Publications by authors named "Tong Jiang"

71 Publications

[Retracted] Additive effects of eukaryotic co‑expression plasmid carrying GRIM‑19 and LKB1 genes on breast cancer and .

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 16;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.

Following the publication of this paper, it was drawn to the Editors' attention by a concerned reader that the western blotting data featured in Figs. 1C and 4C, and tumour images in Fig. 5A, were strikingly similar to data appearing in different form in other articles by different authors at different research institutes. Owing to the fact that the contentious data in the above article were already under consideration for publication, or had already been published, elsewhere prior to its submission to , the Editor has decided that this paper should be retracted from the Journal. The authors did not reply to indicate whether or not they agreed with the retraction of the paper. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in 12: 7665‑7672, 2015; DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2015.4393].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12226DOI Listing
August 2021

[Retracted] Upregulation of GRIM‑19 inhibits the growth and invasion of human breast cancer cells.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 16;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.

Following the publication of this paper, it was drawn to the Editors' attention by a concerned reader that the western blotting data featured in Figs. 4B and 6B (wherein there was also a duplicated set of data bands) were strikingly similar to data appearing in different form in other articles at different research institutes. Owing to the fact that the contentious data in the above article were already under consideration for publication, or had already been published, elsewhere prior to its submission to , the Editor has decided that this paper should be retracted from the Journal. The authors did not reply to indicate whether or not they agreed with the retraction of the paper. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in 10.3892/mmr.2015.3757].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12225DOI Listing
August 2021

Intermolecular Charge-Transfer-Induced Strong Optical Emission from Herringbone H-Aggregates.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

MOE Key Laboratory of Organic OptoElectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China.

Luminescence in molecular aggregates can be quenched either by intermolecular charge transfer or by forming a dipole-forbidden lower Frenkel exciton in H-aggregate. Taking intermolecular charge transfer and excitonic coupling into a three-state model through localized diabatization, we demonstrate that the low-lying intermolecular charge-transfer state could couple with the upper bright Frenkel exciton to form dipole-allowed S that lies below the dark state, which accounts for the recent experimentally discovered strong luminescence in organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) system with DPA and dNaAnt herringbone aggregates. The condition of forming such bright state is that the electron and hole transfer integrals, and , are of the same sign, and should be notably larger than the excitonic coupling (), that is , × > 2. This theoretical finding not only rationalizes recent experiments but unravels an exciting scenario where strong luminescence and high charge mobilities become compatible, which is a preferable condition for both OLETs and electrically pumped lasing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01734DOI Listing
June 2021

Projected changes in temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration across Indus River Basin at 1.5-3.0 °C warming levels using CMIP6-GCMs.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 20;789:147867. Epub 2021 May 20.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China; Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Institute for Disaster Risk Management, School of Geographical Science, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. Electronic address:

The projections of mean temperature, precipitation (P), and potential evapotranspiration (PET) reflect the probabilities of long-term changes of hydrologic processes and induced extreme events. In this paper, we investigated the future changes in some pivotal climatic variables (mean temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration) under 1.5 °C, 2.0 °C, and 3.0 °C specific warming levels (SWLs) across the Indus River Basin of South Asia. The seven global climate models output under seven different emission scenarios (SSP1-1.9, SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, SSP4-3.4, SSP4-6.0, and SSP5-8.5) from the latest Sixth phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) are used for this purpose. The Penman-Monteith approach is applied to estimate PET, and the water balance equation is for reflecting water surplus/deficit. Results indicate that except for precipitation, the greater increases in temperature and PET are inclined to happen with continued global warming. The highest increase in temperature is accounted for 14.6% (2.4 °C), and the enhanced PET is estimated at 5.2% higher than the reference period (1995-2014) under 3.0 °C SWL. While the precipitation is projected to increase by the highest 4.8% for 2.0 °C warming level. The differences in regional climate for an additional 0.5 °C (2.0-1.5 °C) and 1.0 °C (3.0-2.0 °C) of warming, the temperature is projected to increase by 0.4 °C and 0.9 °C in the entire IRB respectively. The highest increase in mean temperature (5.1%) and PET (2.4%) in the IRB are predicted to intensify for an additional 1.0 °C than that of 0.5 °C of warming, but precipitation is intended to decrease by 0.4%. Spatially, the increase in temperature, precipitation, and PET are dominated towards high elevation in the upper basin (north) under all the SWLs. The increased variability in climatological parameters across IRB depicts an evident occurrence of both wet events (upper basin) as well as dry events (lower basin) with the increase in global average temperature rise. However, these findings provide an insightful basis for water resource management as well as initiating mitigation and adaptation measures in the IRB related to water surplus (floods) and water deficit (droughts).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147867DOI Listing
May 2021

Research and application of KABP nursing model in cardiac rehabilitation of patients with acute myocardial infarction after PCI.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3022-3033. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, Brain Hospital of Weifang People's Hospital Weifang, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of a nursing protocol based on the KABP (Knowledge, Attitude, Belief and Practice) model in the cardiac rehabilitation (CR) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 76 patients with AMI who underwent PCI were selected as the research objects. Through random number table, the participants were divided into 41 cases in the KABP group (cardiac rehabilitation nursing based on KABP model) and 35 cases in the control group (conventional rehabilitation nursing). All patients underwent echocardiography within 48 hours after PCI and 3 months after the postoperative follow-up to determine the improvement of their cardiac function. The risk of falling out of bed for 7 days after surgery, the physical improvement and exercise endurance before and after the intervention, as well as the scores of Coronary Artery Disease Self-Management Scale (CSMS) and China Questionnaire of Quality of Life in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases (CQQC) were compared between the two groups.

Results: Within 48 hours after operation, there was no significant difference in the indicators of cardiac function between the two groups (all P>0.05). After 3 months of postoperative follow-up, the improvement of cardiac function of KABP group including left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac index were significantly better than those of the control group (all P<0.05), and NYHA class was also significantly better than that of the control group (P<0.001). On the 7th day after operation, the high risk of falling out of bed in the KABP group (17.07%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (74.29%; P<0.001). The metabolic equivalent, 6-minute walk test scores, and CQQC scores of the KABP group were significantly higher than those of the control group (all P<0.01). The total scores of daily life management, disease medical management, emotional cognitive management and self-management in CSMS were significantly higher than those of the control group (all P<0.01).

Conclusion: Cardiac rehabilitation care based on the KABP model can improve the recovery of cardiac function of AMI patients after PCI, reduce the risk of falling out of bed, help patients recover their physical status and exercise endurance, and improve their management behavior and postoperative life quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129220PMC
April 2021

Repurposing the FDA-approved anticancer agent ponatinib as a fluconazole potentiator by suppression of multidrug efflux and Pma1 expression in a broad spectrum of yeast species.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Center for Single-Cell Omics, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Fungal infections have emerged as a major global threat to human health because of the increasing incidence and mortality rates every year. The emergence of drug resistance and limited arsenal of antifungal agents further aggravates the current situation resulting in a growing challenge in medical mycology. Here, we identified that ponatinib, an FDA-approved antitumour drug, significantly enhanced the activity of the azole fluconazole, the most widely used antifungal drug. Further detailed investigation of ponatinib revealed that its combination with fluconazole displayed broad-spectrum synergistic interactions against a variety of human fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans. Mechanistic insights into the mode of action unravelled that ponatinib reduced the efflux of fluconazole via Pdr5 and suppressed the expression of the proton pump, Pma1. Taken together, our study identifies ponatinib as a novel antifungal that enhances drug activity of fluconazole against diverse fungal pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13814DOI Listing
May 2021

Sugarcane mosaic virus remodels multiple intracellular organelles to form genomic RNA replication sites.

Arch Virol 2021 Jul 27;166(7):1921-1930. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory for Agro-Biotechnology, and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory for Pest Monitoring and Green Management, Department of Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Positive-stranded RNA viruses usually remodel the host endomembrane system to form virus-induced intracellular vesicles for replication during infections. The genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae represents the largest number of positive single-stranded RNA viruses, and its members cause great damage to crop production worldwide. Although potyviruses have a wide host range, each potyvirus infects a relatively limited number of host species. Phylogenesis and host range analysis can divide potyviruses into monocot-infecting and dicot-infecting groups, suggesting that they differ in their infection mechanisms, probably during replication. Comprehensive studies on the model dicot-infecting turnip mosaic virus have shown that the 6K2-induced replication vesicles are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently target chloroplasts for viral genome replication. However, the replication site of monocot-infecting potyviruses is unknown. In this study, we show that the precursor 6K2-VPg-Pro polyproteins of dicot-infecting potyviruses and monocot-infecting potyviruses cluster phylogenetically in two separate groups. With a typical gramineae-infecting potyvirus-sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV)-we found that replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) forms aggregates in the cytoplasm but does not associate with chloroplasts. SCMV 6K2-VPg-Pro-induced vesicles colocalize with replicative dsRNA. Moreover, SCMV 6K2-VPg-Pro-induced structures target multiple intracellular organelles, including the ER, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes, and have no evident association with chloroplasts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05077-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Doubling of the population exposed to drought over South Asia: CMIP6 multi-model-based analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 6;771:145186. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters/Institute for Disaster Risk Management/School of Geographical Science, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China. Electronic address:

Drought has a substantial socioeconomic impact under the changing climate. The estimation of population exposure to drought could be the pivotal signal to predict future water scarcity in the climate hotspot of South Asia. This study examines the changing population exposure to drought across South Asia using 20 climate model ensembles from the latest CMIP6 and demographic data under shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Underpinning the latest version of the IPCC 6th Assessment Report (AR6), this paper focuses on the 2021-2040 (near-term), 2041-2060 (mid-term), and 2081-2100 (long-term) periods to project population exposure changes relative to the reference period (1995-2014) under four SSP-RCP scenarios. Drought events are detected by adopting the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and run theory method. Model validation suggests that CMIP6-GCM performs well in projecting climate variables and capturing drought events. The results show that the projected increases in frequent drought events and affected areal coverage are stronger during the early part of the century and weaker at the end under all scenario combinations. In relative terms, the projected increase in the number of people exposed to drought is dominant (>1.5-fold) in the near-term and mid-term periods but decreases in the long-term period. Compared to the reference period, the leading increase in population exposure (2.3-fold) is projected under the newly designed gap scenario (SSP3-7.0) in the mid-term period. A surprising decline in the number of exposed populations was estimated to be 18.8% under SSP5-8.5 by the end of the century. The mitigating effect of the predicted heavy precipitation will decrease droughts in the late future. Spatially, increasing exposure will become more pronounced across India and Afghanistan. Furthermore, the population change effect is mainly responsible for the exposure changes in South Asia. However, this study strongly recommends future 'plausible world' regional rivalry pathways (SSP3) scenario-combinations into consideration for policymaking in regard to water management as well as migration planning over South Asia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145186DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization and genome analysis of phage AL infecting Pseudoalteromonas marina.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 4;295:198265. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

College of Marine Life Sciences and Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Although Pseudoalteromonas is an abundant, ubiquitous, marine algae-associated bacterial genus, there is still little information on their phages. In the present study, a marine phage AL, infecting Pseudoalteromonas marina, was isolated from the coastal waters off Qingdao. The AL phage is a siphovirus with an icosahedral head of 53 ± 1 nm and a non-contractile tail, length of 99 ± 1 nm. A one-step growth curve showed that the latent period was approximately 70 min, the rise period was 50 min, and the burst size was 227 pfu/cell. The genome sequence of this phage is a 33,582 bp double-stranded DNA molecule with a GC content of 40.1 %, encoding 52 open reading frames (ORFs). The order of the functional genes, especially those related to the structure module, is highly conserved and basically follows the common pattern used by siphovirus. The stable order has been formed during the long-term evolution of phages in the siphovirus group, which has helped the phages to maintain their normal morphology and function. Phylogenetic trees based on the major capsid protein (mcp) and genome-wide sequence have shown that the AL phage is closely related to four Pseudoalteromonas phages, including PHS21, PHS3, SL25 and Pq0. Further analysis using all-to-all BLASTP also confirmed that this phage shared high sequence homology with the same four Pseudoalteromonas phages, with amino acid sequence identities ranging from 44 % to 71 %. In particular, their similarity in virion structure module may imply that these phages share common assembly mechanism characteristics and infection pathways. Pseudoalteromonas phage AL not only provides basic information for the further study of the evolution of Pseudoalteromonas phages and interactions between marine phage and host but also helps to explain the unknown viral sequences in the metagenomic databases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198265DOI Listing
April 2021

Snow cover loss compounding the future economic vulnerability of western China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 19;755(Pt 1):143025. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resources Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Decline in snow mass threatens the regional economy that critically depends on meltwater. However, the economic scale of snow mass loss is hardly understood, and its role in the vulnerability of future economic development is unclear. We investigate the current reserves of snow cover and the value of its loss. The result showed that the total annual snow mass in western China declines at a rate of 3.3 × 10 Pg per decade (p < 0.05), which accounts for approximately 0.46% of the mean of annual snow mass (7.2 × 10 Pg). Snow mass loss over the past 40 years in western China turns into an average loss value of CN¥0.1 billion (in the present value) every year ($1 = CN¥7). If the trend continues at the current rate, the accumulated loss value would rise to CN¥63 billion by 2040. Furthermore, subject to the combinations of RCPs and SSPs scenario, the future economic value of snow mass loss in western China appears to accelerate driven by both declining snowmelt resources and socioeconomic development demand. RCP26-SSP1 is the pathway among all to have the least economic cost in replacing the snowmelt loss, and the cost would be quadrupled in RCP80-SSP3 scenario by 2100. At a basin scale, the declining snow mass would turn the regional economy to be more vulnerable except Junggar and Ili endorheic basin. The Ertis river and Qaidam endorheic basins display to be most vulnerable. It highlights that the snow value can be economically important in the regions of west China and should be considered more properly in water resources management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143025DOI Listing
February 2021

Silicon Photoanode Modified with Work-function-tuned [email protected] Ni (OH) Core-Shell Particles for Water Oxidation.

ChemSusChem 2020 Nov 16;13(22):6037-6044. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nano Technology, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, No. 22, Hankou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210093, P. R. China.

The photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting determines by the light absorption and charge extraction/injection. Here, we dispersedly modified the core-shell structured [email protected] Fe (OH) on Si photoanodes and in-situ electrochemically converted it to [email protected] Fe OOH to form a Si/SiO /[email protected] Fe OOH assembly, exhibiting the adjustable band bending and catalytic ability in water oxidation depending closely on the composition of Ni Fe OOH. Combining with the island-like dispersed distribution to maximize the light absorption and the [email protected] Fe shell as a high work function and a catalytic layer to simultaneously enlarge charge extraction and injection, the Si/SiO /[email protected] Fe OOH assembly achieved an onset potential of 1.0 V , a saturated current density of 35.4 mA cm and a more than 50 h stability in an electrolyte with pH 9 under AM1.5G simulated sunlight irradiation. Our findings suggested that regulating the charge energetics at Si-electrolyte interface by discontinuously modifying a composition-adjustable core-shell structure is a potential route to develop highly efficient PEC devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202002049DOI Listing
November 2020

Viral Perturbation of Alternative Splicing of a Host Transcript Benefits Infection.

Plant Physiol 2020 11 21;184(3):1514-1531. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory for Agro-Biotechnology, and Key Laboratory for Pest Monitoring and Green Management-Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Department of Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China

Pathogens disturb alternative splicing patterns of infected eukaryotic hosts. However, in plants it is unknown if this is incidental to infection or represents a pathogen-induced remodeling of host gene expression needed to support infection. Here, we compared changes in transcription and protein accumulation with changes in transcript splicing patterns in maize () infected with the globally important pathogen sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). Our results suggested that changes in alternative splicing play a major role in determining virus-induced proteomic changes. Focusing on maize (), which encodes the key regulatory enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, we found that although SCMV infection decreases total transcript accumulation, the proportion of splice variant T001 increases by later infection stages so that ZmPSY1 protein levels are maintained. We determined that has two leaf-specific transcripts, T001 and T003, distinguished by differences between the respective 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). The shorter 3'-UTR of T001 makes it the more efficient mRNA. Nonsense mutants or virus-induced silencing of expression suppressed SCMV accumulation, attenuated symptoms, and decreased chloroplast damage. Thus, ZmPSY1 acts as a proviral host factor that is required for virus accumulation and pathogenesis. Taken together, our findings reveal that SCMV infection-modulated alternative splicing ensures that ZmPSY1 synthesis is sustained during infection, which supports efficient virus infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.20.00903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608148PMC
November 2020

Genomic analysis of Synechococcus phage S-B43 and its adaption to the coastal environment.

Virus Res 2020 11 14;289:198155. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

Synechococcus dominate picocyanobacterial communities in coastal environments. However, only a few Synechococcus phages have been described from the coastal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Here a new Synechococcus phage, S-B43 was isolated from the Bohai Sea, a semi-closed coastal sea of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. S-B43 is a member of Myoviridae, containing 275 predicted open reading frames. Fourteen auxiliary metabolic genes (AMG) were identified from the genome of S-B43, including five photosynthetic associated genes and several AMGs related to its adaption to the high turbidity and eutrophic coastal environment with a low ratio of phosphorus to nitrogen (HNLP). The occurrences of 31 AMGs among 34 cyanophage genomes indicates that AMGs zwf, gnd, speD, petF and those coding for FECH and thioredoxin were more common in coastal areas than in the open ocean and AMGs pebS and ho1 were more prevalent in the open ocean. The occurrence of cyanophage AMGs in different environments might be a reflection of the environmental adaption of their hosts. This study contributes to our understanding of the interactions between cyanobacteria and cyanophages and their environmental adaption to the coastal environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198155DOI Listing
November 2020

Glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh2)-dependent alkalization is dispensable for escape from macrophages and virulence of Candida albicans.

PLoS Pathog 2020 09 16;16(9):e1008328. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.

Candida albicans cells depend on the energy derived from amino acid catabolism to induce and sustain hyphal growth inside phagosomes of engulfing macrophages. The concomitant deamination of amino acids is thought to neutralize the acidic microenvironment of phagosomes, a presumed requisite for survival and initiation of hyphal growth. Here, in contrast to an existing model, we show that mitochondrial-localized NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH2) catalyzing the deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and not the cytosolic urea amidolyase (DUR1,2), accounts for the observed alkalization of media when amino acids are the sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. C. albicans strains lacking GDH2 (gdh2-/-) are viable and do not extrude ammonia on amino acid-based media. Environmental alkalization does not occur under conditions of high glucose (2%), a finding attributable to glucose-repression of GDH2 expression and mitochondrial function. Consistently, inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or mitochondrial translation by antimycin A or chloramphenicol, respectively, prevents alkalization. GDH2 expression and mitochondrial function are derepressed as glucose levels are lowered from 2% (~110 mM) to 0.2% (~11 mM), or when glycerol is used as primary carbon source. Using time-lapse microscopy, we document that gdh2-/- cells survive, filament and escape from primary murine macrophages at rates indistinguishable from wildtype. In intact hosts, such as in fly and murine models of systemic candidiasis, gdh2-/- mutants are as virulent as wildtype. Thus, although Gdh2 has a critical role in central nitrogen metabolism, Gdh2-catalyzed deamination of glutamate is surprisingly dispensable for escape from macrophages and virulence. Consistently, using the pH-sensitive dye (pHrodo), we observed no significant difference between wildtype and gdh2-/- mutants in phagosomal pH modulation. Following engulfment of fungal cells, the phagosomal compartment is rapidly acidified and hyphal growth initiates and sustained under consistently acidic conditions within phagosomes. Together, our results demonstrate that amino acid-dependent alkalization is not essential for hyphal growth, survival in macrophages and hosts. An accurate understanding of the microenvironment within macrophage phagosomes and the metabolic events underlying the survival of phagocytized C. albicans cells and their escape are critical to understanding the host-pathogen interactions that ultimately determine the pathogenic outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521896PMC
September 2020

Ginsenoside Rh2 attenuates microglial activation against toxoplasmic encephalitis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Sep 14;44(5):704-716. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory of Natural Resources of Changbai Mountain & Functional Molecules, Ministry of Education, Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Jilin, China.

Background: Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is a characterized component in red ginseng widely used in Korea and China. GRh2 exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. However, its effects on () infection have not been clarified yet.

Methods: The effect of GRh2 against was assessed under and experiments. The BV2 cells were infected with tachyzoites of RH strain, and the effects of GRh2 were evaluated by MTT assay, morphological observations, immunofluorescence staining, a trypan blue exclusion assay, reverse transcription PCR, and Western blot analyses. The experiment was conducted with BALB/c mice inoculated with lethal amounts of tachyzoites with or without GRh2 treatment.

Results And Conclusion: The GRh2 treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of under and studies. Furthermore, GRh2 blocked the activation of microglia and specifically decreased the release of inflammatory mediators in response to infection through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. In mice, GRh2 conferred modest protection from a lethal dose of After the treatment, the proliferation of tachyzoites in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice markedly decreased. Moreover, GRh2 also significantly decreased the burden in mouse brain tissues. These findings indicate that GRh2 exhibits an anti- effect and inhibits the microglial activation through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, providing the basic pharmacological basis for the development of new drugs to treat toxoplasmic encephalitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2019.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471213PMC
September 2020

A general automatic method for optimal construction of matrix product operators using bipartite graph theory.

J Chem Phys 2020 Aug;153(8):084118

MOE Key Laboratory of Organic OptoElectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

Constructing matrix product operators (MPOs) is at the core of the modern density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and its time dependent formulation. For the DMRG to be conveniently used in different problems described by different Hamiltonians, in this work, we propose a new generic algorithm to construct the MPO of an arbitrary operator with a sum-of-products form based on the bipartite graph theory. We show that the method has the following advantages: (i) it is automatic in that only the definition of the operator is required; (ii) it is symbolic thus free of any numerical error; (iii) the complementary operator technique can be fully employed so that the resulting MPO is globally optimal for any given order of degrees of freedom; and (iv) the symmetry of the system could be fully employed to reduce the dimension of MPO. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm, the MPOs of Hamiltonians ranging from the prototypical spin-boson model and the Holstein model to the more complicated ab initio electronic Hamiltonian and the anharmonic vibrational Hamiltonian with the sextic force field are constructed. It is found that for the former three cases, our automatic algorithm can reproduce exactly the same MPOs as the optimally hand-crafted ones already known in the literature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0018149DOI Listing
August 2020

Genome Analysis of Two Novel Phages That Lack Common Auxiliary Metabolic Genes: Possible Reasons and Ecological Insights by Comparative Analysis of Cyanomyoviruses.

Viruses 2020 07 25;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 25.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

The abundant and widespread unicellular cyanobacteria plays an important role in contributing to global phytoplankton primary production. In the present study, two novel cyanomyoviruses, S-N03 and S-H34 that infected MW02, were isolated from the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea. S-N03 contained a 167,069-bp genome comprising double-stranded DNA with a G + C content of 50.1%, 247 potential open reading frames and 1 tRNA; S-H34 contained a 167,040-bp genome with a G + C content of 50.1%, 246 potential open reading frames and 5 tRNAs. These two cyanophages contain fewer auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) than other previously isolated cyanophages. S-H34 in particular, is currently the only known cyanomyovirus that does not contain any AMGs related to photosynthesis. The absence of such common AMGs in S-N03 and S-H34, their distinct evolutionary history and ecological features imply that the energy for phage production might be obtained from other sources rather than being strictly dependent on the maintenance of photochemical ATP under high light. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two isolated cyanophages clustered together and had a close relationship with two other cyanophages of low AMG content. Comparative genomic analysis, habitats and hosts across 81 representative cyanomyovirus showed that cyanomyovirus with less AMGs content all belonged to phages isolated from eutrophic waters. The relatively small genome size and high G + C content may also relate to the lower AMG content, as suggested by the significant correlation between the number of AMGs and G + C%. Therefore, the lower content of AMG in S-N03 and S-H34 might be a result of viral evolution that was likely shaped by habitat, host, and their genomic context. The genomic content of AMGs in cyanophages may have adaptive significance and provide clues to their evolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12080800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472177PMC
July 2020

Characterization and Genome Analysis of a Novel Marine Alteromonas Phage P24.

Curr Microbiol 2020 Oct 25;77(10):2813-2820. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, No. 5 Yushan Road, Shinan District, Qingdao, 266071, People's Republic of China.

Although Alteromonas is ubiquitous in the marine environment, very little is known about Alteromonas phages, with only ten, thus far, being isolated and reported on. In this study, a novel double-stranded DNA phage, Alteromonas phage P24, which infects Alteromonas macleodii, was isolated from the coastal waters off Qingdao. Alteromonas phage P24 has a siphoviral morphology, with an icosahedral head, 61 ± 1 nm in diameter, and a tail length of 105 ± 1 nm. Alteromonas phage P24 contains lipids. It has an optimal temperature and pH for growth of 20℃ and 5-7, respectively. A one-step growth curve shows a latent period of 55 min, a rise period of 65 min, and an average burst size of approximately 147 virions per cell. Alteromonas phage P24 has the genome of 46,945 bp with 43.80% GC content and 74 open reading frames (ORFs) without tRNA. The results of the phylogenetic tree, based on the mcp and terL genes, show that Alteromonas phage P24 is closely related to Aeromonas phage phiARM81ld. Meanwhile, phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome of P24 indicates that it forms a unique viral sub-cluster within Siphoviridae. This study contributes to the understanding of the genomic characteristics and the virus-host interactions of Alteromonas phages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02077-1DOI Listing
October 2020

FDA Approved Drug Library Screening Identifies Robenidine as a Repositionable Antifungal.

Front Microbiol 2020 3;11:996. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Center for Single-Cell Omics, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Due to the increasing prevalence of pathogenic fungal infections, the emergence of antifungal resistant clinical isolates worldwide, and the limited arsenal of available antifungals, developing new antifungal strategies is imperative. In this study, we screened a library of 1068 FDA-approved drugs to identify hits that exhibit broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Robenidine, an anticoccidial agent which has been widely used to treat coccidian infections of poultry and rabbits, was identified in this screen. Physiological concentration of robenidine (8 μM) was able to significantly inhibit yeast cell growth, filamentation and biofilm formation of - the most extensively studied human fungal pathogen. Moreover, we observed a broad-spectrum antifungal activity of this compound against fluconazole resistant clinical isolates of , a wide range of other clinically relevant fungal pathogens. Intriguingly, robenidine-treated cells were hypersensitive to diverse cell wall stressors, and analysis of the cell wall structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the cell wall was severely damaged by robenidine, implying that this compound may target the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Indeed, upon robenidine treatment, we found a dose dependent increase in the phosphorylation of the cell wall integrity marker Mkc1, which was decreased after prolonged exposure. Finally, we provide evidence by RNA-seq and qPCR that Rlm1, the downstream transcription factor of Mkc1, may represent a potential target of robenidine. Therefore, our data suggest that robenidine, a FDA approved anti-coccidiosis drug, displays a promising and broadly effective antifungal strategy, and represents a potentially repositionable candidate for the treatment of fungal infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283467PMC
June 2020

Finite Temperature Dynamical Density Matrix Renormalization Group for Spectroscopy in Frequency Domain.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 May 29;11(10):3761-3768. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

MOE Key Laboratory of Organic OptoElectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

We present a novel methodology through casting the dynamical density matrix renormalization group (DDMRG) into the matrix product state (MPS) formulation to calculate the spectroscopy at finite temperature for molecular aggregates. The frequency domain algorithm can avoid the time evolution accumulation of error and is naturally suitable for parallelization, in addition to facile graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration. The high accuracy is demonstrated by simulating the optical spectra of vibronic model systems ranging from an exactly solvable dimer model to a more complex real-world perylene bisimide (PBI) J-aggregate. The relationship between the 0-0 emission strength and the exciton thermal coherent length is discussed for linearly stacked aggregates. The computing performance largely boosted by GPU demonstrates that DDMRG emerges as a promising method to study dynamical properties for complex systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c00905DOI Listing
May 2020

Isolation and complete genome sequence of a novel cyanophage, S-B05, infecting an estuarine Synechococcus strain: insights into environmental adaptation.

Arch Virol 2020 Jun 19;165(6):1397-1407. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China.

A new cyanophage, S-B05, infecting a phycoerythrin-enriched (PE-type) Synechococcus strain was isolated by the liquid infection method, and its morphology and genetic features were examined. Phylogenetic analysis and morphological observation confirmed that S-B05 belongs to the family Myoviridae of the order Caudovirales. Its genome was fully sequenced, and found to be 208,857 bp in length with a G + C content of 39.9%. It contained 280 potential open reading frames and 123 conserved domains. Ninety-eight functional genes responsible for cyanophage structuring and packaging, DNA replication and regulation, and photosynthesis were identified, as well as genes encoding 172 hypothetical proteins. The genome of S-B05 is most similar to that of Prochlorococcus phage P-TIM68. Homologues of open reading frames of S-B05 can be found in various marine environments, as revealed by comparison of the S-B05 genome sequence to sequences in marine viral metagenomic databases. The presence of auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and phosphorus assimilation, as well as the phylogenetic relationships based on AMGs and the complete genome sequence, reflect the phage-host interaction mechanism or the specific adaptation strategy of the host to environmental conditions. The genome sequence information reported here will provide an important basis for further study of the adaptive evolution and ecological role of cyanophages and their hosts in the marine environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04595-6DOI Listing
June 2020

Short-Term Non-Decaying Mechanoluminescence in LiMgGeO:Mn.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 20;13(6). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

Trap-controlled mechanoluminescent (ML) materials characterized by reproducible mechanoluminescence (ML) after irradiation recharging have shown attractive prospects in applications including stress distribution visualization, stress-driven light sources, and anti-counterfeiting. However, these materials generally suffer from the difficulty of achieving non-decaying ML when subjected to continuous mechanical stimulation. Herein, we develop a trap-controlled reproducible ML material, LiMgGeO:Mn, and report its short-term non-decaying ML behavior. Investigation of trap properties suggests that the unique non-decaying ML behavior should arise from the deep traps existing in LiMgGeO:Mn, which provide electron replenishment for shallow traps that release small numbers of electrons during short-term cyclic friction. Our results are expected to provide a reference for the ultimate achievement of long-term non-decaying ML in such materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13061410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143375PMC
March 2020

[Comparative of functional components, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities between Choerospondias axillaris fruit peel vinegar and apple vinegar].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Mar;45(5):1180-1187

Jiangxi Qiyunshan Food Co., Ltd. Ganzhou 341000, China.

Based on the idea of plant metabolomics, ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to compare the chemical composition between 6 batches of fruit vinegar brewed from Choerospondias axillaris fruit peel and 6 batches of apple vinegar purchased from 3 companies. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities were also tested in vitro. A total of 43 compounds were identified by reference substance, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) fragmentation information or literature data. A total of 40 compounds were identified in the C. axillaris fruit peel vinegar. A total of 16 compounds were identified in apple vinegar. There were 13 common ingredients including organic acids and esters such as citric acid, 2-isopropyl malic acid, and triethyl citrate. The results of partial leastsquares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) indicated that they had 33 significantly different compounds such as proanthocyanidin oligomer, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and heptadecanoic acid. The proanthocyanidins and flavonoid glycosides in C. axillaris peel vinegar were more abundant than apple vinegar, so it had better health function than ordinary fruit vinegar. The results showed that C. axillaris fruit peel vinegar had stronger antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities in vitro. The vinegar brewed from waste C. axillaris fruit peel had more chemical ingredients than the apple vinegar. C. axillaris fruit peel vinegar had better biological activity and health function, so it had good development prospect. This study provided the scientific evidence for exploiting the C. axillaris fruit peel into high value-added products. It also provided ideas for the comprehensive development and utilization of similar Chinese medicine waste.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20191220.201DOI Listing
March 2020

Pediatric inguinal hernia treated by single-port laparoscopic water injection hernia crochet needle.

Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2020 Mar 22;15(1):239-244. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Wenzhou Women and Children's Hospital, Wenzhou, China.

Introduction: Inguinal hernia is the most common disease in pediatric surgery and is induced by congenital processus vaginalis patency. Almost all inguinal hernias are inguinal indirect hernias, and herniorrhaphy has accounted for about 15% of all pediatric operations. In the past 20 years, with the development of minimally invasive technology, laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy has been emerging in China and in other countries.

Aim: To introduce a new technique for treating inguinal hernia in children, and evaluate the feasibility and surgical efficacy of a transumbilical single-port laparoscopic water-injection hernia crochet needle in treating pediatric inguinal hernia.

Material And Methods: Clinical data of 136 inguinal hernial children treated using a transumbilical single-port laparoscopic water-injection hernia crochet needle in our hospital from June 2017 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: All procedures were successfully accomplished, and no case was converted to a different procedure; the average operation time was 16 min for one side and 35 min for both sides. Patients were followed for an average of 10 months after surgery. One patient had a line-knot reaction at the inguinal puncture point 3 months after surgery and recovered after conservative treatment, and no recurrent case was observed after surgery.

Conclusions: It is feasible to treat pediatric inguinal hernia through a transumbilical single-port laparoscopic water-injection hernia crochet needle, which is associated with safety, less trauma, rapid recovery, no obvious scar, and satisfactory efficacy. Therefore, it is worthy of being promoted and applied in clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wiitm.2019.86799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020726PMC
March 2020

Sulfhydration of AKT triggers Tau-phosphorylation by activating glycogen synthase kinase 3β in Alzheimer's disease.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 02 12;117(8):4418-4427. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), human Tau is phosphorylated at S199 (hTau-S199-P) by the protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). HTau-S199-P mislocalizes to dendritic spines, which induces synaptic dysfunction at the early stage of AD. The AKT kinase, once phosphorylated, inhibits GSK3β by phosphorylating it at S9. In AD patients, the abundance of phosphorylated AKT with active GSK3β implies that phosphorylated AKT was unable to inactivate GSK3β. However, the underlying mechanism of the inability of phosphorylated AKT to phosphorylate GSK3β remains unknown. Here, we show that total AKT and phosphorylated AKT was sulfhydrated at C77 due to the induction of intracellular hydrogen sulfide (HS). The increase in intracellular HS levels resulted from the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, which is a pathological hallmark of AD. Sulfhydrated AKT does not interact with GSK3β, and therefore does not phosphorylate GSK3β. Thus, active GSK3β phosphorylates Tau aberrantly. In a transgenic knockin mouse (AKT-KI) that lacked sulfhydrated AKT, the interaction between AKT or phospho-AKT with GSK3β was restored, and GSK3β became phosphorylated. In AKT-KI mice, expressing the pathogenic human Tau mutant (hTau-P301L), the hTau S199 phosphorylation was ameliorated as GSK3β phosphorylation was regained. This event leads to a decrease in dendritic spine loss by reducing dendritic localization of hTau-S199-P, which improves cognitive dysfunctions. Sulfhydration of AKT was detected in the postmortem brains from AD patients; thus, it represents a posttranslational modification of AKT, which primarily contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1916895117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049105PMC
February 2020

Production exopolysaccharide from Kosakonia cowanii LT-1 through solid-state fermentation and its application as a plant growth promoter.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 21;150:955-964. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

College of Biological and Food Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, 99 South Third Ring Road, Changshu 215500, China; College of Food Science and Light Industry, Nanjing Tech University, 30 Puzhu South Road, Nanjing 211816, China. Electronic address:

Exopolysaccharide has the activity of promoting plants growth. Herein, several agro-industrial residues were used for EPS biosynthesis through solid-state fermentation (SSF) using an EPS producing stain Kosakonia cowanii LT-1. Then the influences of cane molasses powder (CMP), NaNO and temperature on EPS biosynthesis through SSF were studied using response surface methodology. Maximum EPS yield (41.62 mg/gds) was obtained in a mixed substrate composed of cane bagasse and broadbean seed capsule (2:1, w/w) supplemented with CMP (5.09%, w/w) and NaNO (4.16‰, w/w), which achieved about 30.43% cost savings for substrates. Transcriptomic analysis explained the mechanism of NaNO promoting EPS production. Repeated batch SSF was performed eight times with 10% substrate as the seeds of the next SSF cycle successfully. Therefore, the fermented SSF substrate containing K. cowanii LT-1 and its EPS was applied in maize growth, which could promote seed germination rate and growth vigor of maize. Hence, fermented SSF substrates would be an ideal candidate for application as a plant growth promoter in agriculture field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.10.209DOI Listing
May 2020

Aberrant ER Stress Induced Neuronal-IFNβ Elicits White Matter Injury Due to Microglial Activation and T-Cell Infiltration after TBI.

J Neurosci 2020 01 6;40(2):424-446. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, and

Persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in neurons is associated with activation of inflammatory cells and subsequent neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We found that induction of neuronal-ER stress, which was mostly characterized by an increase in phosphorylation of a protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK) leads to release of excess interferon (IFN)β due to atypical activation of the neuronal-STING signaling pathway. IFNβ enforced activation and polarization of the primary microglial cells to inflammatory M1 phenotype with the secretion of a proinflammatory chemokine CXCL10 due to activation of STAT1 signaling. The secreted CXCL10, in turn, stimulated the T-cell infiltration by serving as the ligand and chemoattractant for CXCR3 T-helper 1 (Th1) cells. The activation of microglial cells and infiltration of Th1 cells resulted in white matter injury, characterized by impaired myelin basic protein and neurofilament NF200, the reduced thickness of corpus callosum and external capsule, and decline of mature oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Intranasal delivery of CXCL10 siRNA blocked Th1 infiltration but did not fully rescue microglial activation and white matter injury after TBI. However, impeding PERK-phosphorylation through the administration of GSK2656157 abrogated neuronal induction of IFNβ, switched microglial polarization to M2 phenotype, prevented Th1 infiltration, and increased Th2 and Treg levels. These events ultimately attenuated the white matter injury and improved anxiety and depressive-like behavior following TBI. A recent clinical study showed that human brain trauma patients had enhanced expression of type-1 IFN; suggests that type-1 IFN signaling may potentially influence clinical outcome in TBI patients. However, it was not understood how TBI leads to an increase in IFNβ and whether induction of IFNβ has any influence on neuroinflammation, which is the primary reason for morbidity and mortality in TBI. Our study suggests that induction of PERK phosphorylation, a characteristic feature of ER stress is responsible for an increase in neuronal IFNβ, which, in turn, activates microglial cells and subsequently manifests the infiltration of T cells to induce neuroinflammation and subsequently white matter injury. Blocking PERK phosphorylation using GSK2656157 (or PERK knockdown) the whole cascade of neuroinflammation was attenuated and improved cognitive function after TBI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0718-19.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948950PMC
January 2020

Maize phenylalanine ammonia-lyases contribute to resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus infection, most likely through positive regulation of salicylic acid accumulation.

Mol Plant Pathol 2019 10 5;20(10):1365-1378. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

State Key Laboratory for Agro-Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of worldwide importance that causes dwarf mosaic disease on maize (Zea mays). Until now, few maize genes/proteins have been shown to be involved in resistance to SCMV. In this study, we characterized the role of maize phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (ZmPALs) in accumulation of the defence signal salicylic acid (SA) and in resistance to virus infection. SCMV infection significantly increased SA accumulation and expression of SA-responsive pathogenesis-related protein genes (PRs). Interestingly, exogenous SA treatment decreased SCMV accumulation and enhanced resistance. Both reverse transcription-coupled quantitative PCR and RNA-Seq data confirmed that expression levels of at least four ZmPAL genes were significantly up-regulated upon SCMV infection. Knockdown of ZmPAL expression led to enhanced SCMV infection symptom severity and virus multiplication, and simultaneously resulted in decreased SA accumulation and PR gene expression. Intriguingly, application of exogenous SA to SCMV-infected ZmPAL-silenced maize plants decreased SCMV accumulation, showing that ZmPALs are required for SA-mediated resistance to SCMV infection. In addition, lignin measurements and metabolomic analysis showed that ZmPALs are also involved in SCMV-induced lignin accumulation and synthesis of other secondary metabolites via the phenylpropanoid pathway. In summary, our results indicate that ZmPALs are required for SA accumulation in maize and are involved in resistance to virus infection by limiting virus accumulation and moderating symptom severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6792131PMC
October 2019

Complete genomic sequence of bacteriophage P23: a novel Vibrio phage isolated from the Yellow Sea, China.

Virus Genes 2019 Dec 16;55(6):834-842. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

A novel Vibrio phage, P23, belonging to the family Siphoviridae was isolated from the surface water of the Yellow Sea, China. The complete genome of this phage was determined. A one-step growth curve showed that the latent period was approximately 30 min, the burst size was 24 PFU/cell, and the rise period was 20 min. The phage is host specific and is stable over a range of pH (5-10) and temperatures (4-65 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed that phage P23 can be categorized into the Siphoviridae family, with an icosahedral head of 60 nm and a long noncontractile tail of 144 nm. The genome consisted of a linear, double-stranded 40.063 kb DNA molecule with 42.5% G+C content and 72 putative open reading frames (ORFs) without tRNA. The predicted ORFs were classified into six functional groups, including DNA replication, regulation and nucleotide metabolism, transcription, phage packaging, phage structure, lysis, and hypothetical proteins. The Vibrio phage P23 genome is a new marine Siphoviridae-family phage genome that provides basic information for further molecular research on interaction mechanisms between bacteriophages and their hosts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01699-3DOI Listing
December 2019

Application of Bio-Impedance Analysis to Estimate the Condition of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) Muscle at Different Storage Temperatures.

Bioelectromagnetics 2019 Oct 7;40(7):488-497. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Grauate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Changes in impedance at 2 kHz, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and muscle contraction were evaluated in yellowtail during 0 (ice), 5, 10, 15, and 20°C storage. Histological changes during ice storage were also measured. At any temperature, although impedance increased with both rigor mortis and ATP consumption during early storage, it began to decrease rapidly when ATP was almost depleted. Moreover, temporarily increasing impedance had a strong relationship with ATP content; decreasing impedance had a significant correlation with storage temperature after ATP depletion. Furthermore, impedance increased with narrowing of intercellular spaces when sarcolemma was intact and decreased with expansion of intercellular spaces when sarcolemma was leaky. Meanwhile, changes of sarcolemma and intercellular spaces were accompanied by ATP change. Thus, ATP is one significant physiological factor for impedance change, and temperature greatly influenced impedance after depletion of ATP. Results suggest that impedance analysis can be used as a convenient and nondestructive method to diagnose condition of tissue at different storage temperatures. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019;40:488-497. © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.22211DOI Listing
October 2019