Publications by authors named "Tomokazu Kimizu"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Epilepsy in patients with advanced Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy.

Brain Dev 2021 Jan 25;43(1):106-110. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Japan.

Background: Recent advances in respiratory management have improved survival for patients with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy and brain malformation. Previous studies reported that more than half of patients exhibit seizures in childhood. However, little is known about epilepsy after childhood.

Methods: To elucidate the long-term clinical course of epilepsy, we retrospectively reviewed all medical records in nine patients (6 males, mean age 20.7 years) with FCMD diagnosed between 1981 and 2019.

Results: The follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 30 years (mean 18.4 years). A total of 75 EEG recordings were available from nine patients. In some patients, EEGs were normal during early childhood but tended to show paroxysmal discharges with age. Overall, epileptic seizures were observed in six patients. Except for one presenting with afebrile seizure at one year of age, the remaining five patients developed epilepsy between 13 and 22 years of age. The most common seizure type was focal impaired awareness seizure. After adolescence, four patients exhibited status epilepticus. Their convulsive movements of the seizures became less prominent with progression of the disease. At the last evaluation, most patients (5/6) had uncontrolled seizures.

Conclusions: Despite presence of distinct brain malformation, epileptic seizures may develop after childhood in FCMD patients. Our experience suggests that clinicians should be careful not to overlook epileptic seizures, especially in advanced-stage patients who had profound muscle weakness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.06.017DOI Listing
January 2021

Methylprednisolone pulse therapy in 31 patients with refractory epilepsy: A single-center retrospective analysis.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 08 6;109:107116. Epub 2020 May 6.

National Epilepsy Center, NHO, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Japan.

Purpose: We investigated the efficacy of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MP) and responder characteristics in patients with refractory epilepsy.

Methods: We reviewed medical records of our center to identify patients with refractory epilepsy treated with MP other than continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS), Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), or Rasmussen's syndrome (RS) between 2004 and 2015. A course of MP consisted of intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day) on three consecutive days. Patients received multiple courses at intervals of four weeks. We examined seizure outcome, developmental outcome, antibodies to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors (GluRs), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)-albumin/serum-albumin ratio, and interictal electroencephalograms (EEGs). Responder to MP was defined as maintaining seizure reduction rate (SRR) ≥50% for three months after the first course of MP.

Results: Thirty-one consecutive patients treated with MP at our center were studied. Seizure types were focal onset impaired awareness seizure (FIAS) only (n = 23), FIAS with epileptic spasms (ES) (n = 7), and ES only (n = 1). Responder rate was 32.2% (10/31 patients), and seizure-free rate was 9.7% (3/31). Responders constituted 43.5% of patients without ES. No patient with ES was responder. Behavior and cognition also improved in 6 of 10 responders. History of seizure aggravation after inactivated vaccine before MP was found significantly higher rate in responder patients, comparing with nonresponder patients (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Methylprednisolone pulse therapy may be considered for possible treatment in patients with focal epilepsy with drug-resistant seizures without ES, and it may improve cognitive function and behavioral comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107116DOI Listing
August 2020

Comprehensive analysis of coding variants highlights genetic complexity in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

Nat Commun 2019 06 7;10(1):2506. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Although there are many known Mendelian genes linked to epileptic or developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (EE/DEE), its genetic architecture is not fully explained. Here, we address this incompleteness by analyzing exomes of 743 EE/DEE cases and 2366 controls. We observe that damaging ultra-rare variants (dURVs) unique to an individual are significantly overrepresented in EE/DEE, both in known EE/DEE genes and the other non-EE/DEE genes. Importantly, enrichment of dURVs in non-EE/DEE genes is significant, even in the subset of cases with diagnostic dURVs (P = 0.000215), suggesting oligogenic contribution of non-EE/DEE gene dURVs. Gene-based analysis identifies exome-wide significant (P = 2.04 × 10) enrichment of damaging de novo mutations in NF1, a gene primarily linked to neurofibromatosis, in infantile spasm. Together with accumulating evidence for roles of oligogenic or modifier variants in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, our results highlight genetic complexity in EE/DEE, and indicate that EE/DEE is not an aggregate of simple Mendelian disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10482-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555845PMC
June 2019

Chronic dysfunction of blood-brain barrier in patients with post-encephalitic/encephalopathic epilepsy.

Seizure 2018 Dec 13;63:85-90. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatrics, National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, NHO, Shizuoka, Japan.

Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the characteristics and effects of chronic blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in patients with post-encephalitic/encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE), using brain images and the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin ratio (albumin quotient, QAlb) as a marker of BBB function.

Methods: We examined the albumin levels in CSF and serum samples from 312 patients with refractory epilepsy in our center between 2004 and 2015. Sixty samples from patients with PEE and 97 samples from age- and sex-matched disease controls (DC) were evaluated. We classified PEE patients into a widespread lesion group and a focal lesion group by severity on brain magnetic resonance images in the chronic phase after acute encephalitis/encephalopathy.

Results: Median QAlb was higher in PEE than in DC [median (range) ×10: PEE 3.6 (1.0-10.3) versus DC 2.7 (1.0-6.7), p = 0.007]. In a linear regression analysis of the relationship between QAlb and patient's age at CSF examination or duration of epilepsy, the slope of the regression line was greater in PEE than in DC. Furthermore, in patients under ten years of age, linear regression analysis of QAlb versus seizure frequency showed a weak but positive correlation. Among PEE patients, seizure frequency was higher in the widespread lesion group than in the focal lesion group [300 (4-3000) versus 30 (1-1500) seizures/month, p <  0.001].

Conclusion: Our study suggests that patients with PEE have more severe BBB dysfunction, and that the BBB dysfunction is associated with refractory epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018

A case of early onset epileptic encephalopathy with de novo mutation in SLC35A2: Clinical features and treatment for epilepsy.

Brain Dev 2017 Mar 12;39(3):256-260. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Pediatrics, National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, NHO, Japan.

Introduction: Mutations of SLC35A2 that encodes Golgi-localized Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose transporter at Xp11.23 lead to congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Although patients with CDG generally have diverse systemic symptoms, patients with a SLC35A2 mutation manifest predominantly disorders of the central nervous system (CNS).

Case Report: A female infant aged 12months was referred to our center because of intractable seizures. The patient was born with birth weight of 3228g after 40weeks of unremarkable gestation. At the age of 2months, she had partial seizures evolving to epileptic spasms. Her electroencephalogram showed hypsarrhythmia. Her seizures were refractory to antiepileptic drugs. At referral to our center at 12months, she had developmental delay (no head control), widely spaced inverted nipples, external strabismus, and bilateral heterochromia of irises. Blood examinations were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings included cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thinning of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid pouch. Whole-exome sequencing detected a de novo frameshift mutation c.950delG (p.Gly317Alafs*32) at exon 4 in SLC35A2. Seizures subsided after the second adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) therapy at 18months. At the age of 36months, although she had intellectual disability with no meaningful words, she was seizure-free and was able to sit without support and showed smiling face a lot.

Conclusion: This report reviewed the clinical features of patients with a SLC35A2 mutation. ACTH therapy may be effective for refractory epilepsy in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2016.09.009DOI Listing
March 2017

[Rasmussen syndrome (encephalitis)].

Nihon Rinsho 2015 Sep;73 Suppl 7:619-25

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September 2015

Ictal Tc-Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer SPECT Findings of a Girl With Refractory Localization-Related Epilepsy Who Developed Transient Ictal Bradycardia.

Child Neurol Open 2015 Jul-Sep;2(3):2329048X15595818. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.

Ictal bradycardia, which is considered to be one of the causes of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy, is rare. A 10-year-old girl with focal cortical dysplasia in her right centroparietal region developed transient ictal bradycardia during cluster seizures. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a high signal intensity lesion adjacent to the focal cortical dysplasia lesion. Ictal Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) detected hyperperfusion in an area containing the high signal intensity lesion, which was located close to the insular cortex. Since the hyperperfusion zone observed on SPECT was considered to reflect seizure propagation, it is possible that the ictal bradycardia experienced in the present case was caused by the following mechanism: The repetitive seizure activity caused the high-intensity lesion seen on MRI to expand into the right insular cortex, which controls cardiac rhythm, resulting in ictal bradycardia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2329048X15595818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417018PMC
July 2015

[Evaluation of six cases with hypothalamic hamartoma: the relationship between MRI findings and clinical features].

No To Hattatsu 2014 Nov;46(6):419-23

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka.

Objective: We evaluated the relationship between MRI findings and clinical features in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed MRI and clinical data (mental retardation, precocious puberty, behavioral problems, and epilepsy) in six patients (3 males and 3 females, ages 12 to 26) with HH. Based on the MRI classification by Arita, HH was classified into two types: parahypothalamic (P) and intrahypothalamic (I).

Results: Only one patient was classified as having P-type HH and five were classified as having I-type HH. The patient with P-type HH (diameter 21 mm) showed precocious puberty and mild behavioral problems, but did not developed epilepsy. On the other hand, all patients with I-type HH (diameter 10-32 mm, median 17 mm) developed epilepsy and behavioral problems. Except for one patient, who had the smallest sized HH, I-type four patients developed mental retardation and precocious puberty. Among patients with I-type HH, the size of the tumor was inversely correlated with the age at epilepsy onset and with the degree of mental retardation (DQ/IQ).

Conclusion: Our data suggested that the MRI classification by Arita, when combined with tumor size, might be helpful in predicting the clinical manifestations in patients with HH.
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November 2014

[Successful treatment with intravenous steroid pulse therapy of a boy with recurrent idiopathic sixth nerve palsy].

No To Hattatsu 2014 Jul;46(4):287-9

A 3-year-old boy developed left-sided convergent strabismus one week after upper respiratory infection. All examinations, including analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, a tensilon test, and brain MRI, were negative. He was diagnosed with idiopathic sixth nerve palsy. His symptom resolved gradually with vitamin B12, and remitted completely three months after onset. At the age of 6 years, he experienced recurrence of left-sided sixth nerve palsy. After vitamin B12 failed, his symptom responded markedly to intravenous steroid pulse therapy starting on day 26 after relapse. He has been symptom-free for three years since the second remission. Steroid therapy might be effective, and should be considered in children with idiopathic sixth nerve palsy who do not show spontaneous remission.
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July 2014

Predictive value of EEG findings at control of epileptic spasms for seizure relapse in patients with West syndrome.

Seizure 2014 Oct 2;23(9):703-7. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic importance of electroencephalography (EEG) findings at cessation of epileptic spasms for seizure outcome.

Methods: We reviewed 71 children with West syndrome (cryptogenic 14) who had obtained control of epileptic spasms with initial treatment (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 37, high-dose vitamin B6 2, and antiepileptic drugs 32). According to the EEG findings at control of epileptic spasms, the subjects were divided into three groups: normal group (no epileptic activity, n=12), abnormal group (residual epileptic activity without hypsarrhythmia, n=53), and hypsarrhythmic group (persisting hypsarrhythmia, n=6).

Results: Overall, 47 (66%) of the 71 patients (cryptogenic 4) had experienced relapses of seizures (epileptic spasms 23 and focal seizure 24) after initial control of epileptic spasms. Within symptomatic cases, seizure relapse rate varied widely from 0% (Down syndrome) to 100% (tuberous sclerosis), depending on underlying causes. Seizure relapse depended on the EEG findings at control of epileptic spasms. The normal group had a significantly lower seizure relapse rate (17%) in comparison with the abnormal group (75%), the hypsarrhythmic group (83%), and the epileptiform (abnormal plus hypsarrhythmic, 76%) group. No significant difference in seizure relapse rate was observed between non-hypsarrhythmic (normal plus abnormal, 65%) and hypsarrhythmic groups. At the last follow-up, normal group children also showed a favorable seizure prognosis (seizure control 100%).

Conclusions: A favorable seizure prognosis is associated with the disappearance of epileptic activity, but not the resolution of hypsarrhythmic pattern on EEG at control of epileptic spasms. We suggest that effective treatment for West syndrome should produce both cessation of epileptic spasms and disappearance of epileptic activity on EEG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2014.05.010DOI Listing
October 2014

Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus: our experience of 15 Japanese cases.

Brain Dev 2015 Jan 18;37(1):71-5. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus is a non-epileptic movement disorder that may mimic neonatal seizures. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical manifestations and outcomes in Japanese infants with benign neonatal sleep myoclonus.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical manifestations and outcomes in 15 consecutive patients with benign neonatal sleep myoclonus (males: 10), including three paired familial cases, referred to our center between 1996 and 2011. The diagnosis of benign neonatal sleep myoclonus was based on a neonatal onset, characteristic myoclonic jerks that occurred during sleep, and normal electroencephalogram findings.

Results: All were healthy full-term neonates at birth. The age at onset ranged from 1 to 18 days (median: 7 days). Prior to referral to our center (3-8 weeks), two infants had been placed on antiepileptic drugs, without effects. During the clinical course, the myoclonic jerks resolved by 6 months in 14 of the 15 patients. On follow-up (final evaluation, mean: 38 months), all but one patient (speech delay) showed normal development. None developed epilepsy. Of note, migraine occurred after 5 years of age in three children, including one who developed cyclic vomiting syndrome, evolving to migraine. Another boy developed cyclic vomiting syndrome, a precursor of migraine, before 1 year, and was being followed. A high incidence of migraine was observed in five (42%) of 12 parents whose detailed family history was available.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that benign neonatal sleep myoclonus is related to migraine. With the high rate of familial cases, further genetic study, including migraine-related gene analysis, is necessary to determine the underlying mechanism responsible for benign neonatal sleep myoclonus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2014.03.010DOI Listing
January 2015

[Three cases of human herpesvirus-6 encephalopathy showing hyperperfusion in the acute phase on SPECT].

No To Hattatsu 2013 Jul;45(4):309-13

Department of Pediatrics, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka.

Brain hypoperfusion observed on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a typical finding in the acute phase of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalopathy. However, from 2004 to 2010, we encountered three cases of HHV-6 encephalopathy in which hyperperfusion in the area of the brain lesion was observed on SPECT performed within 48 hours after disease onset. The hyperperfusion in the brain was followed by hypoperfusion in the recovery phase. These cases suggest that hyperperfusion may appear in damaged areas prior to the hypoperfusion that is normally associated with HHV-6 encephalopathy.
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July 2013