOR ( < 0.05). Receiving PTOR significantly improved the perinatal oral health literacy score, and the knowledge retained until 2-month follow-up ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: PTOR is associated with an improvement in oral health conditions and perinatal oral health literacy, and a reduction in carriage, within a 2-month follow-up period. Future clinical trials are warranted to comprehensively assess the impact of PTOR on the maternal oral flora other than and , birth outcomes, and their offspring's oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405901PMC
August 2021

The Morphology, Taxonomy, and Phylogenetic Analyses of Five Freshwater Colonial Peritrich Ciliates (Alveolata, Ciliophora), Including the Descriptions of Two New Species.

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:718821. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

The morphology and phylogeny of two new sessilid species, n. sp. and n. sp., two insufficiently known species, Ehrenberg, 1831 and Kahl, 1935, and a well-known species, (Linnaeus, 1767) Ehrenberg, 1838, collected from freshwater habitats of China, were investigated. n. sp. is characterized by its inverted bell-shaped zooids, double-layered peristomial lip, alternately branched stalk, and two different-length rows in infundibular polykinety 3 (P3). n. sp. is recognized by its asymmetric-pyriform zooids, single-layered peristomial lip, conspicuous cortical blisters on the pellicle, dichotomously branched stalk, and P3 containing one short inner row and two long outer rows. Based on previous and newly obtained data of the three known species, improved diagnoses and redescriptions are provided including, for the first time, data on the infraciliature of and . In addition, we analyzed the phylogeny of each species based on SSU rDNA sequence data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.718821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415720PMC
August 2021

Characterization of R-Loop-Interacting Proteins in Embryonic Stem Cells Reveals Roles in rRNA Processing and Gene Expression.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Aug 31;20:100142. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Molecular, Cell, and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Chromatin-associated RNAs have diverse roles in the nucleus. However, their mechanisms of action are poorly understood, in part because of the inability to identify proteins that specifically associate with chromatin-bound RNAs. Here, we address this problem for a subset of chromatin-associated RNAs that form R-loops-RNA-DNA hybrid structures that include a displaced strand of ssDNA. R-loops generally form cotranscriptionally and have important roles in regulation of gene expression, immunoglobulin class switching, and other processes. However, unresolved R-loops can lead to DNA damage and chromosome instability. To identify factors that may bind and regulate R-loop accumulation or mediate R-loop-dependent functions, we used a comparative immunoprecipitation/MS approach, with and without RNA-protein crosslinking, to identify a stringent set of R-loop-binding proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. We identified 364 R-loop-interacting proteins, which were highly enriched for proteins with predicted RNA-binding functions. We characterized several R-loop-interacting proteins of the DEAD-box family of RNA helicases and found that these proteins localize to the nucleolus and, to a lesser degree, the nucleus. Consistent with their localization patterns, we found that these helicases are required for rRNA processing and regulation of gene expression. Surprisingly, depletion of these helicases resulted in misregulation of highly overlapping sets of protein-coding genes, including many genes that function in differentiation and development. We conclude that R-loop-interacting DEAD-box helicases have nonredundant roles that are critical for maintaining the normal embryonic stem cell transcriptome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcpro.2021.100142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461376PMC
August 2021
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