Publications by authors named "Tomoo Harada"

50 Publications

Weather temperature and the incidence of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases in an aging society.

Sci Rep 2021 May 25;11(1):10863. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

Weather temperatures affect the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but there is limited information on whether CVD hospitalizations are affected by changes in weather temperatures in a super-aging society. We aimed to examine the association of diurnal weather temperature changes with CVD hospitalizations. We included 1,067,171 consecutive patients who were admitted to acute-care hospitals in Japan between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2015. The primary outcome was the number of CVD hospitalizations per day. The diurnal weather temperature range (DTR) was defined as the minimum weather temperature subtracted from the maximum weather temperature on the day before hospitalization. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used to estimate the association of DTR with cardiovascular hospitalizations after adjusting for weather, hospital, and patient demographics. An increased DTR was associated with a higher number of CVD hospitalizations (coefficient, 4.540 [4.310-4.765]/°C change, p < 0.001), with greater effects in those aged 75-89 (p < 0.001) and ≥ 90 years (p = 0.006) than among those aged ≤ 64 years; however, there were no sex-related differences (p = 0.166). Greater intraday weather temperature changes are associated with an increased number of CVD hospitalizations in the super-aging society of Japan, with a greater effect in older individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90352-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149862PMC
May 2021

Influence of coronary artery disease and percutaneous coronary intervention on mid-term outcomes in patients with aortic valve stenosis treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Clin Cardiol 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Background: A high frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) is reported in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) who undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, the optimal management of CAD in these patients remains unknown.

Hypothesis: We hypothesis that AS patients with TAVI complicated by CAD have poor prognosis. His study evaluates the prognoses of patients with CAD and severe AS after TAVI.

Methods: We divided 186 patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI into three groups: those with CAD involving the left main coronary (LM) or proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) lesion (the CAD[LADp] group), those with CAD not involving the LM or a LAD proximal lesion (the CAD[non-LADp] group), and those without CAD (Non-CAD group). Clinical outcomes were compared among the three groups.

Results: The CAD[LADp] group showed a higher incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) and all-cause mortality than the other two groups (log-rank p = .001 and p = .008, respectively). Even after adjustment for STS score and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) before TAVI, CAD[LADp] remained associated with MACCE and all-cause mortality. However, PCI for an LM or LAD proximal lesion pre-TAVI did not reduce the risk of these outcomes.

Conclusions: CAD with an LM or LAD proximal lesion is a strong independent predictor of mid-term MACCEs and all-cause mortality in patients with severe AS treated with TAVI. PCI before TAVI did not influence the outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23655DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of PM exposure with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals in Japan.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9897. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

Although exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM) influences cardiovascular disease (CVD), its association with CVD-related hospitalizations of super-aged patients in Japan remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between short-term PM exposure and CVD-related hospitalizations, lengths of hospital stays, and medical expenses. We analyzed the Japanese national database of patients with CVD (835,405) admitted to acute-care hospitals between 2012 and 2014. Patients with planned hospitalizations and those with missing PM exposure data were excluded. We classified the included patients into five quintiles based on their PM exposure: PM-5, -4, -3, -2, and -1 groups, in descending order of concentration. Compared with the PM-1 group, the other groups had higher hospitalization rates. The PM-3, -4, and -5 groups exhibited increased hospitalization durations and medical expenses, compared with the PM-1 group. Interestingly, the hospitalization period was longer for the ≥ 90-year-old group than for the ≤ 64-year-old group, yet the medical expenses were lower for the former group. Short-term PM exposure is associated with increased CVD-related hospitalizations, hospitalization durations, and medical expenses. The effects of incident CVDs were more marked in elderly than in younger patients. National PM concentrations should be reduced and the public should be aware of the risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89290-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110517PMC
May 2021

Revisit to the Prognostic Value of Premature Atrial Contraction Burden in 24-h Holter Electrocardiography for Predicting Undiagnosed Atrial Fibrillation - A Propensity Score-Matched Study.

Circ J 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine.

Background: The optimum cut-off value of premature atrial contraction (PAC) burden (CV-PACb) in 24-h Holter electrocardiography (24-h ECG) for predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) is debatable, with few validation data.Methods and Results:We retrospectively analyzed 61 patients already diagnosed with AF (AD-AF) and 147 patients never diagnosed with AF (ND-AF), aged ≥50 years, free of heart disease, and who had undergone 24-h ECG and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that 0.4% was the optimal CV-PACb differentiating AD-AF from ND-AF, with 69% sensitivity and 72% specificity (area under the curve [AUC] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.79); however, the left atrial volume index was not significant (AUC 0.60; 95% CI 0.51-0.68). To verify the CV-PACb, new propensity-matched cohorts (i.e., subjects with a PAC burden ≥0.4% and <0.4%; n=69 in each group) were compared based on new detection of AF at a median follow-up of 50 months (interquartile range 12-60 months) Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that among 24-h ECG and TTE findings, only PAC burden ≥0.4% was independently associated with incident AF (hazard ratio 5.28; 95% CI 1.28-26.11; P=0.023).

Conclusions: A high PAC burden (≥0.4%) in 24-h ECG was a reliable indicator to identify undiagnosed AF, whereas TTE parameters did not show any predictive value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1277DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Diastolic Flow Reversal Patterns on Clinical Outcomes Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation - An Intraprocedural Echocardiography Study.

Circ J 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine.

Background: Although diastolic flow reversal (DFR) in the descending aorta, assessed via transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), is a simple and easy indicator for evaluating aortic regurgitation, the association between DFR pattern and clinical outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of DFR patterns on clinical outcomes following TAVI.Methods and Results:Two-hundred and eleven patients (mean age, 83.6±5.7 years; 69% female) who underwent TAVI were retrospectively assessed via intraprocedural TEE. DFR was evaluated using pulsed-wave Doppler in the descending aorta before and after TAVI. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). Although only 7 patients (3.3%) had moderate or severe paravalvular leak, as assessed by color Doppler echocardiography, holo-DFR (HDFR) was observed in 33 patients (16.0%) after TAVI. MACCEs occurred in 40 patients during the median follow up of 282 days (interquartile range: 160-478 days). The estimated cumulative MACCE-free survival at 1 year was significantly lower in patients with HDFR than in those without HDFR. A Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that HDFR after TAVI was independently associated with MACCEs.

Conclusions: HDFR was associated with an increased risk of MACCEs after TAVI. DFR evaluated by intraprocedural echocardiography could serve as a simple and easy method for predicting clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1173DOI Listing
March 2021

Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia with QT Interval Prolongation Due to a Brain Tumor.

Intern Med 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Japan.

We herein report the case of a 20-year-old man with a history of epilepsy who presented with frequent transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) with QT interval prolongation. Blood investigations revealed panhypopituitarism. Following a biopsy, he was diagnosed with brain germinoma. During the biopsy, he had an episode of polymorphous VT with QT prolongation. There was no recurrence of T-LOC following chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy. This case indicates the importance of checking the QT interval in patients with T-LOC, including those with seizures and brain tumors, to ensure appropriate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.6635-20DOI Listing
March 2021

Quantitative Measurement of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β Species by Mass Spectrometry.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;79(2):573-584

Dementia Center, Geriatrics Research Institute and Hospital, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan.

Background: High sensitivity liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was recently introduced to measure amyloid-β (Aβ) species, allowing for a simultaneous assay that is superior to ELISA, which requires more assay steps with multiple antibodies.

Objective: We validated the Aβ1-38, Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-43 assay by LC-MS/MS and compared it with ELISA using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to investigate its feasibility for clinical application.

Methods: CSF samples from 120 subjects [8 Alzheimer's disease (AD) with dementia (ADD), 2 mild cognitive dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI), 14 cognitively unimpaired (CU), and 96 neurological disease subjects] were analyzed. Aβ species were separated using the Shimadzu Nexera X2 system and quantitated using a Qtrap 5500 LC-MS/MS system. Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were validated using ELISA.

Results: CSF levels in CU were 666±249 pmol/L in Aβ1-38, 2199±725 pmol/L in Aβ1-40, 153.7±79.7 pmol/L in Aβ1-42, and 9.78±4.58 pmol/L in Aβ1-43. The ratio of the amounts of Aβ1-38, Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-43 was approximately 68:225:16:1. Linear regression analyses showed correlations among the respective Aβ species. Both Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 values were strongly correlated with ELISA measurements. No significant differences were observed in Aβ1-38 or Aβ1-40 levels between AD and CU. Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-43 levels were significantly lower, whereas the Aβ1-38/1-42, Aβ1-38/1-43, and Aβ1-40/Aβ1-43 ratios were significantly higher in AD than in CU. The basic assay profiles of the respective Aβ species were adequate for clinical usage.

Conclusion: A quantitative LC-MS/MS assay of CSF Aβ species is as reliable as specific ELISA for clinical evaluation of CSF biomarkers for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902963PMC
January 2021

Creating 12-lead electrocardiogram waveforms using a three-lead bedside monitor to ensure appropriate monitoring.

J Arrhythm 2020 Dec 5;36(6):1107-1108. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine St. Marianna University School of Medicine Kawasaki Kanagawa Japan.

How do you place the three electrodes to create waveforms for leads I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, and V1-V6?
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733559PMC
December 2020

Clinical outcomes of ablation versus non-ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation in Japan: analysis of pooled data from the AF Frontier Ablation Registry and SAKURA AF Registry.

Heart Vessels 2021 Apr 24;36(4):549-560. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Whether ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is, in terms of clinical outcomes, beneficial for Japanese patients has not been clarified. Drawing data from 2 Japanese AF registries (AF Frontier Ablation Registry and SAKURA AF Registry), we compared the incidence of clinically relevant events (CREs), including stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), major bleeding, cardiovascular events, and death, between patients who underwent ablation (n = 3451) and those who did not (n = 2930). We also compared propensity-score matched patients (n = 1414 in each group). In propensity-scored patients who underwent ablation and those who did not, mean follow-up times were 27.2 and 35.8 months, respectively. Annualized rates for stroke/TIA (1.04 vs. 1.06%), major bleeding (1.44 vs. 1.20%), cardiovascular events (2.15 vs. 2.49%) were similar (P = 0.96, 0.39, and 0.35, respectively), but annualized death rates were lower in the ablation group than in the non-ablation group (0.75 vs.1.28%, P = 0.028). After multivariate adjustment, the risk of CREs was statistically equivalent between the ablation and non-ablation groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-1.11), but it was significantly low among patients who underwent ablation for paroxysmal AF (HR 0.68 [vs. persistent AF], 95% CI 0.49-0.94) and had a CHADS-VASc score  < 3 (HR 0.66 [vs. CHADS-VASc score ≥ 3], 95% CI 0.43-0.98]). The 2-year risk reduction achieved by ablation may be small among Japanese patients, but AF ablation may benefit those with paroxysmal AF and a CHADS-VASc score < 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-020-01721-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Off-Label Underdosing of Direct Oral Anticoagulants After Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

Int Heart J 2020 Nov 13;61(6):1165-1173. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital.

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are sometimes prescribed at off-label under-doses for patients who have undergone ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). This practice may be an attempt to balance the risk of bleeding against that of stroke or AF recurrence.We examined outcomes of 1163 patients who continued use of a DOAC after ablation. The patients were enrolled in a large (3530 patients) multicenter registry in Japan. The study patients were classified as 749 (64.4%) appropriate standard-dose DOAC users, 216 (18.6%) off-label under-dose DOAC users, and 198 (17.0%) appropriate low-dose DOAC users.Age and CHADS-VASc scores differed significantly between DOAC dosing regimens, with patients given an appropriate standard-dose being significantly younger (63.3 ± 9.4 versus 64.8 ± 9.5 versus 73.2 ± 6.8 years, P < 0.0001) and lower (2.1 ± 1.5 versus 2.4 ± 1.6 versus 3.4 ± 1.4, P < 0.0001) than those given an off-label under-dose or an appropriate low-dose. During the median 19.0-month follow-up period, the AF recurrence rate was similar between the appropriate standard-dose and off-label under-dose groups but relatively low in the appropriate low-dose group (42.5% versus 41.2% versus 35.4%, P = 0.08). Annualized rates of thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and death from any cause were 0.47%, 0.70%, and 0.23% in the off-label under-dose group, while those rates were 0.74%, 0.73%, and 0.65% in the appropriate standard-dose, and 1.58%, 2.12%, and 1.57% in the appropriate low-dose groups.In conclusion, the clinical adverse event rates for patients on an off-label under-dose DOAC regimen after ablation, predicated on careful patient evaluations, was not high as seen with that of patients on a standard DOAC dosing regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-335DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of Immunosuppressive Therapy on Clinical Outcomes for Patients With Aortic Stenosis Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Circ J 2020 11 13;84(12):2296-2301. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established treatment for symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Sometimes patients with severe AS taking immunosuppressants are encountered. The effect of immunosuppressive therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with AS following TAVI were investigated.Methods and Results:In total, 282 consecutive patients with severe AS who underwent transfemoral TAVI from January 2016 to December 2018 at St. Marianna University School of Medicine were reviewed. They were divided into 2 groups: the immunosuppressants group (IM group) in which patients continually used immunosuppressive drugs (n=22) and the non-immunosuppressants group (non-IM group) (n=260). The composite endpoints of a major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) defined as non-lethal myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, heart failure requiring hospitalization, stroke, and cardiovascular death were evaluated. There were no differences in the incidence of vascular access complications (32% vs. 20%, P=0.143) and the rate of procedure success (100% vs. 93%, P=0.377) between the IM and non-IM groups. During the median follow-up period of 567 (16-1,312) days after the TAVI procedure, there were no significant differences between the IM and non-IM groups in the incidence of infectious complications (14% vs. 9%, P=0.442) or MACCE (18% vs. 20%, respectively; P=0.845).

Conclusions: The use of IM after TAVI is not associated with increased vascular access complications or mid-term MACCE in patients with severe AS treated with TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0600DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison in Clinical Outcomes Between Leadless and Conventional Transvenous Pacemaker Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

J Invasive Cardiol 2020 Oct;32(10):400-404

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, 216-8511, Japan.

Objectives: Atrioventricular block is a common complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Although conventional transvenous dual-chamber (DDD) pacemaker (PM) is ideal for atrioventricular block, leadless PM, which is less invasive, may be suitable for frail TAVI patients. Little is known about clinical outcomes of this newer device following TAVI.

Methods: A total of 330 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI were reviewed. Of these, PM cases without atrial fibrillation were studied. Indication for leadless PM was based on heart team discussion.

Results: PM implantations were performed in 30 patients (9.1%), and 24 patients (7.3%) had no atrial fibrillation. These 24 patients had 14 DDD-PMs and 10 leadless PMs, and formed the two study groups. Baseline characteristics were similar except for ejection fraction: median ages were 83.0 years (IQR, 81.0-87.0 years) vs 86.5 years (IQR, 83.5-90.3) (P=.18); 11 (78.6%) vs 8 (80%) were women (P=.67); Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores were 5.1% (IQR, 3.8%-5.9%) vs 5.3% (IQR, 3.4%-8.5%) (P=.82); and ejection fractions were 68.0% (IQR, 66.0%-70.5%) vs 59.0% (IQR, 52.8%-69.3%) (P=.049), for the DDD-PM and leadless PM groups, respectively. There was 1 case of atrial lead dislodgment in the DDD-PM group; otherwise, no complications related to the implantation procedure were found. The leadless PM group showed numerically shorter hospital stay: 12.5 days (range, 9.0-17.8 day) in the DDD-PM group vs 10.5 days (range, 7.8-15.3 days) in the leadless PM group (P=.44). Six-month follow-up revealed no significant differences in incidence of heart failure rehospitalizations or deaths: 2 (14.3%) in the DDD-PM group vs 2 (25%) in the leadless PM group (P=.47); and 2 (14.3%) in the DDD-PM group vs 0 (0%) in the leadless PM group (P=.39), respectively.

Conclusions: Patients with leadless PM following TAVI may have shorter hospital stays, and clinical outcomes can be comparable with DDD-PMs. Leadless PMs may therefore be a reasonable option for frail TAVI patients.
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October 2020

Prognostic impact of transcatheter mitral valve repair in patients with exercise-induced secondary mitral regurgitation.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr;22(5):530-538

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, 216-8511, Japan.

Aims: Although exercise-induced secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is known to have a poor prognosis, the therapeutic strategy towards this condition remains to be investigated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) using the MitraClip in patients with exercise-induced secondary MR.

Methods And Results: Of the 200 consecutive patients with secondary MR who underwent exercise stress echocardiography, 46 (23%) that presented with exercise-induced secondary MR [i.e. increase in effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) of ≥ 0.13 cm2] were enrolled in the present investigation. The composite endpoints of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure were evaluated. Of the 46 patients included in the current cohort, 19 (41%) underwent TMVr and 27 (59%) were medically managed (control group). Although the TMVr group tended to present with a greater EROA at rest (0.26 ± 0.10 vs. 0.20 ± 0.08 cm2, P = 0.047), there were no differences in the EROA changes during exercise between the two groups (0.18 ± 0.10 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 cm2, P = 0.940). While the TMVr group reported a higher event-free survival rate after the 13-month follow-up period (log-rank P = 0.017), the Cox proportional-hazard analysis suggested the TMVr to be associated with clinical outcomes (hazard ratio: 0.419, P = 0.044).

Conclusion: As opposed to the medical management, TMVr treatment was associated with a lower risk of composite endpoints in patients with exercise-induced secondary MR. Exercise stress echocardiography is considered to have played an important role in decision-making for secondary MR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeaa200DOI Listing
April 2021

Geometry of Tricuspid Valve Apparatus in Patients with Mitral Regurgitation due to Fibroelastic Deficiency versus Barlow Disease: A Real-Time Three-dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020 09 16;33(9):1095-1105. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Background: Tricuspid valve (TV) geometry gained attention when the prognostic significance of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was determined. However, the TV geometric characteristics in Barlow disease (BD) have not been elucidated. This study aimed to clarify the difference in TV morphology between BD and fibroelastic deficiency (FED) and the effect of its geometry on residual TR after tricuspid annuloplasty (TAP) using three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography.

Methods: Based on the mitral valve (MV) morphology defined by 3D transesophageal echocardiography, 106 patients with degenerative MV disease were classified into BD (n = 42) and FED (n = 64). Three-dimensional images of the TV were analyzed using a quantification software to compare the geometrical parameters. Among them, 35 patients (17 with BD and 18 with FED) underwent concomitant TAP during MV surgery, and the residual TR after TAP was evaluated within 1 month.

Results: TV annulus area, billowing height, and billowing volume were greater in BD than in FED (10.8 ± 2.9 vs 9.2 ± 2.4 cm, 4.6 ± 1.6 vs 2.3 ± 1.1 mm, and 1.3 ± 0.8 vs 0.3 ± 0.3 mL; all P < .01). In contrast, TV tenting height and tenting volume were smaller in BD than in FED (2.6 ± 1.5 vs 4.4 ± 2.4 mm and 0.3 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 1.0 mL; both P < .01). These morphologic differences in TV were similar to those in MV. There was a strong correlation between MV billowing volume and TV billowing volumes (R = 0.83, P < .01). The prevalence of significant residual TR after TAP was greater in BD than in FED (35% vs 0%, P < .01). Moderate correlations between TV billowing height and volume and residual TR after TAP were observed (R = 0.47 and 0.49, respectively, both P < .01).

Conclusions: Patients with BD exhibited larger TV annulus area and billowing than FED patients. These results suggest that degenerative changes in the TV apparatus in BD patients are similar to that seen in the MV apparatus. These findings should be taken into consideration when a TV surgery is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.04.019DOI Listing
September 2020

Association between the number of board-certified cardiologists and the risk of in-hospital mortality: a nationwide study involving the Japanese registry of all cardiac and vascular diseases.

BMJ Open 2019 12 15;9(12):e024657. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan

Objectives: Although there are 14 097 board-certified cardiologists in Japan, it is unknown whether the number of institutional board-certified cardiologists is related to the prognosis of cardiovascular disease patients.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis.

Setting: Data were collected from the nationwide database of acute care hospitals in Japan (2371 hospitals) between 2012 and 2013.

Participants: A total of 1 422 703 consecutive patients were initially included in this study, but 518 610 patients were excluded due to age <18 years, missing data or prior hospitalisations; therefore, 896 171 patients comprised the final sample population.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality due to any cause. For the per-hospital analysis, Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association of board-certified cardiologists with in-hospital mortality, adjusted for hospital facilitation. For the per-patient analysis, hierarchical logistic regression models were used to estimate the ORs of the number of institutional board-certified cardiologists, adjusted for patient demographics, diagnoses, therapies and hospital facilities.

Results: The regression model of the per-hospital analysis indicated that the number of board-certified cardiologists was associated with a lower rate ratio of in-hospital mortality (rate ratio, 0.988; 95% CI 0.983 to 0.993; p<0.01). The per-patient analysis indicated that the median age was 73 years and the in-hospital mortality rate was 11.7%. The regression model indicated that the presence of more board-certified cardiologists was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.980; 95% CI 0.975 to 0.986; p<0.01) after adjustments for hospital facilities, patient characteristics and treatments.

Conclusions: Among cardiovascular disease patients admitted to acute care hospitals in Japan, the presence of more board-certified cardiologists was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality. These results have implications for national and institutional strategies for determining the required number of board-certified cardiologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924792PMC
December 2019

Impact of Board-Certified Cardiologist Characteristics on Risk of In-Hospital Mortality.

Circ Rep 2019 Dec 13;2(1):44-50. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine Kawasaki Japan.

This study examined the influence of board-certified cardiologist characteristics on the in-hospital mortality of patients with cardiovascular disease. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 from a nationwide database of acute care hospitals in Japan. Overall, there were 1,422,703 patients, of whom 883,746 were analyzed. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. The association between board-certified cardiologist characteristics and in-hospital mortality was estimated using multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression modeling. Median age of cardiologists in a hospital was not related to in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.003; 95% CI: 0.998-1.008, P=0.316), but a greater cardiologist age range was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.992; 95% CI: 0.988-0.995 per 1-unit increment in age range, P<0.001). Meanwhile, the average years of experience of the board-certified cardiologists in a hospital was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.002; 95% CI: 0.996-1.007, P=0.525), but a greater range of years of experience was (OR, 0.986; 95% CI: 0.983-0.990 per 1-unit increment in range of years of experience, P<0.001). Median board-certified cardiologist age/experience at an institution is not related to in-hospital mortality, but a greater range in age/experience is associated with a lower risk of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circrep.CR-19-0065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7929708PMC
December 2019

Current Status and Clinical Outcomes of Oral Anticoagulant Discontinuation After Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Japan - Findings From the AF Frontier Ablation Registry.

Circ J 2019 11 16;83(12):2418-2427. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital.

Background: The safety of discontinuing oral anticoagulant (OAC) after ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Japanese patients has not been clarified.Methods and Results:A study based on the Atrial Fibrillation registry to Follow the long-teRm Outcomes and use of aNTIcoagulants aftER Ablation (AF Frontier Ablation Registry) was conducted. Data were collected from 3,451 consecutive patients (74.1% men; age, 63.3±10.3 years) who had undergone AF ablation at any of 24 cardiovascular centers in Japan between August 2011 and July 2017. During a 20.7-month follow-up period, OAC therapy was discontinued in 1,836 (53.2%) patients; 51 patients (1.5%) suffered a stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), 71 (2.1%) suffered major bleeding, and 36 (1.0%) died. Patients in whom OAC therapy was discontinued were significantly younger than those in whom OACs were continued, and their CHADS-VASc scores were significantly lower. The incidences of stroke/TIA, major bleeding, and death were significantly lower among these patients. Upon multivariate adjustment, stroke events were independently associated with relatively high baseline CHADS-VASc scores but not with OAC status.

Conclusions: Although the incidences of stroke/TIA, major bleeding, and death were relatively low among patients for whom OAC therapy was discontinued, stroke/TIA occurrence was strongly associated with a high baseline stroke risk rather than with OAC status. Thus, discontinuation of OAC therapy requires careful consideration, especially in patients with a high baseline stroke risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-19-0602DOI Listing
November 2019

Novel Device-Based Algorithm Provides Optimal Hemodynamics During Exercise in Patients With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

Circ J 2019 09 27;83(10):2002-2009. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Division of Cardiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine.

Background: An adaptive cardiac resynchronization therapy (aCRT) algorithm has been described for synchronized left ventricular (LV) pacing and continuous optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, there are few algorithmic data on the effect of changes during exercise.Methods and Results:We enrolled 27 patients with availability of the aCRT algorithm. Eligible patients were manually programmed to optimal atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delays by using echocardiograms at rest or during 2 stages of supine bicycle exercise. We compared the maximum cardiac output between manual echo-optimization and aCRT-on during each phase. After initiating exercise, the optimal AV delay progressively shortened (P<0.05) with incremental exercise levels. The manual-optimized settings and aCRT resulted in similar cardiac performance, as demonstrated by a high concordance correlation coefficient between the LV outflow tract velocity time integral (LVOT-VTI) during each exercise stage (Ex.1: r=0.94 P<0.0008, Ex.2: r=0.88 P<0.001, respectively). Synchronized LV-only pacing in patients with normal AV conduction could provide a higher LVOT-VTI as compared with manual-optimized conventional biventricular pacing at peak exercise (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The aCRT algorithm was physiologically sound during exercise by patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-19-0512DOI Listing
September 2019

Safety and Efficacy of Minimally Interrupted Dabigatran vs Uninterrupted Warfarin Therapy in Adults Undergoing Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 04 5;2(4):e191994. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Importance: Uninterrupted dabigatran therapy reduces stroke risk in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) undergoing ablation and is associated with a lower bleeding risk than uninterrupted warfarin therapy. Minimally interrupted direct oral anticoagulant therapy is widely used, but data from controlled studies are insufficient.

Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of minimally interrupted dabigatran vs uninterrupted warfarin therapy in patients undergoing catheter ablation for NVAF.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The ABRIDGE-J (ABlation peRIoperative DabiGatran in use Envisioning in Japan) trial is a open-label, randomized clinical trial performed in 28 Japanese treatment centers. A total of 504 patients scheduled for NVAF ablation were enrolled; 500 were randomized to the study treatments; 499 received at least 1 dose of dabigatran etexilate (n = 248) or warfarin potassium (n = 251); and 442 underwent ablation (220 in the dabigatran group and 222 in the warfarin group). Data were collected from May 1, 2014, through September 14, 2015, and analyzed from March 7, 2017, through January 28, 2019.

Interventions: Appropriate dose anticoagulation was administered 4 weeks before and at least 3 months after ablation in all patients. Dabigatran therapy was interrupted before catheter ablation (holding of 1-2 doses) and resumed after ablation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary end points were the incidence of embolism during the perioperative period and atrial thrombus just before the ablation. The main secondary end point was the incidence of major bleeding events until 3 months after ablation.

Results: Of the 442 patients who underwent ablation, 74.9% were men and the median age was 66 years (interquartile range, 59-71 years). Before ablation, 1 cerebral infarction and 1 thrombus in the left atrium occurred in the warfarin group, but no events occurred in the interrupted dabigatran group. After ablation, the mean (SD) incidence of major bleeding events was significantly lower with dabigatran (3 patients [1.4% {0.8%}; 95% CI, 0.4%-4.2%]) vs warfarin (11 patients [5.0% {1.5%}; 95% CI, 2.8%-8.8%]; P = .03). No thromboembolic events occurred after ablation in the dabigatran group; 1 (0.5%) occurred in the warfarin group.

Conclusions And Relevance: In patients undergoing ablation for NVAF, anticoagulation with minimally interrupted dabigatran therapy did not increase thromboembolic events and was associated with fewer bleeding complications than uninterrupted warfarin therapy.

Trial Registration: umin.ac.jp Identifier: UMIN000013129.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481436PMC
April 2019

Catheter Ablation of Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation Storm After Myocardial Infarction.

Circulation 2019 05;139(20):2315-2325

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan (Y.K., A.N., K.A., M.I.).

Background: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) storm after myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening condition that necessitates multiple defibrillations. Catheter ablation is a potentially effective treatment strategy for VF storm refractory to optimal medical treatment. However, its impact on patient survival has not been verified in a large population.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective observational study involving consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation of post-MI refractory VF storm without preceding monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. The target of ablation was the Purkinje-related ventricular extrasystoles triggering VF. The primary outcome was in-hospital and long-term mortalities. Univariate logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards analysis were used to evaluate clinical characteristics associated with in-hospital and long-term mortalities, respectively.

Results: One hundred ten patients were enrolled (age, 65±11years; 92 men; left ventricular ejection fraction, 31±10%). VF storm occurred at the acute phase of MI (4.5±2.5 days after the onset of MI during the index hospitalization for MI) in 43 patients (39%), the subacute phase (>1 week) in 48 (44%), and the remote phase (>6 months) in 19 (17%). The focal triggers were found to originate from the scar border zone in 88 patients (80%). During in-hospital stay after ablation, VF storm subsided in 92 patients (84%). Overall, 30 (27%) in-hospital deaths occurred. The duration from the VF occurrence to the ablation procedure was associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio for each 1-day increase, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.03-1.20]; P=0.008). During follow-up after discharge from hospital, only 1 patient developed recurrent VF storm. However, 29 patients (36%) died, with a median survival time of 2.2 years (interquartile range, 1.2-5.5 years). Long-term mortality was associated with left ventricular ejection fraction <30% (hazard ratio, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.21-5.32]; P=0.014), New York Heart Association class ≥III (hazard ratio, 2.68 [95% CI, 1.16-6.19]; P=0.021), a history of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 3.89 [95% CI, 1.42-10.67]; P=0.008), and chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.15-6.49]; P=0.023).

Conclusions: In patients with MI presenting with focally triggered VF storm, catheter ablation of culprit triggers is lifesaving and appears to be associated with short- and long-term freedom from recurrent VF storm. Mortality over the long-term follow-up is associated with the severity of underlying cardiovascular disease and comorbidities in this specific patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037997DOI Listing
May 2019

Endothelialization of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder Device 6 Months Post Implantation: Is This Enough Time? An In Vivo Angioscopic Assessment.

J Invasive Cardiol 2019 02;31(2):E44

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki-City, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan.

The current guidelines recommend a minimum of 6 months of antithrombotic and antibiotic prophylaxis following septal occluding device placement for transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Full neoendothelialization is thought to be completed within 6 months of device implantation; however, there is no method available that can assess the level of neoendothelialization in vivo. This report therefore evaluates endothelialization in vivo and demonstrates that 6 months of postimplantation prophylactic therapy may not provide sufficient time for adequate endothelialization. Further investigations are warranted to determine the optimal duration of these treatments after atrial septal defect closure.
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February 2019

Prognostic value of exercise stress echocardiography in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation: a long-term follow-up study.

J Echocardiogr 2019 09 29;17(3):147-156. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, 216-8511, Japan.

Background: Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) remains a challenging problem in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with heart failure. Although it is well known that secondary MR is dynamic, the impact of the severity of MR during exercise on long-term outcome has not been fully evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) in patients with secondary MR.

Methods: This prospective study included 118 consecutive patients with secondary MR and left ventricular dysfunction (mean ejection fraction at rest: 38 ± 14%) who underwent semi-supine ESE. Their major cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death were followed up for a median of 41.7 (range: 6-128) months.

Results: MR significantly increased from rest to exercise (effective regurgitant orifice: 0.18 ± 0.09 vs. 0.25 ± 0.12 cm, P < 0.001). The prevalence of severe MR was higher during exercise than those at rest (37% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). During follow-up, MACE occurred in 49 patients (41.5%) including 12 cardiac deaths. Cox proportional-hazard multivariate analysis revealed that older age and MR severity during exercise were significantly associated with increased risk of MACE (hazard ratio: 1.04 and 8.4, respectively, both P < 0.05).

Conclusions: ESE provides prognostic information in patients with secondary MR that is useful for predicting long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12574-018-0404-6DOI Listing
September 2019

Geometry of the left ventricular outflow tract assessed by 3D TEE in patients with aortic stenosis: impact of upper septal hypertrophy on measurements of Doppler-derived left ventricular stroke volume.

J Echocardiogr 2018 12 24;16(4):162-172. Epub 2018 May 24.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, 216-8511, Japan.

Background: It is unclear how upper septal hypertrophy (USH) affects Doppler-derived left ventricular stroke volume (SV) in patients with AS. The aims of this study were to: (1) validate the accuracy of 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) measurements of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), (2) evaluate the differences in LVOT geometry between AS patients with and without USH, and (3) assess the impact of USH on measurement of SV.

Methods: In protocol 1, both 3D TEE and multi-detector computed tomography were performed in 20 patients with AS [aortic valve area (AVA) ≤ 1.5 cm]. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to measure the LVOT short and long diameters in four parts from the tip of the septum to the annulus. In protocol 2, the same 3D TEE measurements were performed in AS patients (AVA ≤ 1.5 cm, n = 129) and controls (n = 30). We also performed 2D and 3D transthoracic echocardiography in all patients.

Results: In protocol 1, excellent correlations of LVOT parameters were found between the two modalities. In protocol 2, the USH group had smaller LVOT short and long diameters than the non-USH group. Although no differences in mean pressure gradient, or SV calculated with the 3D method existed between the two groups, the USH group had greater SV calculated with the Doppler method (73 ± 15 vs. 66 ± 15 ml) and aortic valve area (0.89 ± 0.26 vs. 0.73 ± 0.24 cm) than the non-USH group.

Conclusions: 3D TEE can provide a precise assessment of the LVOT in AS. USH affects the LVOT geometry in patients with AS, which might lead to inaccurate assessments of disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12574-018-0383-7DOI Listing
December 2018

Effect of aortic regurgitant jet direction on mitral valve leaflet remodeling: a real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography study.

Sci Rep 2017 08 21;7(1):8884. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) induces mitral valve (MV) leaflet enlargement, although, its mechanism still remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of AR jet directions on the MV apparatus in patients with chronic AR. This study included 69 consecutive patients with severe chronic AR and 17 controls who underwent three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The anterior mitral leaflet (AML), posterior mitral leaflet (PML) and MV annulus areas were measured at mid-diastole. All AR patients were classified into the posterior (Group A, n = 38) or non-posterior (Group B, n = 31) group based on the AR jet directions. Both two groups revealed the increased total leaflet areas compared with the controls. No significant differences in the left ventricular volumes, PML or MV annulus area were observed between Group A and B; however, Group A had the larger AML area and greater AML/PML area ratio than Group B (both P < 0.01). The multivariate analysis indicated that the posterior AR jet was independently associated with the AML/PML area (P < 0.01). 3D TEE depicted geometric differences in the MV apparatus between the different types of AR jet directions. These results may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of MV leaflet remodeling in chronic AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09252-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5567050PMC
August 2017

Predictors of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Asymptomatic Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation: Mechanistic Insights from 2D Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography.

Sci Rep 2017 01 10;7:40008. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Presence of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) determines prognosis. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism and predictors of EIPH in asymptomatic DMR. Ninety-one consecutive asymptomatic patients with DMR who underwent exercise stress echocardiography were prospectively included. We obtained various conventional echocardiographic parameters at rest and during peak exercise, as well as left atrial (LA) function at rest using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking analysis. The 25 patients (33.3%) with EIPH were significantly older and had a greater ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity during peak exercise than those without EIPH. LA strain (LAS)-s and LAS-e, indices of LA reservoir and conduit function, respectively, were significantly lower in those with EIPH than in those without EIPH. Multivariate analysis indicated that LAS-s was the only resting echocardiographic parameter that independently predicted EIPH, with a cut-off value of 26.9%. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that symptom-free survival was markedly lower among those with reduced LAS-s. In conclusion, decreased LA reservoir function contributes to EIPH, and LAS-s at rest is a useful indicator for predicting EIPH in asymptomatic patients with DMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep40008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5223189PMC
January 2017

Prognostic value of exercise left ventricular end-systolic volume index in patients with asymptomatic aortic regurgitation: an exercise echocardiography study.

J Echocardiogr 2017 06 21;15(2):70-78. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

Background: Surgical timing of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) remains a matter of debate because of limited data. This study assessed the prognostic value of exercise echocardiography in asymptomatic AR.

Methods: This prospective study included 60 consecutive asymptomatic patients with isolated moderate or severe AR (mean regurgitant volume 56.7 ± 11.8 ml) and preserved ejection fraction who underwent exercise echocardiography. The clinical outcomes were defined by the presence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) with class I or IIa classification in the current guidelines.

Results: During the average follow-up of 731 days, 12 patients suffered from the clinical events, including two patients developing MACE (3%) and ten patients indicating for AVR (17%). No difference in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction at rest was found between the patients with and without the clinical events. The indexed LV diameters and LV volumes were significantly dilated in the patients with the clinical events. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis resulted that the exercise LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVi) was significantly associated with the clinical outcomes [hazard ratio, 1.116; 95% CI (1.032-1.205); p = 0.006]. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that exercise LVESVi was clearly stratified the event-free survival.

Conclusions: Exercise LVESVi might be an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with asymptomatic moderate or severe AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12574-016-0323-3DOI Listing
June 2017

Aortic annulus displacement assessed by contrast left ventriculography during invasive coronary angiography as a predictor of adverse events.

J Cardiol 2017 02 16;69(2):442-448. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: We propose the use of aortic annulus displacement (AAD) detected on contrast left ventriculography (LVG) during invasive coronary angiography as a marker of left ventricular (LV) long-axis shortening. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether AAD is associated with adverse events in patients who underwent coronary angiography because of suspected coronary artery disease.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the medical records of 998 consecutive patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography and LVG. LV lengths were measured from the apex to the aortic valve insertion by using LVG images. AAD (%) was calculated as [(LV end-diastolic length-LV end-systolic length)/LV end-diastolic length]×100.

Results: The participants' median age was 67 years. Ninety-six adverse events (composite events; all-cause death, 39; congestive heart failure, 21; late revascularization, 34; and myocardial infarction, 2) were observed during a median follow-up period of 3.1 years. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, adverse events were associated with lower AAD (hazard ratio, 0.703; p=0.002), after adjusting for traditional risk factors and coronary artery stenosis. The area under the curve of AAD for predicting adverse events was greater than that of LV ejection fraction (0.656 vs. 0.541, p<0.05).

Conclusions: AAD was superior to LV ejection fraction as a predictor of adverse events in patients with and without coronary arterial stenosis. AAD may be the optimal method for assessing longitudinal LV systolic function in the catheter laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2015.12.012DOI Listing
February 2017

Association between inflammatory biomarkers and thin-cap fibroatheroma detected by optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary heart disease.

Arch Med Sci 2015 Jun;11(3):505-12

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Introduction: The relationship between plaque morphology detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and inflammatory biomarkers is not well known.

Material And Methods: This study included 47 patients with ischemic heart disease (22 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 25 patients with effort angina pectoris) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Before PCI, peripheral blood levels of the inflammatory biomarkers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. The OCT can detect thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), a lesion with high potential for adverse cardiac events. We investigated the relationships between TCFAs in culprit lesions detected by OCT and the peripheral blood levels of these biomarkers.

Results: We observed 12 lesions detected as TCFAs. The natural logs of hs-CRP and IL-6 levels in the TCFA group were higher than those in the non-TCFA group (hs-CRP 0.87 (-0.96 to 0.87) vs. -0.47 (-0.92 to 0.30) mg/l, p = 0.027; and IL-6 1.63 (0.63-3.23) vs. 0.53 (-0.21 to 1.05) pg/dl, p = 0.005, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, log IL-6 was an independent predictor for TCFA detected by OCT (log IL-6, 0.970 pg/dl, p = 0.023). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis confirmed that IL-6, compared to hs-CRP, has a higher area under the curve for predicting TCFA (0.783 vs. 0.715, respectively).

Conclusions: Peripheral blood levels of both hs-CRP and IL-6 were associated with TCFAs, as detected by OCT. Moreover, IL-6 has a higher potential than hs-CRP for predicting TCFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2015.52352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495146PMC
June 2015

A Rare Case of Spontaneous Dissection in a Left Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Graft in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015 Jun 20;8(7):996-7. Epub 2015 May 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2015.02.016DOI Listing
June 2015

Evaluation of the influence of cardiac motion on the accuracy and reproducibility of longitudinal measurements and the corresponding image quality in optical frequency domain imaging: an ex vivo investigation of the optimal pullback speed.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015 Aug 14;31(6):1115-23. Epub 2015 May 14.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki-City, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan,

Longitudinal measurement using intravascular ultrasound is limited because the motorized pullback device assumes no cardiac motion. A newly developed intracoronary imaging modality, optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), has higher resolution and an increased auto-pullback speed with presumably lesser susceptibility to cardiac motion artifacts during pullback for longitudinal measurement; however, it has not been fully investigated. We aimed to clarify the influence of cardiac motion on the accuracy and reproducibility of longitudinal measurements obtained using OFDI and to determine the optimal pullback speed. This ex vivo study included 31 stents deployed in the mid left anterior descending artery under phantom heartbeat and coronary flow simulation. Longitudinal stent lengths were measured twice using OFDI at three pullback speeds. Differences in stent lengths between OFDI and microscopy and between two repetitive pullbacks were assessed to determine accuracy and reproducibility. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction was used for evaluating image quality. With regard to differences in stent length between OFDI and microscopy, the intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.985, 0.994, and 0.995 at 10, 20, and 40 mm/s, respectively. With regard to reproducibility, the values were 0.995, 0.996, and 0.996 at 10, 20, and 40 mm/s, respectively. 3D reconstruction showed a superior image quality at 10 and 20 mm/s compared with that at 40 mm/s. OFDI demonstrated high accuracy and reproducibility for longitudinal stent measurements. Moreover, its accuracy and reproducibility were remarkable at a higher pullback speed. A 20-mm/s pullback speed may be optimal for clinical and research purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-015-0676-0DOI Listing
August 2015