Publications by authors named "Tomoyuki Nariyama"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Renoprotective effects of paramylon, a β-1,3-D-Glucan isolated from Euglena gracilis Z in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(8):e0237086. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Internal Medicine IV, Teikyo University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Japan.

Paramylon is a novel β-glucan that is stored by Euglena gracilis Z, which is a unicellular photosynthesizing green alga with characteristics of both animals and plants. Recent studies have indicated that paramylon functions as an immunomodulator or a dietary fiber. Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem, and there is no effective preventive treatment for CKD progression. However, paramylon may suppress the progression of CKD via the elimination of uremic toxins or modulation of gut microbiota, leading to the alleviation of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paramylon in CKD rat model. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats with a 5/6 nephrectomy were given either a normal diet or a diet containing 5% paramylon for 8 weeks. Proteinuria was measured intermittently. Serum and kidney tissues were harvested after sacrifice. We performed a renal molecular and histopathological investigation, serum metabolome analysis, and gut microbiome analysis. The results showed that paramylon attenuated renal function, glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury, and podocyte injury in the CKD rat model. Renal fibrosis, tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression levels tended to be suppressed with paramylon treatment. Further, paramylon inhibited the accumulation of uremic toxins, including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolites and modulated a part of CKD-related gut microbiota in the CKD rat model. In conclusion, we suggest that paramylon mainly inhibited the absorption of non-microbiota-derived uremic solutes, leading to protect renal injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Paramylon may be a novel compound that can act against CKD progression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237086PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413521PMC
October 2020

Distinguishing coagulase-negative Staphylococcus bacteremia from contamination using blood-culture positive bottle detection pattern and time to positivity.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Jul 2;26(7):672-675. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Central Laboratory, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan; Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.

Aim: Detection of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in blood culture may be a result of either bacteremia or contamination. This often leads to diagnostic uncertainly. Our objective was to develop a method for differentiating whether a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp. positive blood culture represents bacteremia or contamination based on positive bottle detection pattern and time to positivity (TTP).

Methods: This study included 155 and 51 adults with positive blood cultures for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis, respectively, over a three-year period from 2016 to 2018. Positive blood culture cases were categorized as either bacteremia or contamination based on the clinically available information, and the detection pattern and TTP in each category were investigated.

Results: A total of 57, 92, and 6 S. epidermidis positive blood cultures were categorized as bacteremia, contamination, and undetermined, respectively, whereas 15 and 36 S. hominis positive blood cultures were categorized as bacteremia and contamination, respectively. For positive blood cultures categorized as bacteremia, all four bottles in two sets of blood cultures were positive in 47/47 S. epidermidis and 14/14 S. hominis, respectively, whereas either one bottle in each of two sets or three bottles in two sets were positive in 10/19 S. epidermidis and 1/4 S. hominis, respectively; most of those TTPs were <48 h. Among them, the TTP in catheter-related blood stream infection was <24 h.

Conclusion: Although clinical assessment is crucial to differentiate between bacteremia and contamination, a combination of positive bottle detection pattern and TTP is a valuable diagnostic auxiliary tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.02.004DOI Listing
July 2020

Fructo-oligosaccharides ameliorate steatohepatitis, visceral adiposity, and associated chronic inflammation via increased production of short-chain fatty acids in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Feb 27;20(1):46. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, 5-1-1 Futako, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, 213-8507, Japan.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Within the spectrum of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in combination with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Dysbiosis was reported to contribute to NASH pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on steatohepatitis and visceral adiposity in an obese mouse model of NASH.

Methods: Twelve newborn C57BL/6 J male mice were subcutaneously injected with monosodium glutamate (MSG) to induce obesity on a conventional diet. Six mice were also administered 5% FOS via drinking water from 10 weeks of age. At 18 weeks, histological characteristics of the liver and epididymal fat were compared between the groups. Hepatic mRNA expression of lipid metabolism enzymes and SCFA in feces and sera were measured.

Results: Hepatic steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and hepatocyte ballooning in the liver and increased hepatic mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase were observed in the MSG-treated mice. FOS treatment improved the liver pathology and blunted the increases in the mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism enzymes. In addition, FOS inhibited adipocyte enlargement and formation of crown-like structures and reduced the M1 macrophage frequency in the epididymal fat of the MSG mice (39.4% ± 3.0% vs. 22.8% ± 0.7%; P = 0.001). FOS increased not only the fecal concentrations of n-butyric acid (0.04 ± 0.01 vs. 0.38 ± 0.14 mg/g, P = 0.02), propionic acid (0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.42 ± 0.16 mg/g, P = 0.02), and acetic acid (0.65 ± 0.16 vs. 1.48 ± 0.29 mg/g, P = 0.03) but also the serum concentration of propionic acid (3.9 ± 0.5 vs. 8.2 ± 0.5 μmol/L, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: FOS ameliorates steatohepatitis, visceral adiposity, and chronic inflammation by increasing SCFA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01194-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045471PMC
February 2020

TAFRO syndrome as a cause of glomerular microangiopathy: a case report and literature review.

BMC Nephrol 2019 10 17;20(1):375. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Internal Medicine IV, Teikyo University School of medicine, University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Japan.

Background: TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder that manifests as thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Renal dysfunction is frequently complicated with TAFRO syndrome, however, it is challenging to perform kidney biopsy in patients with TAFRO syndrome in the presence of thrombocytopenia. Renal histology in TAFRO syndrome mainly shows membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)-like lesions or thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)-like glomerulopathy. We review our case and previous reports of TAFRO syndrome with kidney biopsy findings and discuss the renal pathophysiology of TAFRO syndrome.

Case Presentation: We describe a previously healthy 48- year-old woman with TAFRO syndrome. Kidney biopsy performed before the treatment showed diffuse global endocapillary proliferative changes with endothelial cell swelling, double contours of partial capillary walls, and mesangiolysis, consistent with TMA-like glomerulopathy. Glucocorticoid therapy including steroid pulse was ineffective and she developed anasarca, renal dysfunction and oliguria. Hemodialysis was required. However, the anti-Interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) therapy was very effective. An increase in urinary volume was achieved about 2 weeks after the tocilizumab therapy and hemodialysis was discontinued. To investigate the renal pathophysiology of TAFRO syndrome, we performed immunohistological staining of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, CD34, and D2-40, in our case and a normal control kidney. Glomerular VEGF-A was especially positive in podocytes both, in the control and in the case, with no significant difference and there was a significant increase of VEGF-A staining area in the cortical peritubular capillaries in the case. Both glomerular and renal cortical CD34 expression were significantly decreased in our case. D2-40 expression in cortex was not significantly different.

Conclusions: We reviewed our case and other 10 previous reports about renal biopsy findings in TAFRO syndrome and found that glomerular microangiopathy was a common finding. IL-6-VEGF-axis-induced glomerular microangiopathy may play a crucial role in developing acute kidney injury in TAFRO syndrome and the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody therapy may be useful for TAFRO syndrome refractory to glucocorticoids. About the pathophysiology of VEGF in TAFRO syndrome, VEGF balance in the glomerulus and perhaps in the peritubular capillary system as well may be critical. Further investigation is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1574-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798393PMC
October 2019
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