Publications by authors named "Tomoshiro Ito"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

COVID-19 pneumonia in a child with Sotos syndrome.

Pediatr Int 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo City General Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242894PMC
June 2021

Reinterpretation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with magnetoencephalography can improve the accuracy of detecting epileptogenic cortical lesions.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 01 13;114(Pt A):107516. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: This study examined whether the application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to interpret magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings can aid the diagnosis of intractable epilepsy caused by organic brain lesions.

Methods: This study included 51 patients with epilepsy who had MEG clusters but whose initial MRI findings were interpreted as being negative for organic lesions. Three board-certified radiologists reinterpreted the MRI findings, utilizing the MEG findings as a guide. The degree to which the reinterpretation of the imaging results identified an organic lesion was rated on a 5-point scale.

Results: Reinterpretation of the MRI data with MEG guidance helped detect an abnormality by at least one radiologist in 18 of the 51 patients (35.2%) with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. A surgery was performed in 7 of the 51 patients, and histopathological analysis results identified focal cortical dysplasia in 5 patients (Ia: 1, IIa: 2, unknown: 2), hippocampal sclerosis in 1 patient, and dysplastic neurons/gliosis in 1 patient.

Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the potential diagnostic applications of MEG to detect organic epileptogenic lesions, particularly when radiological visualization is difficult with MRI alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107516DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the glycemic control of a patient with Prader-Willi syndrome: a case report.

Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2020 16;29(2):81-84. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo City General Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is often related to severe obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM). Clinical findings suggesting the benefits of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for glycemic control of DM in PWS have been recently increasing. However, there are only a few reports describing the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for PWS. We present a diabetic female with PWS, whose glycemic control was deteriorated at the age of 19 but improved to a certain extent by introducing the GLP-1 analog liraglutide. At the age of 20, the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin was administered. Subsequently, her HbA1c level and body weight markedly decreased. Improvement in both insulin resistance and secretion was observed during the subsequent six months. In addition to GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors may be a potential approach for the management of DM in PWS, especially in young patients whose pancreatic insulin secretion capabilities are still preserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1297/cpe.29.81DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160459PMC
April 2020

Vitamin B6 in acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

Brain Dev 2020 May 24;42(5):402-407. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Child Neurology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan; Department of Child Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: The initial presentation of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is indistinguishable from that of complex febrile seizures (FS), which poses a great diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Excitotoxicity is speculated to be the pathogenesis of AESD. Vitamin B6 (VB6) is essential for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The aim of this study is to investigate our hypothesis that VB6 deficiency in the brain may play a role in AESD.

Methods: We obtained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from pediatric patients with AESD after early seizures and those with FS. We measured pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxal (PL) concentrations in the CSF samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

Results: The subjects were 5 patients with AESD and 17 patients with FS. Age did not differ significantly between AESD and FS. In AESD, CSF PLP concentration was marginally lower (p = 0.0999) and the PLP-to-PL ratio was significantly (p = 0.0417) reduced compared to those in FS.

Conclusions: Although it is impossible to conclude that low PLP concentration and PLP-to-PL ratio are causative of AESD, this may be a risk factor for developing AESD. When combined with other markers, this finding may be useful in distinguishing AESD from FS upon initial presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.02.002DOI Listing
May 2020

Advanced dynamic statistical parametric mapping with MEG in localizing epileptogenicity of the bottom of sulcus dysplasia.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 06 30;129(6):1182-1191. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate whether advanced dynamic statistical parametric mapping (AdSPM) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) can better localize focal cortical dysplasia at bottom of sulcus (FCDB).

Methods: We analyzed 15 children with diagnosis of FCDB in surgical specimen and 3 T MRI by using MEG. Using AdSPM, we analyzed a ±50 ms epoch relative to each single moving dipole (SMD) and applied summation technique to estimate the source activity. The most active area in AdSPM was defined as the location of AdSPM spike source. We compared spatial congruence between MRI-visible FCDB and (1) dipole cluster in SMD method; and (2) AdSPM spike source.

Results: AdSPM localized FCDB in 12 (80%) of 15 children whereas dipole cluster localized six (40%). AdSPM spike source was concordant within seizure onset zone in nine (82%) of 11 children with intracranial video EEG. Eleven children with resective surgery achieved seizure freedom with follow-up period of 1.9 ± 1.5 years. Ten (91%) of them had an AdSPM spike source in the resection area.

Conclusion: AdSPM can noninvasively and neurophysiologically localize epileptogenic FCDB, whether it overlaps with the dipole cluster or not.

Significance: This is the first study to localize epileptogenic FCDB using MEG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2018.03.007DOI Listing
June 2018

Long-term follow up of an adult with alternating hemiplegia of childhood and a p.Gly755Ser mutation in the ATP1A3 gene.

Brain Dev 2018 Mar;40(3):226-228

Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disease mainly caused by mutations in the ATP1A3 gene and showing varied clinical severity according to genotype. Patients with a p.Gly755Ser (p.G755S) mutation, one of minor genotypes for AHC, were recently described as having a mild phenotype, although their long-term outcomes are still unclear due to the lack of long-term follow up. Here, we demonstrate the full clinical course of a 43-year-old female AHC patient with p.G755S mutation. Although her motor dysfunction had been relatively mild into her 30 s, she showed a subsequent severe aggravation of symptoms that left her bedridden, concomitant with a recent recurrence of seizure status. The seizures were refractory to anti-epileptic drugs, but administration of flunarizine improved seizures and the paralysis. Our case suggests that the phenotype of AHC with p.G755S mutation is not necessarily mild, despite such a presentation during the patient's younger years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2017.11.007DOI Listing
March 2018

Efficacy of perampanel for controlling seizures and improving neurological dysfunction in a patient with dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA).

Epilepsy Behav Case Rep 2017 26;8:44-46. Epub 2017 May 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

We administered perampanel (PER) to a bedridden 13-year-old male patient with dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). The DRPLA diagnosis was based on the presence of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the gene. The patient experienced continuous myoclonic seizures and weekly generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCs). PER stopped the patient's myoclonic seizures and reduced the GTCs to fragmented clonic seizures. The patient recovered his intellectual abilities and began to walk again with assistance. We suggest that PER be considered as one of the key drugs used to treat patients with DRPLA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebcr.2017.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5565628PMC
May 2017

The presence of short and sharp MEG spikes implies focal cortical dysplasia.

Epilepsy Res 2015 Aug 12;114:141-6. Epub 2015 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15 West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study focused on the characteristic needle-like epileptic spikes of short duration and steep shape seen on magnetoencephalography (MEG) in patients diagnosed with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) morphologically. We aimed to validate the analysis of MEG spike morphology as a noninvasive method of identifying the presence and location of FCD.

Methods: MEG was collected by 204-channel helmet-shaped gradiometers. We analyzed MEG spike sources for 282 patients with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. MEG showed clustered equivalent current dipoles when superimposed on their three-dimensional-magnetic resonance images (MRI) in 85 patients. Fifty-seven patients were excluded from our study, because they had destructive brain lesions or an insufficient number of spikes for statistical analysis. Twenty-eight patients (18 males, 10 females; aged 1-34 years) were finally matched to our inclusion criteria, and were categorized into three groups: FCD (7 patients), non-FCD (10 patients), and non-lesion (11 patients), based on the MRI findings. We measured the duration, amplitude, and tilt manually for at least 15 spikes per patient, and compared the three groups using a one-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test when statistically significant (p < 0.05). In 17 patients with visible MRI lesions, we investigated the correlation between the depth of the lesion and the tilt using the Pearson product moment correlation.

Results: The average spike duration was significantly shorter in the FCD and non-lesion groups than in the non-FCD group (p < 0.05). The average amplitude was not significantly different between the three groups. The average spike tilt was significantly steeper in the FCD group than in the non-FCD group (p = 0.0058). There was no significant difference between FCD and non-lesion patients in both duration and tilt. Our additional study revealed a significant negative correlation between the depth of the lesion and the average tilt (p = 0.0009).

Significance: MEG epileptiform discharges of short duration and steep tilt characterize FCD, especially when located at the superficial neocortical gyrus. We speculate that this particular spike morphology results from the intrinsic epileptogenicity of FCD. Morphological analysis of MEG spikes can evaluate the etiology of epileptogenic lesions and detect a strong, localized epileptogenic focus such as that typically observed in FCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2015.04.020DOI Listing
August 2015

Advantageous information provided by magnetoencephalography for patients with neocortical epilepsy.

Brain Dev 2015 Feb 10;37(2):237-42. Epub 2014 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Purpose: We evaluated whether magnetoencephalography (MEG), in addition to surgery, was valuable for the diagnosis and management of epileptic syndromes in patients with neocortical epilepsy (NE).

Methods: We studied MEG in 73 patients (29 females; aged 1-26years; mean 10.3years) for the clinical diagnosis of epilepsy and for preoperative evaluation. MEG data were recorded by 204-channel whole head gradiometers with a 600Hz sampling rate. MEG spike sources were localized on magnetic resonance images (MRI) using a single dipole model to project equivalent current dipoles.

Results: MEG localized an epileptic focus with single clustered dipoles in 24 (33%) of 73 NE patients: 16 (25%) of 64 symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE) patients and eight (89%) of nine idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE) patients. MEG provided advantageous information in 12 (50%) of 24 patients with clustered dipoles and confirmed the diagnosis in the remaining 12 (50%). Furthermore, the use of MEG resulted in changes to surgical treatments in nine (38%) patients and in medical management in eight (33%). MEG confirmed the diagnosis in eight (16%) of 49 patients with scattered dipoles. MRI identified a single lesion (28 patients, 38%), multiple lesions (5, 7%), and no lesion (40, 55%). MRI provided confirming information in 19 of 28 patients with a single lesion and 18 of them required surgical resections. MRI did not provide any supportive information in 54 (74%) patients with a single (9), multiple (5) and no lesion (40).

Conclusion: Our study shows that MEG provides fundamental information to aid the choice of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including changes in medication in addition to surgical treatments for NE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2014.04.006DOI Listing
February 2015

PCDH19-related female-limited epilepsy: further details regarding early clinical features and therapeutic efficacy.

Epilepsy Res 2013 Sep 24;106(1-2):191-9. Epub 2013 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1, Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.

Abnormalities in the protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene cause early-onset epilepsy exclusively in females. We aimed to explore the genetic and clinical characteristics of PCDH19-related epilepsy by focusing on its early features and treatment efficacy. PCDH19 was analyzed in 159 Japanese female patients with early-onset epilepsy via direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. We identified 17 patients with PCDH19 abnormalities: point mutations were observed in 14 patients and whole PCDH19 deletions were detected in 3 patients. One affected sister of a proband with a mild phenotype was also analyzed. The frequency of PCDH19 deletion among all probands identified in Japan was 12.5% (3/24, including 7 probands reported previously by us). Clinical features included early onset (mean age at onset, 8.6 months), recurrent clusters of brief seizures (17/18), fever sensitivity (18/18), tonic seizures (13/18, probably including focal tonic seizures), tonic-clonic seizures (8/18), focal seizures often with subsequent generalization (17/18), intellectual disabilities (15/18), and autistic traits (13/18). Three patients exhibited delay in motor milestones before seizure onset. In 16 patients, seizures appeared in clusters from the onset of the disease. Among 6 patients for whom detailed information at onset was available, 2 onset patterns were identified: a biphasic course of short seizure clusters (each within days) in 2 patients and a prolonged course of clusters (from weeks to a month) in 4 patients. In both cases, initial seizures started during fever and transiently disappeared with the decline of fever; however, afebrile clusters recurred. In the former patients, motor development was delayed before onset, and seizures appeared in strong clusters from the onset of the disease. In the latter patients, initial development was normal and initial seizures were mild, but were followed by strong clusters lasting several weeks, even without fever. Treatment using phenytoin, potassium bromide, and clobazam showed high efficacy. Although focal seizures were the main feature in PCDH19-epilepsy, the efficacy of carbamazepine was poor. This study highlighted the significance of PCDH19 deletion, a unique pattern of initial seizure clusters, and the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs. Our data will facilitate early diagnosis and development of a treatment strategy for better clinical management of patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.04.005DOI Listing
September 2013

CDKL5 alterations lead to early epileptic encephalopathy in both genders.

Epilepsia 2011 Oct 19;52(10):1835-42. Epub 2011 Jul 19.

Tokyo Women's Medical University Institute for Integrated Medical Sciences, Shinjuku-ward, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Genetic mutations of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been reported in patients with epileptic encephalopathy, which is characterized by intractable seizures and severe-to-profound developmental delay. We investigated the clinical relevance of CDKL5 alterations in both genders.

Methods: A total of 125 patients with epileptic encephalopathy were examined for genomic copy number aberrations, and 119 patients with no such aberrations were further examined for CDKL5 mutations. Five patients with Rett syndrome, who did not show methyl CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) mutations, were also examined for CDKL5 mutations.

Key Findings: One male and three female patients showed submicroscopic deletions including CDKL5, and two male and six female patients showed CDKL5 nucleotide alterations. Development of early onset seizure was a characteristic clinical feature for the patients with CDKL5 alterations in both genders despite polymorphous seizure types, including myoclonic seizures, tonic seizures, and spasms. Severe developmental delays and mild frontal lobe atrophies revealed by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in almost all patients, and there was no gender difference in phenotypic features.

Significance: We observed that 5% of the male patients and 14% of the female patients with epileptic encephalopathy had CDKL5 alterations. These findings indicate that alterations in CDKL5 are associated with early epileptic encephalopathy in both female and male patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03174.xDOI Listing
October 2011

[Case of frontal lobe epilepsy with gelastic seizures induced by emotion].

Brain Nerve 2009 Aug;61(8):989-93

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo City General Hospital, 1-11, North 11 West 13, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8604, Japan.

Gelastic seizures without hypothalamic hamartoma is a rare forms of epilepsy. Here, we report the case of 4-year-old girl with gelastic seizures. There was no delay in mental or motor development of the patient. The patient exhibited a peculiar seizure pattern that suddenly clung to her mother stiffening her body and an outburst of laughter with no apparent cause. The frequency of the seizures increased over a period of 1 month. Although the brain MRI and interictal EEG showed no abnormality, ictal EEG showed a 14 Hz wave discharge and subsequent slow-wave activity and suppression in bilateral frontal areas. The seizures responded favorably to oral administration of carbamazepine. The induction of the seizures could be related to theophylline administration and emotional excitation.
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August 2009

Cabergoline Effectively Induced Remission of Prolactinoma in a 9-year-old Japanese Boy.

Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2009 1;18(2):65-72. Epub 2009 May 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo City General Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Prolactinomas are rarely diagnosed in children under the age of 10. A 9-yr-old Japanese boy complained of severe headache and progressive visual disturbance. His growth had been retarded for approximately 3 yr, and his serum PRL level was 811.6 ng/ml. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an enlarged pituitary (2.8 × 2.6 × 2.1 cm) with heterogeneous enhancement. He was diagnosed as having a macroprolactinoma accompanied by pituitary apoplexy and growth hormone deficiency. A surgical approach was initially undertaken due to the progressive visual deficits, but a residual tumor was observed, and the level of serum PRL was still high after the surgery. Cabergoline was then started, and the dose was gradually increased to 1.5 mg/wk. The serum PRL level decreased from 138.8 ng/ml to 32.5 ng/ml and 17.7 ng/ml after 5 wk and 19 wk, respectively. At 33 wk of cabergoline treatment, brain MRI demonstrated no evidence of the residual tumor. Thereafter, the serum level of PRL decreased to less than 10 ng/ml, and remission was consistently confirmed on repeated MRI. No adverse events have been observed. The present case suggests that cabergoline can be an effective treatment for prolactinomas in prepubertal children as well as in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1297/cpe.18.65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4004905PMC
May 2014