Publications by authors named "Tomoki Saigo"

3 Publications

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Diversity of Chemical Structures and Biosynthesis of Polyphenols in Nut-Bearing Species.

Front Plant Sci 2021 6;12:642581. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Graduate School of Biological Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Japan.

Nuts, such as peanut, almond, and chestnut, are valuable food crops for humans being important sources of fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols. Polyphenols, such as flavonoids, stilbenoids, and hydroxycinnamates, represent a group of plant-specialized (secondary) metabolites which are characterized as health-beneficial antioxidants within the human diet as well as physiological stress protectants within the plant. In food chemistry research, a multitude of polyphenols contained in culinary nuts have been studied leading to the identification of their chemical properties and bioactivities. Although functional elucidation of the biosynthetic genes of polyphenols in nut species is crucially important for crop improvement in the creation of higher-quality nuts and stress-tolerant cultivars, the chemical diversity of nut polyphenols and the key biosynthetic genes responsible for their production are still largely uncharacterized. However, current technical advances in whole-genome sequencing have facilitated that nut plant species became model plants for omics-based approaches. Here, we review the chemical diversity of seed polyphenols in majorly consumed nut species coupled to insights into their biological activities. Furthermore, we present an example of the annotation of key genes involved in polyphenolic biosynthesis in peanut using comparative genomics as a case study outlining how we are approaching omics-based approaches of the nut plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.642581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056029PMC
April 2021

Cross-Species Comparison of Fruit-Metabolomics to Elucidate Metabolic Regulation of Fruit Polyphenolics Among Solanaceous Crops.

Metabolites 2020 May 19;10(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan.

Many solanaceous crops are an important part of the human daily diet. Fruit polyphenolics are plant specialized metabolites that are recognized for their human health benefits and their defensive role against plant abiotic and biotic stressors. Flavonoids and chlorogenates are the major polyphenolic compounds found in solanaceous fruits that vary in quantity, physiological function, and structural diversity among and within plant species. Despite their biological significance, the elucidation of metabolic shifts of polyphenols during fruit ripening in different fruit tissues, has not yet been well-characterized in solanaceous crops, especially at a cross-species and cross-cultivar level. Here, we performed a cross-species comparison of fruit-metabolomics to elucidate the metabolic regulation of fruit polyphenolics from three representative crops of Solanaceae (tomato, eggplant, and pepper), and a cross-cultivar comparison among different pepper cultivars ( cv.) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We observed a metabolic trade-off between hydroxycinnamates and flavonoids in pungent pepper and anthocyanin-type pepper cultivars and identified metabolic signatures of fruit polyphenolics in each species from each different tissue-type and fruit ripening stage. Our results provide additional information for metabolomics-assisted crop improvement of solanaceous fruits towards their improved nutritive properties and enhanced stress tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10050209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281770PMC
May 2020

Diversity of anthocyanin and proanthocyanin biosynthesis in land plants.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2020 06 5;55:93-99. Epub 2020 May 5.

Graduate School of Biological Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Ikoma, 630-0192 Japan. Electronic address:

Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are among the most numerous and widely distributed pigments in land plants. Given that these pigments are the valuable compounds, as stress protectants and health-promoting components because of their potent antioxidant activity, several metabolic engineering approaches focusing on these compounds have been attempted. Currently, the difference in biological functions between flavonoid decorations is focused, because some aglycone decorations were found to be key factors rendering physiological functions against environmental stresses. Therefore, metabolic diversity and functional genomics approaches focusing on anthocyanin decoration should be reconsidered. Additionally, since the production of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in plants is often represented in a tissue-specific manner and by stress induction, elucidation of the specific regulatory mechanisms of how these pathways have been evolved, is highly important. Here, we review current knowledge of the diversity of chemical structure and regulators of anthocyanin/proanthocyanin biosynthesis with cross-species comparison to assess metabolic evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2020.04.001DOI Listing
June 2020
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