Publications by authors named "Tong Fang"

50 Publications

Changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cells, and IL-6 and IL-10 levels predict response of pediatric medulloblastoma and germ cell tumors with residual or disseminated disease to craniospinal irradiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Radiotherapy modulates immune cells and cytokines resulting in both clinically beneficial and detrimental effects. The changes in peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines during radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors and the association of these changes with therapeutic outcomes have not been well described.

Methods And Materials: The study population consisted of children (n=83, ages 3∼18) with primary brain tumors (medulloblastoma, glioma, germ cell tumors, and CNS embryonal tumor-NOS), with or without residual or disseminated (R/D) diseases who were starting standard post-operative focal or craniospinal-irradiation (CSI). Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets collected before and 4 weeks after radiotherapy were enumerated by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A were measured by cytometric bead array.

Results: Patients with R/D lesions receiving CSI (n=32) had a post-radiotherapy increase in the frequency of CD3+T cell and CD8+T cells, a decrease in CD4+ T cells, and an increase in Tregs and CD8+CD28- suppressor cells which were predominantly seen than other groups. In such R/D lesions exposed to CSI group, consisting of patients with medulloblastoma and germ cell tumors, 19 experienced a complete response (CR) and 13 experienced a partial response (PR) on imaging at 4 weeks following radiotherapy. The post/pre-radiotherapy ratio of Tregs (P =0.0493), IL-6 (P=0.0111) and IL-10 (P=0.0070) was lower in the CR group than the PR group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the post/pre-radiotherapy ratios of Treg, IL-6 and IL-10 were independent predictors of CR (P<0.0001, P=0.018, P<0.0001, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating curves (ROC) and confidence intervals were 0.7652 (0.5831ཞ0.8964), 0.7794 (0.5980ཞ0.9067), 0.7085 (0.5223ཞ0.8552) for IL-6, IL-10 and Treg respectively. The sensitivities of IL-6, IL-10 and Treg to predict radiotherapeutic responses were 100%, 92.3%, and 61.5% and specificity was 52.6%, 57.9%, and 84.2% respectively.

Conclusions: CSI treatment to those with R/D lesions exerted a predominantly effect on anti-tumor immune response compared with both R/D lesions-free but exposed to focal or CSI radiotherapy and with R/D lesions for focal radiotherapy. Such CSI with R/D lesions group experiencing CR is more likely to have a decrease in immunoinhibitory molecules and cells than patients who only achieve PR. Measuring peripheral blood Treg, IL-6 and IL-10 levels could be valuable for predicting radiotherapeutic responses of pediatric brain tumors with R/D lesions with CSI for medulloblastoma and intracranial germ cell tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.04.041DOI Listing
May 2021

Unexpected death in a young man associated with a unilateral swollen leg: Pathological and toxicological findings in a fatal snakebite from Deinagkistrodon acutus (Chinese moccasin).

J Forensic Sci 2021 Mar 23;66(2):786-792. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Deinagkistrodon acutus (D. acutus), also known as the Chinese moccasin, is a viper species found throughout the southeastern parts of China, northern Vietnam and Laos. D. acutus envenomation can result in coagulopathy and lead to death if not treated correctly. A 20-year-old man was discovered with a severely swollen left thigh with overlying dark purple, discolored skin. He was immediately transported to hospital. Laboratory examinations revealed dysfunctional coagulation and fluid-electrolyte imbalances. He died 2 h later despite resuscitation efforts. Surveillance footage revealed that he had walked through a grass field while returning home that night. Autopsy and pathological examination findings revealed a large area of muscle necrosis of the left thigh, renal tubular necrosis, and hepatocyte necrosis. Potential fang marks were found on the decedent's jeans. Due to our suspicions, we performed specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and detected D. acutus venom in the kidneys, left thigh muscle, liver, lung, spleen, and heart tissues of the decedent. In conclusion, the clinical manifestations, autopsy, histopathological examination, ELISA, and investigation results confirmed D. acutus envenomation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14622DOI Listing
March 2021

Unexpected death due to spontaneous splenic rupture: A rare case in splenic angiosarcoma.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2020 Nov 8;47:101785. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Splenic angiosarcoma (SA) is a rare disease that can cause spontaneous splenic rupture leading to unexpected death. The rare incidence and non-specific clinical presentations made the early correct diagnosis of SA impossible in clinical practice. Even with medical intervention, 80% of patients died within 6 months after diagnosis. Here, we report a man who had complained of abdominal distension for 2 weeks and succumbed to the disease nine hours after admission. Diagnosis of hepatic and splenic angiosarcomas was based on post-mortem histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry, and the cause of death was hemorrhagic shock caused by spontaneous splenic rupture secondary to SA. This present case was the first forensic autopsy of spontaneous splenic rupture secondary to SA, which can highlight the diagnosis of rare diseases in forensic practice, and forensic pathologists should bear in mind these rare diseases even in routine practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101785DOI Listing
November 2020

Pathological changes induced by phosphine poisoning: a study on 8 children.

Int J Legal Med 2020 Jan 11;134(1):217-228. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Hankou, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Aluminum phosphide (ALP) has been extensively used as an economical and effective insecticide, rodenticide, and fumigant. The active ingredient of ALP is phosphine (PH), the use of which can lead to accidental inhalation and mass poisoning with high mortality. Exposure to PH will give rise to global damage in the human body. This study reviewed 4 fatal accidents including 8 children with PH poisoning and aimed to determine the pathological changes that resulted from exposure to PH and, secondly, aimed to determine whether oxidative stress was involved in PH-induced neurotoxicity using histopathological and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods. After focusing on the pathological changes on the major organs, we found severe damage induced by PH in many systems, especially the neurological system, including neuronal, axonal, and vascular injuries as well as oxidative damage with increased expression of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4HNE), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in the brain, which indicated that oxidative stress was a crucial mechanism for neuronal death in PH toxicity. Moreover, we observed severe myocardial and hepatocellular fatty degeneration in the tissues of the heart and liver. We considered that these characteristic changes are a suggestive sign of PH poisoning and partly explained the toxic mechanism of PH (inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation). We hope that this research could improve the understanding of the toxicity of PH in both forensic and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-019-02169-zDOI Listing
January 2020

Fatal cervix rupture due to intraplacental choriocarcinoma triggered by sexual intercourse.

Int J Legal Med 2020 Jan 7;134(1):317-320. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Hankou, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

A 27-year-old woman, gravida 1 para 0, died 30 min after intercourse at the 16th week of gestation. The prenatal medical history indicated the placental implantation position at the cervix. The autopsy revealed massive hemoperitoneum and a tumor in the placenta and myometrium on the anterior right side of the cervix. A transmural perforation was found from the tumor to the serosal surface of the cervix. The autopsy, histopathology, and medical history indicated that her death was ascribed to the rupture of the cervix due to intraplacental choriocarcinoma (IC) after intercourse. The case indicated that placental implantation and tumor invasion might lead to the rupture of the uterus triggered by external forces in daily life. This case study might increase the awareness and recognition of IC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-019-02167-1DOI Listing
January 2020

iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis discovers potential biomarkers of diffuse axonal injury in rats.

Brain Res Bull 2019 11 17;153:289-304. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tongji Medical College, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Hankou, Wuhan, 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common and severe pathological consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The molecular mechanism of DAI is highly complicated and still elusive, yet a clear understanding is crucial for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of DAI. In our study, we used rats to establish a DAI model and applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the corpus callosum. As a result, a total of 514 proteins showed differential expression between the injury groups and the control. Among these DEPs, 14 common DEPs were present at all seven time points postinjury (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Next, bioinformatic analysis was performed to elucidate the pathogenesis of DAI, which was found to possibly involve calcium ion-regulatory proteins (e.g., calsenilin and ryanodine receptor 2), cytoskeleton organization (e.g., peripherin, NFL, NFM, and NFH), apoptotic processes (e.g., calsenilin and protein kinase C delta type), and inflammatory response proteins (e.g., complement C3 and C-reactive protein). Moreover, peripherin and calsenilin were successfully confirmed by western blotting to be significantly upregulated during DAI, and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed that their expression increased and could be observed in axons after injury, thus indicating their potential as DAI biomarkers. Our experiments not only provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of axonal injury in rats during DAI but also give clinicians and pathologists important reference data for the diagnosis of DAI. Our findings may expand the list of DAI biomarkers and improve the postmortem diagnostic rate of DAI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.09.004DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of octenyl succinic anhydride starch ester by semi-dry method with vacuum-microwave assistant.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Dec 31;141:1128-1136. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

College of Food Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

Corn starch was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA), in which semidry method assisted with vacuum-microwave treatment was used under the alkalescent condition. The effect of vacuum treatment on esterification was studied. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. And the emulsifying properties were investigated with the emulsifying capacity (EC), emulsion droplet size and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The degree of substitution (DS) of OSA starch increased significantly (ρ < 0.05) assisted by the vacuum-microwave treatment with the same dosage of reactant compared with the microwave only. The results confirmed the formation of OSA starch prepared by the method, all reactions occurred mainly on the surface of granules, and had no significant effect on the starch crystallinity. The OSA starch was a good polymeric surfactant with good abilities both in hydrophilic and lipophilic. The emulsifying capacity, degree of substitution of the OSA starch prepared by the method attractively showed vast potential for scale production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.157DOI Listing
December 2019

Reducing Xerostomia by Comprehensive Protection of Salivary Glands in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy with Helical Tomotherapy Technique for Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients: A Prospective Observational Study.

Biomed Res Int 2019 14;2019:2401743. Epub 2019 Jul 14.

Medical School of Chinese PLA, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, China.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effects of comprehensive protection of bilateral parotid glands (PG-T), contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG), and accessory salivary glands in the oral cavity (OC) by helical tomotherapy for head-and-neck cancer patients.

Methods: Totally 175 patients with histologically confirmed head-and-neck cancer treated with helical tomotherapy were recruited. The doses delivered to PG-T, cSMG, and OC were constrained to be as low as possible in treatment planning. The saliva flow rates and xerostomia questionnaire were evaluated. Correlation between xerostomia and other clinical factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate models. The impact of salivary gland dose on locoregional (LR) recurrence was assessed by Cox analysis. ROC curve was used to determine the threshold of mean dose for each gland.

Results: The median follow-up was 25 (19-36) months. The OC mean dose, PG-T mean dose, cSMG mean dose, age, clinical stage (II and III versus IV), and both unstimulated and stimulated saliva flow rates were significantly correlated with xerostomia. The OC mean dose, cSMG mean dose, age, and clinical stage were predictors of xerostomia after adjusting PG-T mean dose, and unstimulated and stimulated saliva flow rates. Xerostomia was significantly decreased when the mean doses of PG-T, cSMG, and OC were kept below 29.12Gy, 29.29Gy, and 31.44Gy, respectively. At 18 months after radiation therapy, early LR recurrence rate was only 4%.

Conclusion: Comprehensive protection of salivary glands minimized xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients treated by helical tomotherapy, without increasing early LR recurrence risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2401743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662416PMC
January 2020

[Effects of tourism disturbance on the habitat and water quality for Andrias davidianus in Zhangjiajie, Hunan, China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Jun;30(6):2101-2108

Hunan Engineering Laboratory for Chinese Giant Salamander's Resource Protection and Comprehensive Utilization, Jishou University, Zhangjiajie 427000, Hunan, China.

To understand the effects of tourism disturbance on the habitat and water quality for Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS), the interference and characteristics of habitat for CGS under different tourism intensity (high, medium, and low) were investigated, and the physicochemical and microbial index of water were analyzed in Zhangjiajie City, Hunan Province, China from 2014 to 2016. The results showed that high tourism disturbance (>0.5 million per year) significantly increased noise and reduced the number of dens, decreased dissolved oxygen levels, increased total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and microbial abundance in water, especially that of Escherichiacoli. Under high disturbance, the characteristics of habitat and water quality still could meet the requirements of the growth of CGS. According to the National ground water class 2 standard based on the demands of E. coli in the surface water (2000 ind·L), the theoretical threshold of tourist numbers was 26.0471 million per year. The intensity of tourism interference should be effectively reduced by declining tourist numbers and tourism facilities, for the protection of the habitat quality of the CGS and the promotion of tourism development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201906.039DOI Listing
June 2019

Sudden Unexpected Death Due to Left Subclavian Artery-esophageal Fistula Caused by Fish Bone.

J Forensic Sci 2019 Nov 4;64(6):1926-1928. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, 430030, China.

A 53-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital due to unexpected dizziness and died the following morning. To investigate the cause of death, a forensic autopsy along with histological examination was performed 3 days after her death. The major findings of the autopsy were that a fish bone had pierced the left subclavian artery after perforating the esophagus with 680 mL of blood in the stomach and bloody and tarry contents were present in the intestines, and the cause of death was confirmed to be subsequent hemorrhagic shock. Unfortunately, none of her family realized that she had eaten a fish 4 days before the tragedy until the fish bone was found. The present case is rare and instructive. The histopathological findings of left subclavian artery-esophageal fistula induced by a fish bone can be used as a reference in forensic practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14092DOI Listing
November 2019

The Water Diffusion of Brain Following Hypoglycemia in Rats - A Study with Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Neuropathologic Analysis.

Neuroscience 2019 06 26;409:58-68. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tongji Medical College, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Hankou, Wuhan, 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

We established hypoglycemic rat models and divided them into three groups (the sham group, the acute hypoglycemia group and the recovery group). The brain water diffusion was examined using DWI. Thereafter, neuropathologic examinations were performed in order to evaluate the distribution of brain damage. The expression of AQP4 and Caspase3 was also examined using Western blot. We aimed to determine the specific brain regions which were vulnerable to hypoglycemia in relation to the water diffusion and neuropathology. The DWI scanning showed abnormal water diffusion in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus during each stage of hypoglycemia. In the acute hypoglycemia group, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the hypothalamus was increased, while the ADC of the somatosensory cortex (SSc), subcortex and striatum (Str) was decreased. After glucose reperfusion and a 7-day recovery period, most of the hypoglycemia-induced changes in ADC returned to normal, except in the hypothalamus, posterior SSc and DG, which demonstrated increased ADC levels. The lowest AQP4 expression was observed in the cortex of the acute hypoglycemia group. Furthermore, there was increased Caspase3 expression in the hippocampus of the recovery group. The expression of Caspase3 in the hypothalamus was most prominent in the acute hypoglycemia group. Our work revealed that hypoglycemia significantly influenced the water diffusion of the brain. The decrease of AQP4 was associated with the formation of cytotoxic edema in acute hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia primarily tends to damage the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus and may result in permanent injury to the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.036DOI Listing
June 2019

Differential Gene Expression in Primary Cultured Sensory and Motor Nerve Fibroblasts.

Front Neurosci 2018 9;12:1016. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration of Jiangsu and Ministry of Education, Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Jiangsu Clinical Medicine Center of Tissue Engineering and Nerve Injury Repair, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Fibroblasts (Fbs) effectively promote Schwann cells (SCs) migration, proliferation, and neurite regeneration. Whether Fbs express different motor and sensory phenotypes that regulate the cell behavior and peripheral nerve function has not been elucidated. The present study utilized the whole rat genome microarray analysis and identified a total of 121 differentially expressed genes between the primary cultured motor and sensory Fbs. The genes with high expression in sensory Fbs were related to proliferation, migration, chemotaxis, motility activation, protein maturation, defense response, immune system, taxis, and regionalization, while those with high expression in motor Fbs were related to neuron differentiation, segmentation, and pattern specification. Thus, the significant difference in the expression of some key genes was found to be associated with cell migration and proliferation, which was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The cell proliferation or migration analysis revealed a higher rate of cell migration and proliferation of sensory Fbs than motor Fbs. Moreover, the downregulated expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) suppressed the proliferation rate of sensory Fbs, while it enhanced that of the motor Fbs. However, the migration rate of both Fbs was suppressed by the downregulated expression of CXCL10 or CXCL3. Furthermore, a higher proportion of motor or sensory SCs migrated toward their respective (motor or sensory) Fbs; however, few motor or sensory SCs co-cultured with the other type of Fbs (sensory or motor, respectively), migrated toward the Fbs. The current findings indicated that Fbs expressed the distinct motor and sensory phenotypes involved in different patterns of gene expression, biological processes, and effects on SCs. Thus, this study would provide insights into the biological differences between motor and sensory Fbs, including the role in peripheral nerve regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.01016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333708PMC
January 2019

Sudden death from an epileptic seizure due to capillary telangiectasias in the hippocampus.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2019 Jun 16;15(2):243-248. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Cerebral capillary telangiectasia (CCT) is a type of vascular malformation that is incidentally encountered in clinical practice. Diseased vessels are small and usually clinically benign over the course of a patient's life. Although most CCT patients are asymptomatic, the situation becomes complicated when trauma is encountered. A case of sudden death due to an epileptic episode after very mild head trauma is reported, including a retrospective study of 12 cases, to remind peers to pay close attention to CCT especially when located in important functional regions of the brain. After immunohistochemical staining and pathological examination, we speculated that the epileptogenic mechanism of CCT may be similar to that of hippocampal sclerosis. As the definite epileptogenic mechanism of CCT in the hippocampus is still elusive, we suggest that more research should be conducted on CCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-018-0075-7DOI Listing
June 2019

WITHDRAWN: MicroRNA-18a promotes proliferation and metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma via targeting KLF4.

Cancer Biomark 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-181943DOI Listing
December 2018

Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k improves long-term neurological outcomes through reducing downstream microvascular thrombosis in experimental ischemic stroke.

Brain Res 2019 03 8;1706:166-176. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration of Jiangsu and Ministry of Education, Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, China. Electronic address:

Achyranthes bidentata Bl. (A. bidentata) occupies an important position in traditional Chinese medicine owing to the property of promoting the circulation of blood and removing stasis. Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k (ABPPk) is one of the active components isolated from A. bidentata. We previously demonstrated that ABPPk has potent neuroprotective effects against neuronal apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, but the roles and mechanisms of ABPPk on long-term functional recovery after ischemic stroke remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of ABPPk on filament transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rats and found that ABPPk reduced the infarct volume and maintained the neuronal integrity in the ischemic penumbra. Moreover, we found that ABPPk might reduce the formation of downstream microthrombus through preventing ischemic-induced oxidative damage of brain endothelial cells and activation of tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and NF-κB. ABPPk also inhibited polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9) activation in the ischemic penumbra. Morris water maze, foot fault test, and modified neurological severity score were assessed for a period of 6 weeks following tMCAO. ABPPk improved long-term recognition abilities and neurological outcomes after stroke compared with saline-treated rats. Taken together, these results suggested that ABPPk is beneficial to the improvement of long-term outcomes after transient cerebral ischemia injury and can be used as a potential neuroprotective agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.11.010DOI Listing
March 2019

Observation of the Breeding Behavior of the Chinese Giant Salamander () Using a Digital Monitoring System.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Sep 25;8(10). Epub 2018 Sep 25.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Knowledge of natural animal behavior is essential for enhancing the protection and artificial breeding of animals. At present, the behavior of the Chinese giant salamander () is studied through interviews with local people or occasional observations under artificial conditions, leading to a lack of systematic records. Thus, most reports are descriptive and lack quantitative analyses. To ascertain the types of reproductive activities and their corresponding time allocations, this study observed the reproductive behavior of using a digital monitoring system for the first time. The results showed that sand-pushing behavior is mainly carried out by the limbs, tail, head, and body of den-dominant males. Showering behaviors included rinsing the trunk, head, and tail. Courtship was composed of a series of behaviors, including standing side-by-side, belly colliding, mounting, mouth-to-mouth posturing, chasing, inviting, cohabitating, and rolling over. After chasing and interlocking with the male, the female discharged her eggs. The oviposition process began at either 02:04 or 04:09, and lasted either 66 or 182 min. Parental care included tail fanning, agitation, shaking, and eating dead and unfertilized eggs, and the durations of these behaviors accounted for 31.74 ± 4.35%, 17.42 ± 4.00%, 3.85 ± 1.18%, and 1.19 ± 0.69% of the entire incubation period, respectively. This paper reveals the characteristics of the reproductive behavior of and provides a scientific basis for the management of its ecological breeding and the conservation of its wild populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8100161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211081PMC
September 2018

PCBP1 depletion promotes tumorigenesis through attenuation of p27 mRNA stability and translation.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2018 Aug 7;37(1):187. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, SUN Yat-sen University, 74 Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: Poly C Binding Protein 1 (PCBP1) is an RNA-binding protein that binds and regulates translational activity of subsets of cellular mRNAs. Depletion of PCBP1 is implicated in various carcinomas, but the underlying mechanism in tumorigenesis remains elusive.

Methods: We performed a transcriptome-wide screen to identify novel bounding mRNA of PCBP1. The bind regions between PCBP1 with target mRNA were investigated by using point mutation and luciferase assay. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis were also evaluated in ovary and colon cancer cell lines. The mechanism that PCBP1 affects p27 was analyzed by mRNA stability and ribosome profiling assays. We analyzed PCBP1 and p27 expression in ovary, colon and renal tumor samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues using RT-PCR, Western Blotting and immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of PCBP1 and p27 also analyzed using online databases.

Results: We identified cell cycle inhibitor p27 (p27) as a novel PCBP1-bound transcript. We then demonstrated that binding of PCBP1 to p27 3'UTR via its KH1 domain mainly stabilizes p27 mRNA, while enhances its translation to fuel p27 expression, prior to p27 protein degradation. The upregulated p27 consequently inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, whereas promotes cell apoptosis under paclitaxel treatment. Conversely, knockdown of PCBP1 in turn compromises p27 mRNA stability, leading to lower p27 level and tumorigenesis in vivo. Moreover, forced depletion of p27 counteracts the tumor suppressive ability of PCBP1 in the same PCBP1 over-expressing cells. Physiologically, we showed that decreases of both p27 mRNA and its protein expressions are well correlated to PCBP1 depletion in ovary, colon and renal tumor samples, independent of the p27 ubiquitin ligase Skp2 level. Correlation of PCBP1 with p27 is also found in the tamoxifen, doxorubincin and lapatinib resistant breast cancer cells of GEO database.

Conclusion: Our results thereby indicate that loss of PCBP1 expression firstly attenuates p27 expression at post-transcriptional level, and subsequently promotes carcinogenesis. PCBP1 could be used as a diagnostic marker to cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-018-0840-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081911PMC
August 2018

Identifying novel microhaplotypes for ancestry inference.

Int J Legal Med 2019 Jul 23;133(4):983-988. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, People's Republic of China.

The use of DNA to determine the ancestry of an individual is becoming more and more important in the areas of forensics. Kidd et al. (Forensic Sci Int Genet 12:215-224, 2014) have been the first to identify and catalog haplotypes, termed as minihaplotypes (1-10-kilobase spans) and microhaplotypes (≤ 200 bp), with potential use in forensic analysis. In the present study, we selected 10 short ancestry informative microhaplotypes by calculating the informativeness (I) according to Rosenberg et al. (Am J Hum Genet 73(6):1402-1422, 2003). In total, 2504 individuals from 26 populations in 1000 Genomes Project database Phase 3 were enrolled. Among the studied microhaplotypes, eight of them are comprised of 3 SNPs while two microhaplotypes are made up of 4 SNPs. The size (molecular extent) range of 10 microhaplotypes is 5 to 48 bp with an average of 31.4 bp. The heterozygosity value ranges from 0.2235 to 0.8958 with an average of 0.6593. The average power of discrimination (PD) values is 0.7944 and ranges from 0.3786 to 0.9242. Analyses of this dataset provided clear differentiation of the populations from the Africa, East Asia, South Asia, and Europe biogeographic regions. However, individuals from American ancestry were not well separated. To conclude, our results revealed the significance of using microhaplotypes as an ancestry informative marker. The present panel could offer a valid complementary tool in forensic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1881-xDOI Listing
July 2019

GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism might be associated with the risk of radiation pneumonitis among lung cancer patients in Chinese population: A prospective study.

J Cancer 2018 1;9(4):726-735. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, P.R. China.

Growing data suggest that DNA damage repair and detoxification pathways play crucial roles in radiation-induced toxicities. To determine whether common functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes from these pathways can be used as predictors of radiation pneumonitis (RP), we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the associations between functional SNPs and risk of RP. We recruited a total of 149 lung cancer patients who had received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). GSTP1 and XRCC1 were genotyped using the SurPlexTM-xTAG method in all patients. RP events were prospectively scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 4.0. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine the cumulative probability of RP of grade ≥ 2. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to identify clinical variables and SNPs associated with risk of RP grade ≥ 2, using univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively. With a median follow-up of 9 months, the incidence of RP of grade ≥ 2 was 38.3%. A predicting role in RP was observed for the GSTP1 SNP (adjusted hazard ratio 3.543; 95% CI 1.770-7.092; adjusted < 0.001 for the Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes versus Ile/Ile genotype). Whereas, we found that patients with XRCC1 399Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes had a lower risk of RP compares with those carrying Arg/Arg genotype (adjusted HR 0.653; 95% CI 0.342-1.245), but with no statistical significance observed (adjusted = 0.195). Our results suggested a novel association between GSTP1 SNP 105Ile/Val and risk of RP development, which suggests the potential use of this genetic polymorphism as a predictor of RP. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 399Arg/Gln may also be associated with RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.20643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5858494PMC
February 2018

Association of DNA repair gene polymorphisms with the risk of radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients.

Oncotarget 2018 Jan 5;9(1):958-968. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

A total of 149 lung cancer patients were recruited to receive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The association of developing radiation pneumonitis (RP) with genetic polymorphism was evaluated. The risks of four polymorphic sites in three DNA repair related genes (ERCC1, rs116615:T354C and rs3212986:C1516A; ERCC2, rs13181:A2251C; XRCC1, rs25487:A1196G) for developing grade ≥ 2 RP were assessed respectively. It was observed that ERCC1 T354C SNP had a significant effect on the development of grade ≥ 2 RP (CT/TT vs. CC, adjusted HR = 0.517, 95% CI, 0.285-0.939; adjusted 0.030). It is the first time demonstrating that CT/TT genotype of ERCC1 354 was significantly associated with lower RP risk after radio therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.22982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787526PMC
January 2018

Sudden death due to malignant hyperthermia with a mutation of RYR1: autopsy, morphology and genetic analysis.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2017 Dec 4;13(4):444-449. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, NO.13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormal calcium homeostasis in skeletal muscles in response to triggering agents. Autopsy, morphology, and genetic analysis were performed on a 19-year-old man who died rapidly after exposure to sevoflurane during maxillofacial surgery. Muscle spasm around the operation area and limb rigidity occurred and renal tubules full of myoglobin casts were observed by microscopy. Ultrastructural changes in the skeletal muscles and the myocardium were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Genetic analysis disclosed a ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1) gene mutation and a nucleoide mutation in chromosome 19q (G1021A) in the deceased and his father. According to the fore mentioned results, the relationship between the cause of death and MH was confirmed. Thus, genetic analysis can be an important procedure in diagnosing MH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-017-9925-yDOI Listing
December 2017

Forensic aspects of homicides by insulin overdose.

Forensic Sci Int 2017 Sep 20;278:9-15. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Analysis of homicidal insulin overdose is a challenging task in forensic practice because of the difficulties in toxicological analysis as well as the elusive pathologic changes. We performed a detailed histopathologic examination on four autopsy cases involving insulin homicide, using H&E, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence assays. Severe reactive astrocyte proliferation was obvious in the white matter of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brain stem, especially in subcortical regions. We found a statistically significant increase in the number and total area of reactive astrocytes compared with controls (p<0.001). Insulin was detected at the injection sites of subcutaneous soft tissues by using IHC, luminescence immunoassay and immunofluorescence. Most insulin deposits were located in the gaps between adipocytes, and a few deposits were located in peripheral nerves and inflammatory cells. We also detected protamine in the skin tissues in two of the four cases. Our study revealed that the presence of insulin and/or protamine at the injection sites, along with severe reactive astrocyte proliferation, could help diagnose insulin overdose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.06.015DOI Listing
September 2017

Fatal poisoning by terbufos following occupational exposure.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 02 6;56(2):140-142. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

a Department of Forensic Medicine , Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tongji Medical College , Wuhan , PR China.

Context: Terbufos (TBF) is a class Ia (extremely hazardous) organophosphate pesticide (OP) and its distribution in industrialized countries has been severely restricted. Thus, acute occupational poisoning is rather uncommon. However, it still occurs in rural areas of some developing countries, where the sale of TBF is not controlled and its use is thus not properly regulated. We report a case of a 43-year-old female farmer who died after applying TBF granules.

Case: The patient died within 3 h after applying 20 bags of 5% TBF granules (900 g per bag). Investigation showed that her personal protective equipment (PPE) did not provide effective protection against dermal and inhalational exposure. Postmortem analysis revealed extremely low red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity. Toxicological analysis of TBF showed 1.45 × 10 μg/ml in the heart blood and 0.17 μg/g in the liver.

Discussions: This patient died as a result of toxicity from dermal and inhalational exposure to TBF. Over-application, improper equipment, inadequate and defective PPE, and lack of hygienic precautions were all contributing factors.

Conclusions: TBF is a highly toxic OP. Inadequate regulatory control, improper environmental application, and ineffective PPE resulted in a fatal human exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1340647DOI Listing
February 2018

Anti-Double-Stranded DNA IgG Participates in Renal Fibrosis through Suppressing the Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Signals.

Front Immunol 2017 31;8:610. Epub 2017 May 31.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) participates in renal fibrosis by downregulating Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-mediated cytokine signaling. Recently, it was found that anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) IgG induces the synthesis of profibrotic cytokines by renal cells. To explore the potential effect of anti-dsDNA IgG on SOCS1-mediated renal fibrosis, kidney tissues were collected from patients with lupus nephritis (LN) as well as MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. The SOCS1 expression was evaluated in tissue samples. In addition, SCID mice were injected with anti-dsDNA IgG, followed by evaluation of SOCS1 levels. Renal resident cells were cultured , receiving the stimulation of anti-dsDNA IgG and then the measurement of SOCS1, JAK2, STAT1α, and profibrotic cytokines. Moreover, the binding of anti-dsDNA IgG to SOCS1 kinase inhibitory region (KIR) peptide was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance. We found that SOCS1 expression was inhibited, but JAK2/STAT1 activation was prominent in the kidney tissues of patients with LN, MRL/lpr mice, or anti-dsDNA IgG-injected SCID mice. The cultured renal cells also showed SOCS1 downregulation, JAK2/STAT1 activation, and profibrotic cytokine promotion upon anti-dsDNA IgG stimulation. Surprisingly, anti-dsDNA IgG showed high affinity to KIR peptide and competed with JAK2 loop for KIR. Additionally, a DNA-mimicking peptide (ALW) blocked the binding of anti-dsDNA IgG to KIR, and even partially abrogated the activation of JAK2/STAT1α signals and the expression of profibrotic cytokines in SCID mice. In conclusion, anti-dsDNA IgG downregulates SOCS1 expression, activates JAK2/STAT1 signals, and contributes to renal fibrosis; its peptide blockade may restore the SOCS1 inhibitory effect on the production of profibrotic cytokine, and finally ameliorate renal fibrosis in LN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449454PMC
May 2017

Sudden death due to the atrioventricular node contusion: Three cases report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(1):e5688

Department of Forensic Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tongji Medical College Department of Pathology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Techology, PR China.

Introduction: Atrioventricular node (AVN) contusion usually results in cardiogenic shock and arrhythmia and is a rare but fatal condition. The condition is difficult to diagnose and easily overlooked because it develops rapidly and is asymptomatic. We here report 3 cases that demonstrate blunt chest impact and hemorrhages of the posterior atrioventricular junction, eventually result in death.

Clinical Findings: Autopsy and histological examination were performed on all cases. External inspection revealed bruises in the hearts and fractures in the sternum and ribs. However, histological examinations were conclusive and showed cardiac contusion on the surface of the posterior atrioventricular junction of the individuals, and the death was due to the AVN contusion. The position of the AVN on the heart surface is determined by detailed examinations via an autopsy and microscopic, both of which are critical in the certification of cause of death.

Conclusion: The report is intended to raise our understanding and make forensic pathologists aware of the surface of the posterior atrioventricular junction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5228664PMC
January 2017

A fatal case of severe neck abscess due to a third branchial cleft fistula: morphologic and immunohistochemical analyses.

Diagn Pathol 2016 Sep 15;11(1):87. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Hankou, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Background: Branchial cleft anomalies constitute a frequently encountered and commonly non-lethal disease in otolaryngology, and result from aberrant embryonic development. The third branchial cleft fistula is one of the four known specific types of branchial cleft anomalies, and always presents as recurrent neck abscess and suppurative thyroiditis. Here, we report an unexpected death due to severe neck infection following a third branchial cleft fistula.

Case Presentation: A 19-year-old man was sent to the hospital with a 1-week history of recurrent left-sided neck abscess, and was scheduled for incision and drainage of the abscess. However, before the surgery was performed, the man's condition deteriorated and he died. A review of his medical history showed that he had undergone a previous incision and drainage for a neck abscess 2 years ago. Postmortem examination revealed that the fatal neck abscess was induced by a third branchial cleft fistula.

Conclusions: We conclude that a histopathological examination of neck tissue combined with a detailed review of medical history and examination of ultrasonographic and CT images can provide a rapid and accurate diagnosis of third branchial cleft fistula. This common, non-lethal disease can potentially lead to death if the neck infection is not properly diagnosed and treated. In medico-legal practice, medical examiners should be aware of this condition, as this knowledge would be important in the diagnosis of the cause of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-016-0540-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5024451PMC
September 2016

Sudden death due to rupture of the right internal carotid artery in neurofibromatosis type 1: A case report.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2016 Jul 18;21:33-7. Epub 2016 May 18.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tongji Medical College, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Hankou, Wuhan 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Vascular involvement is a well-recognized manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) which has the potential to be fatal when disrupted. We here present a case of sudden death due to the fatal arterial rupture resulted from infiltration of the neurofibromas. A 42-year-old man who suffered from NF1 presented a 1-h history of sudden onset of pain in his right cervical region. His condition worsened and became unconscious on his way to the emergency room. Despite resuscitation efforts, he died 30min later without regaining consciousness. Autopsy examination showed that a neurofibroma located around the right internal carotid artery, confirmed immunohistochemically with S-100, vimentin and CD34. Furthermore, proliferation of spindle cells positive for S-100 was seen in the wall of right internal carotid artery, which was disrupted and resulted in a hemorrhage. These findings suggest that the artery was disrupted by neurofibromas in the vascular wall, which led to fragility of the vessel. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that the cause of death was asphyxia resulting from airway obstruction compressed by the hematoma due to the arterial rupture. As the locality of the neurofibroma and hemorrhage were closed to the carotid baroreflex, we considered another possible mechanism of his sudden death, which could be cardiac inhibition induced by vagal stimulation. We hope this case will increase recognition of NF-1 vasculopathy when encountering any sudden death in NF1 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.05.004DOI Listing
July 2016

Pathologic Studies of Fatal Encephalomyelitis in Children Caused by Enterovirus 71.

Am J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 29;146(1):95-106. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

From the Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

Objectives: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease and can cause death; however, its pathogenesis remains elusive.

Methods: We performed a detailed systematic histopathologic examination and molecular studies on six autopsy cases of EV71 infection using H&E, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence staining, and nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Characteristic features of acute encephalomyelitis were observed. Viral antigens were mainly detected in neuronal cytoplasm and processes in the different brainstem nuclei and spinal cord, including the anterior and posterior horn cells. Viral antigens were also positive in the nerve roots of spinal cord and autonomic ganglia of intestines.

Conclusions: Our study revealed direct pathologic evidence supporting viral entry into the central nervous system (CNS) through peripheral nerves. In addition to the major motor pathway, EV71 can also enter the CNS via peripheral sensory and autonomic pathways in retrograde axonal transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqw089DOI Listing
July 2016

Expression patterns of SH3BGR family members in zebrafish development.

Dev Genes Evol 2016 07 28;226(4):287-95. Epub 2016 May 28.

Translational Medicine Centre, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan Road 2nd, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich (SH3BGR) gene family is composed of SH3BGR, SH3BGRL, SH3BGRL2, and SH3BGRL3 which encodes a cluster of small thioredoxin-like proteins and shares a Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. However, biological functions of SH3BGR family members are largely elusive. Given that zebrafish (Danio rerio) sh3bgrl, sh3bgrl2, sh3bgrl3, and sh3bgr are evolutionally identical to their corresponding human orthologues, we analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of SH3BGR family members in zebrafish embryonic development stages by in situ hybridization. Our results revealed that except sh3bgrl, other members are all maternally expressed, especially for sh3bgrl3 that is strongly expressed from one-cell stage to juvenile fishes. In situ expression patterns of SH3BGR members are similar in the very early developmental stages, including with commonly strong expression in intestines, olfactory bulbs, and neuromasts for neural system building up. Organ-specific expressions are also demonstrated, of which sh3bgr is uniquely expressed in sarcomere, and sh3bgrl3 in liver. sh3bgrl and sh3bgrl2 are similarly expressed in intestines, notochords, and neuromasts after 12-h post-fertilization of embryos. Eventually, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of all sh3bgr members are mainly constrained into intestines of juvenile fishes. Collectively, our study clarified the expression patterns of sh3bgr family members in diverse organogenesis in embryonic development and indicates that SH3BGR members may play predominant roles in neural system development and in maintenance of normal function of digestive organs, especially for intestine homeostasis. However, their expression patterns are varied with the development stages and organ types, suggesting that the aberrant expression of these members would result in multiple diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-016-0552-5DOI Listing
July 2016

Three homicides with darts tainted with succinylcholine: autopsy and toxicology.

Int J Legal Med 2016 Nov 14;130(6):1541-1545. Epub 2016 May 14.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, China.

In emergency departments, intoxication with the muscle relaxant succinylcholine (SUX) often leads to a potentially lethal respiratory paralysis or other deleterious side effects. However, homicide cases with SUX poisoning are very rare because the toxic or lethal concentration ranges of SUX have not yet been determined. We described three uncommon homicide cases due to acute poisoning by darts contaminated with SUX. All the victims died quickly (less than 30 min) after being shot by an especially designed dart gun. Succinylmonocholine (SMC), a metabolite of SUX, was used as a marker to detect the latter. HPLC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated the presence of SUX in the droplet residues of the darts and SMC in the blood and urine in all cases. SMC concentrations of 0.45, 14.0, and 17.9 ng/ml were detected in the victims' blood and 259.0 ng/ml in the urine from the third case. The main pathological changes consisted of hemorrhage of the injured soft tissues, visceral congestion, severe pulmonary edema, and multifocal petechial hemorrhage of the heart and lungs. Taken together, the findings supported a diagnosis of fatal SUX poisoning. Futhermore, our study provided a reference for the lethal concentrations of SUX poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-016-1374-8DOI Listing
November 2016