Publications by authors named "Tomohiro Koike"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia.

Science 2009 Dec;326(5959):1541-5

Asia harbors substantial cultural and linguistic diversity, but the geographic structure of genetic variation across the continent remains enigmatic. Here we report a large-scale survey of autosomal variation from a broad geographic sample of Asian human populations. Our results show that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Most populations show relatedness within ethnic/linguistic groups, despite prevalent gene flow among populations. More than 90% of East Asian (EA) haplotypes could be found in either Southeast Asian (SEA) or Central-South Asian (CSA) populations and show clinal structure with haplotype diversity decreasing from south to north. Furthermore, 50% of EA haplotypes were found in SEA only and 5% were found in CSA only, indicating that SEA was a major geographic source of EA populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1177074DOI Listing
December 2009

Lipid transfer protein transports compounds from lipid nanoparticles to plasma lipoproteins.

Int J Pharm 2004 May;275(1-2):239-48

Pharmacy Laboratories, Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd., 14, Nishinosho-Monguchicho, Kissyoin, Minami-Ku, Kyoto 601-8550, Japan.

Nanometer-sized lipid emulsion particles with a diameter of 25-50 nm, called Lipid Nano-Sphere (LNS), are expected as a promising drug carrier to show prolonged plasma half-life of an incorporating drug. In terms of successful drug delivery using LNS, a drug should be incorporated into the lipid particles and remain within the particle, not only in the formulation in vitro but also after administration into the systemic blood circulation. In this study, we showed that phospholipids and some water-insoluble molecules also moved from lipid particles to plasma lipoproteins or albumin in serum and plasma half-lives of these compounds did not reflect that of the drug carriers. It was suggested that phospholipid or its derivative were transferred from LNS particles to plasma lipoproteins by lipid transfer proteins (LTP) in the circulation. These phenomena leaded to unsuccessful delivery of the drug with lipid-particulate drug carriers. On the other hand, lipophilic derivatives with cholesterol pro-moiety tested in this study were not released from LNS particles and showed prolonged plasma half-lives. Lipophilicity is known to be an important parameter for incorporating drugs into lipid particles but substrate specificity for LTP seems to be another key to success promising drug design using lipid emulsion particulate delivery system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2004.02.008DOI Listing
May 2004

GeneWays: a system for extracting, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating molecular pathway data.

J Biomed Inform 2004 Feb;37(1):43-53

Columbia Genome Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

The immense growth in the volume of research literature and experimental data in the field of molecular biology calls for efficient automatic methods to capture and store information. In recent years, several groups have worked on specific problems in this area, such as automated selection of articles pertinent to molecular biology, or automated extraction of information using natural-language processing, information visualization, and generation of specialized knowledge bases for molecular biology. GeneWays is an integrated system that combines several such subtasks. It analyzes interactions between molecular substances, drawing on multiple sources of information to infer a consensus view of molecular networks. GeneWays is designed as an open platform, allowing researchers to query, review, and critique stored information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2003.10.001DOI Listing
February 2004

Comparison of LNS-AmB, a novel low-dose formulation of amphotericin B with lipid nano-sphere (LNS), with commercial lipid-based formulations.

Int J Pharm 2003 Nov;267(1-2):101-12

R&D Administration Department, Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd., 14 Nishinosho-Monguchi-cho Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8550, Japan.

Three lipid-based delivery systems (AmBisome, Amphocil, and Abelcet) for amphotericin B (AmB) have been marketed to overcome the disadvantages associated with the clinical use of AmB. However, to show their efficacy, they need to be administered at higher doses than the conventional dosage form, Fungizone. In this study, we compared LNS-AmB, our new low-dose therapeutic system for AmB using lipid nano-sphere (LNS), with these commercial formulations in terms of their pharmacokinetics and efficacy. The plasma AmB levels yielded by LNS-AmB after intravenous administration to rats were much higher than those yielded by Amphocil or Abelcet, and similar to those yielded by AmBisome, but in dogs LNS-AmB yielded plasma AmB concentrations about three times higher than did AmBisome. In a carrageenin-induced pleurisy model in rats, LNS-AmB yielded AmB levels in the pleural exudate over 20 times those yielded by Amphocil or Abelcet, and similar to those yielded by AmBisome. From these pharmacokinetic results, it is clear that Amphocil and Abelcet are based on a quite distinct drug-delivery concept from LNS-AmB. In a rat model of localized candidiasis, LNS-AmB significantly inhibited the growth of Candida albicans in the pouch, whereas AmBisome did not, even though the AmB concentrations in the pouch were similar. This difference in antifungal activity between LNS-AmB and AmBisome was also found in vitro. That is, the antifungal activity of LNS-AmB against C. albicans was similar to that of Fungizone and dimethyl sulfoxide-solubilized AmB, while AmBisome showed weaker antifungal activity than did other formulations. Based on these results, the release of AmB from AmBisome was judged to be slow and slight. In a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, LNS-AmB (1.0mg/kg) was much more effective than AmBisome (8.0mg/kg) or Fungizone (1.0mg/kg). These results suggest that LNS-AmB maintained the potent activity of AmB against fungal cells even though the AmB was incorporated into LNS particles. We conclude that LNS-AmB may offer an improved therapeutic profile at lower doses than Fungizone and commercial lipid-based formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2003.08.002DOI Listing
November 2003

A novel delivery system for amphotericin B with lipid nano-sphere (LNS).

Int J Pharm 2003 Oct;265(1-2):37-45

R&D Administration Department, Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd., 14, Nishinosho-Monguchi-cho, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8550, Japan.

A low-dose therapeutic system with a lipid emulsion for amphotericin B (AmB), a potent antifungal drug, was studied. Lipid nano-sphere (LNS), a small-particle lipid emulsion, was taken up by the liver to a lesser extent than was a conventional lipid emulsion. As a result, LNS yielded higher plasma concentrations of a radiochemical tracer than did the conventional lipid emulsion. LNS was therefore judged to be a suitable carrier for a low-dose therapeutic system for AmB, and LNS incorporating AmB (LNS-AmB) was prepared. LNS-AmB was found to be a homogeneous emulsion with mean particle diameters ranging from 25 to 50 nm. LNS-AmB yielded higher plasma concentrations of AmB than did Fungizone, a conventional intravenous dosage form of AmB, after intravenous administration to mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. This difference between LNS-AmB and Fungizone was also observed for constant intravenous infusion. In contrast to Fungizone, LNS-AmB showed a linear relationship between dose and AUC. These pharmacokinetic characteristics of LNS-AmB make it a suitable candidate for an effective low-dose therapeutic system for AmB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(03)00404-6DOI Listing
October 2003

Evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of amphotericin B incorporated in lipid nano-sphere (LNS).

Int J Pharm 2003 Sep;263(1-2):51-60

R&D Administration Department, Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd., 14, Nishinosho-Monguchi-cho, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8550, Japan.

To develop a low-dose therapeutic system for amphotericin B (AmB), the efficacy and toxicity of lipid nano-sphere (LNS) incorporating AmB (LNS-AmB) were evaluated and compared with those of Fungizone, the conventional dosage form of AmB with sodium deoxycholate. LNS-AmB and Fungizone showed nearly equal activity against fungal cells both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to Fungizone, however, LNS-AmB did not cause significant hemolysis. In addition, the vomiting toxicity of Fungizone was largely avoided by the use of LNS-AmB in dogs, in spite of the higher plasma AmB concentrations achieved by LNS-AmB. Therefore, LNS-AmB may be selective for fungal cells over mammalian cells. In a study of its toxicity and toxicokinetics in a regimen of daily 2-h intravenous infusions for 14 consecutive days, LNS-AmB showed less toxicity to the kidney than did Fungizone in spite of the higher plasma AmB concentrations achieved. LNS-AmB, therefore, allows the treatment of systemic fungal infections at low doses without the severe nephrotoxicity of Fungizone. Size-exclusion chromatography provided evidence that, when LNS-AmB was administered to rats, AmB was retained in the LNS particles in the blood circulation, but that when Fungizone was administered, AmB was transferred to high-density lipoproteins (HDL). AmB retained in LNS particles seemed to be less toxic to the kidney than was AmB associated with HDL. Consequently, LNS-AmB has the potential to become a low-dose therapeutic system for AmB, minimizing most of the severe side effects of AmB by decreasing the total dose required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(03)00342-9DOI Listing
September 2003