Publications by authors named "Tomasz Podgórski"

41 Publications

Motor Unit Force Potentiation and Calcium Handling Protein Concentration in Rat Fast Muscle After Resistance Training.

Front Physiol 2021 14;12:652299. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurobiology, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland.

Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) of force depends on intramuscular Ca levels and sensitivity and may be affected by fatigue. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of isolated fast fatigue-resistant (FR) and fast-fatigable (FF) motor units (MUs) to potentiate force evoked with single and 40-Hz electrical stimulation after 5 weeks of voluntary weight-lifting training. Tetanic contractions evoked by gradually increasing (10-150 Hz) stimulation frequency served as conditioning stimulation. Additionally, the concentration of myosin light chain kinase and proteins engaged in calcium handling was measured in rat fast medial gastrocnemius muscle. After the training, the potentiation of twitch force and peak rate of force development was increased in FF but not FR MUs. Force potentiation of 40-Hz tetanic contractions was increased in both fast MU types. After the training, the twitch duration of FR MUs was decreased, and FF MUs were less prone to high-frequency fatigue during conditioning stimulation. Muscle concentration of triadin was increased, whereas concentrations of ryanodine receptor 1, junctin, FKBP12, sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1, parvalbumin, myosin light chain kinase, and actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase content were not modified. After short-term resistance training, the twitch contraction time and twitch:tetanus force ratio of FR MUs are decreased, and PTP ability is not changed. However, PTP capacity is increased in response to submaximal activation. In FF MUs increase in PTP ability coexists with lesser fatigability. Further work is required to find out if the increase in triadin concentration has any impact on the observed contractile response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.652299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160384PMC
May 2021

Clear phylogeographic pattern and genetic structure of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9680. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Toruń, Poland.

The wild boar Sus scrofa is one of the widely spread ungulate species in Europe, yet the origin and genetic structure of the population inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe are not well recognized. We analysed 101 newly obtained sequences of complete mtDNA genomes and 548 D-loop sequences of the species and combined them with previously published data. We identified five phylogenetic clades in Europe with clear phylogeographic pattern. Two of them occurred mainly in western and central part of the continent, while the range of the third clade covered North-Eastern, Central and South-Eastern Europe. The two other clades had rather restricted distribution. In Central Europe, we identified a contact zone of three mtDNA clades. Population genetic structure reflected clear phylogeographic pattern of wild boar in this part of Europe. The contribution of lineages originating from the southern (Dinaric-Balkan) and eastern (northern cost of the Black Sea) areas to the observed phylogeographic pattern of the species in Central and Eastern Europe was larger than those from the regions located in southern France, Iberian, and Italian Peninsulas. The present work was the first mitogenomic analysis conducted in Central and Eastern Europe to study genetic diversity and structure of wild boar population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88991-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102581PMC
May 2021

A Pilot Study of Influence of Endurance Training on the Prooxidative and Antioxidant Status of Women after Breast Cancer.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 10;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Anthropology and Biometry, Poznań University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of 8-week long endurance training on the prooxidative-antioxidative status of plasma in women treated for breast cancer. The participants of the study were 12 women after radical mastectomy aged 45 to 56 years (M = 50.6 ± 2.9 years), who had undergone full cancer treatment, on average more than 5 years after the treatment (M = 5.9 ± 0.9 years). Body mass components were measured twice using the method of bioelectric impedance analysis. In order to optimize training loads and to assess the level of exercise tolerance of the participants, the group was subject to an ergospirometric exercise test twice, before (1st) and after (2nd) the completion of the training cycle. The blood was also taken twice for biochemical analyses. Statistically significant differences were noted in the maximum exercise load, the level of which increased in the second test ( < 0.05). No change was observed in the level of antioxidative potential, i.e., the content of some variables, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), urea, total phenolics, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and in the blood indices of the body's nutritional status during the project (total protein, albumin. Endurance training caused an increase in exercise tolerance and did not cause an aggravation of oxidative stress in women undergoing breast cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999469PMC
March 2021

Is a Four-Week Ketogenic Diet an Effective Nutritional Strategy in CrossFit-Trained Female and Male Athletes?

Nutrients 2021 Mar 6;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznan University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

This single-arm interventional study examined the effect of a 4-week ketogenic diet (KD) on aerobic capacity and discipline-specific performance in female ( = 11) and male ( = 11) CrossFit-trained athletes. The participants performed incremental cycling (ICT) and Fight Gone Bad (FGB) tests after consuming a customary diet and a KD. Pre- and post-ICT exercise blood samples were also analysed. Consuming a KD had a slight impact on aerobic capacity and no relevant effect on CrossFit-specific performance. In females, consuming a KD led to an 10.4% decrease in peak oxygen uptake during the ICT ( = 0.027) and resulted in certain alterations in haematological parameters (haemoglobin (HGB), mean corpuscular HGB, and mean corpuscular HGB concentration). Furthermore, in males, alanine aminotransferase activity increased with a simultaneous improvement in the post-ICT blood acid-base balance after consuming a KD. The pre-exercise bilirubin concentration was also elevated in the entire group after consuming a KD. In conclusion, female CrossFit-trained athletes seem to be prone to aerobic performance decrements and increased risk of developing haematological disturbances when consuming a KD. In males who consumed a KD, there was an undesirable alanine aminotransferase elevation and a small tendency towards improved acid-base status. Moreover, consuming a KD had no effect on discipline-specific performance in CrossFit-trained athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001376PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of the repeatability and reliability of the cross-training specific Fight Gone Bad workout and its relation to aerobic fitness.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 31;11(1):7263. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznan University of Physical Education, 61-871, Poznan, Poland.

Cross-training is a high-intensity functional training (HIFT) with multiple workout modalities. Despite the increasing number of studies in HIFT, there is still no validated test to measure its specific performance. It would also be advisable to determine whether selected cross-training workouts can implement a stimulus corresponding to maximize aerobic work. For these reasons, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of Fight Gone Bad (FGB) workout and to assess its relationship with aerobic fitness. Twenty-one cross-training participants (9 females) finished the study protocol which included three two-day measurement sessions separated by 10 days. During each session, participants had their body composition measured, and they performed two exercise tests. The first test was an incremental cycling test to measure aerobic fitness, and the second was a cross-training specific FGB workout performed the next day. Reliability and repeatability were calculated from the three measurements. The total FGB Score (FGB) showed excellent reliability (ICC 0.9, SEM 6%). Moreover, FGB was strongly correlated with aerobic fitness (i.e., time to exhaustion (T, R = 0.72), maximal workload (W, R = 0.69), time to gas exchange threshold (T, R = 0.68), and peak oxygen uptake (VO, R = 0.59). We also found that agreement between standardized FGB and standardized aerobic performance indices such as T, VO, W, maximum heart rate, T, and workload at gas exchange threshold was high by the Bland-Altman method. In conclusion, FGB is a reliable test that can be used in order to measure changes in cross-training performance caused by an intervention. Moreover, FGB is strongly correlated to aerobic fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86660-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012697PMC
March 2021

Does the Minerals Content and Osmolarity of the Fluids Taken during Exercise by Female Field Hockey Players Influence on the Indicators of Water-Electrolyte and Acid-Basic Balance?

Nutrients 2021 Feb 4;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Chair of Dietetics, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznań University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

Although it is recognized that dehydration and acidification of the body may reduce the exercise capacity, it remains unclear whether the qualitative and quantitative shares of certain ions in the drinks used by players during the same exertion may affect the indicators of their water-electrolyte and acid-base balance. This question was the main purpose of the publication. The research was carried out on female field hockey players ( = 14) throughout three specialized training sessions, during which the players received randomly assigned fluids of different osmolarity and minerals contents. The water-electrolyte and acid-base balance of the players was assessed on the basis of biochemical blood and urine indicators immediately before and after each training session. There were statistically significant differences in the values of all examined indicators for changes before and after exercise, while the differences between the consumed drinks with different osmolarities were found for plasma osmolality, and concentrations of sodium and potassium ions and aldosterone. Therefore, it can be assumed that the degree of mineralization of the consumed water did not have a very significant impact on the indicators of water-electrolyte and acid-base balance in blood and urine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913615PMC
February 2021

Use of the six-minute walk test in exercise prescription in male patients after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol 2020 Dec 15;17(4):183-188. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Motor Organ Rehabilitation, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: It is unclear whether it is possible to determine the training load on the basis of the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) in patients after cardiac surgery with low tolerance of physical exercise.

Aim: Use of the 6-MWT to determine an individual initial training load in walking training on a treadmill in the early phase of cardiac rehabilitation in men after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Material And Methods: Twenty-two men aged 54 to 74 years, up to 3 months after CABG surgery participated in walking training on a treadmill (12-15 sessions). Patients underwent the initial and final treadmill exercise stress test (TEST) and the 6-MWT. Based on 6-MWT results, the initial training load was prescribed. Before the 6-MWT and 3 minutes after its completion, lactate concentration was determined.

Results: The 6-MWT distance increased from 420 ±80 m to 519 ±61 m ( < 0.001), and the energy expenditure from 4.4 ±1.4 MET to 6.3 ±1.3 MET ( < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between 6-MWT distance and energy expenditure in the TEST before rehabilitation ( = 0.60, = 0.005), and after rehabilitation ( = 0.75, < 0.001). A negative correlation was found between the baseline 6-MWT distance and distance increment in the final 6-MWT ( = -0.66, = 0.002). The 6-MWT did not induce hyperlactatemia.

Conclusions: The 6-MWT can be used in exercise intensity prescription, especially for determining the individual initial training load, load progression, as well as its correction during follow-up tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/kitp.2020.102340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848618PMC
December 2020

Social structure defines spatial transmission of African swine fever in wild boar.

J R Soc Interface 2021 01 20;18(174):20200761. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Stoczek 1, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland.

The spatial spread of infectious disease is determined by spatial and social processes such as animal space use and family group structure. Yet, the impacts of social processes on spatial spread remain poorly understood and estimates of spatial transmission kernels (STKs) often exclude social structure. Understanding the impacts of social structure on STKs is important for obtaining robust inferences for policy decisions and optimizing response plans. We fit spatially explicit transmission models with different assumptions about contact structure to African swine fever virus surveillance data from eastern Poland from 2014 to 2015 and evaluated how social structure affected inference of STKs and spatial spread. The model with social structure provided better inference of spatial spread, predicted that approximately 80% of transmission events occurred within family groups, and that transmission was weakly female-biased (other models predicted weakly male-biased transmission). In all models, most transmission events were within 1.5 km, with some rare events at longer distances. Effective reproductive numbers were between 1.1 and 2.5 (maximum values between 4 and 8). Social structure can modify spatial transmission dynamics. Accounting for this additional contact heterogeneity in spatial transmission models could provide more robust inferences of STKs for policy decisions, identify best control targets and improve transparency in model uncertainty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2020.0761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879769PMC
January 2021

Muscle strength and inflammatory response to the training load in rowers.

PeerJ 2020 16;8:e10355. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Biomechanics, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland.

Background: Regular exercise leads to changes in muscle metabolism. The consequence of this is the adaptation to higher training loads.The aim of this study was to evaluate biomechanical and biochemical parameters describing the functions of skeletal muscles in periods when changes in training forms were introduced.

Methods: Seventeen male sweep-oar rowers, members of the Polish national rowing team, participated. The study was carried out at the beginning and at the end of the preparatory period. In the first and second examination measurements of torques of selected muscle groups and blood biochemical analysis were performed.

Results: There was observed a statistically significant decrease in the relative global force of the right lower limb between both terms of examination. A statistically significant increase in maximum torque was found for torso flexors. In the case of muscles responsible for torso rotation, a statistically significant decrease in the torque values of right torso rotators was observed. A significant difference was found with respect to creatine kinase activity, total testosterone concentration, total testosterone to cortisol ratio and total phenolics concentration ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The study shows that the rowers' training should be more focused on building the strength of lower limbs to prevent the overload of lumbar spine and that the amount of force developed may be significantly affected by the antioxidant potential of rowers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749653PMC
December 2020

Disease-Induced Mortality Outweighs Hunting in Causing Wild Boar Population Crash After African Swine Fever Outbreak.

Front Vet Sci 2020 28;7:378. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieza, Poland.

African swine fever (ASF) has been spreading in the Eurasian continent for more than 10 years now. Although the course of ASF in domestic pigs and its negative economic impact on the pork industry are well-known, we still lack a quantitative assessment of the impact of ASF on wild boar () populations under natural conditions. Wild boar is not only a reservoir for ASF; it is also one of the key wildlife species affecting structure and functioning of ecosystems. Therefore, knowledge on how ASF affects wild boar populations is crucial to better predict ecosystem response and for the design of scientific-based wild boar management to control ASF. We used a long-term camera trap survey (2012-2017) from the Białowieza Primeval Forest (BPF, Poland), where an ASF outbreak occurred in 2015, to investigate the impact of the disease on wild boar population dynamics under two contrasting management regimes (hunted vs. non-hunted). In the hunted part of BPF ("managed area"), hunting was drastically increased prior and after the first ASF case occurred (March 2015), whereas inside the National Park, hunting was not permitted ("unmanaged area," first detected case in June 2015). Using a random encounter model (REM), we showed that the density and abundance of wild boar dropped by 84 and 95% within 1 year following ASF outbreak in the unmanaged and managed area, respectively. In the managed area, we showed that 11-22% additional mortality could be attributed to hunting. Our study suggests that ASF-induced mortality, by far, outweighs hunting-induced mortality in causing wild boar population decline and shows that intensified hunting in newly ASF-infected areas does not achieve much greater reduction of population size than what is already caused by the ASF virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399055PMC
July 2020

Two early rehabilitation training models in male patients after coronary artery bypass surgery: application of continuous walking training as an alternative to interval cycle ergometer training.

Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol 2020 Jun 20;17(2):87-93. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiological and Rheumatological Rehabilitation, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: Walking training is a good alternative to the commonly used cycle ergometer training. It is still necessary to develop rehabilitation programs based on walking characterized by a high degree of safety and effectiveness.

Aim: Application of continuous walking training as an alternative to interval cycle ergometer training in men after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, using the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) to determine the initial training load.

Material And Methods: Forty-four men aged 45 to 76 years, up to 3 months after CABG surgery, were randomly assigned to continuous training on a treadmill (study group) or interval training on a cycle ergometer (control group), performed 6 times per week (12-15 sessions). Participants underwent the treadmill exercise stress test (TEST) and 6-MWT at the begining and after completion of the rehabilitation program. Before and 3 minutes after the 6 and 12 training session blood lactate concentration was determined.

Results: Energy expenditure in TEST increased from 4.4 to 6.3 MET in the study group and from 5.0 to 6.5 MET in the control group. Distance walked in 6-MWT increased from 420 to 519 m and from 438 to 510 m, respectively. Resting heart rate (HR) and double product (DP) decreased only in the study group as well as systolic blood pressure (SBP), HR and DP at peak exercise load in baseline TEST. Mean energy expenditure during training sessions was 2.6 MET in the study group and 2.8 MET in the control group (NS). Exercise blood lactate concentration did not exceed 2.0 mmol/l in both groups.

Conclusions: Both rehabilitation programs were of similar effectiveness and their intensity did not exceed the anaerobic threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/kitp.2020.97265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379224PMC
June 2020

Effect of Simulated Matches on Post-Exercise Biochemical Parameters in Women's Indoor and Beach Handball.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 14;17(14). Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznań University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

This study assesses the status of hydration and the acid-base balance in female handball players in the Polish Second League before and after simulated matches in both indoor (hall) and beach (outdoor) conditions. The values of biochemical indicators useful for describing water-electrolyte management, such as osmolality, hematocrit, aldosterone, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and magnesium, were determined in the players' fingertip capillary blood. Furthermore, the blood parameters of the acid-base balance were analysed, including pH, standard base excess, lactate and bicarbonate ion concentration. Additionally, the pH and specific gravity of the players' urine were determined. The level of significance was set at < 0.05. It was found that both indoor and beach simulated matches caused post-exercise changes in the biochemical profiles of the players' blood and urine in terms of water-electrolyte and acid-base balance. Interestingly, the location of a simulated match (indoors vs. beach) had a statistically significant effect on only two of the parameters measured post-exercise: concentration of calcium ions (lower indoors) and urine pH (lower on the beach). A single simulated game, regardless of its location, directly affected the acid-base balance and, to a smaller extent, the water-electrolyte balance, depending mostly on the time spent physically active during the match.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400244PMC
July 2020

Predicting spread and effective control measures for African swine fever-Should we blame the boars?

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Mar 6;68(2):397-416. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Epidemiological Sciences, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK.

An ongoing, continually spreading, outbreak of African swine fever (ASF), following its identification in Georgia in 2007, has resulted in 17 European and 12 Asian countries reporting cases by April 2020, with cases occurring in both wild boar and domestic pigs. Curtailing further spread of ASF requires understanding of the transmission pathways of the disease. ASF is self-sustaining in the wild boar population, and they have been implicated as one of the main drivers of transmission within Europe. We developed a spatially explicit model to estimate the risk of infection with ASF in wild boar and pigs due to natural movement of wild boar that is applicable across the whole of Europe. We demonstrate the model by using it to predict the probability that early cases of ASF in Poland were caused by wild boar dispersion. The risk of infection in 2015 is computed due to wild boar cases in Poland in 2014, compared against reported cases in 2015, and then the procedure is repeated for 2015-2016. We find that long- and medium-distance spread of ASF (i.e. >30 km) is unlikely to have occurred due to wild boar dispersal, due in part to the generally short distances wild boar will travel (<20 km on average). We also predict the relative success of different control strategies in 2015, if they were implemented in 2014. Results suggest that hunting of wild boar reduces the number of new cases, but a larger region is at risk of ASF compared with no control measure. Alternatively, introducing wild boar-proof fencing reduces the size of the region at risk in 2015, but not the total number of cases. Overall, our model suggests wild boar movement is only responsible for local transmission of disease; thus, other pathways are more dominant in medium- and long-distance spread of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13690DOI Listing
March 2021

The influence of progressive-chronic and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation on anaerobic power and specific performance in team sports: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 24;17:38. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department od Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznań University of Physical Education, Królowej Jadwigi 27/39, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

Background: The aims of this study were to verify the effect of progressive-chronic and acute sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on the anaerobic capacity, blood acid-base balance, and discipline-specific performance in team sports disciplines.

Methods: Twenty-four trained male field hockey players completed a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of either progressive-chronic (increments from 0.05 up to 0.2 g/kg) or an acute one-off dose (0.2 g/kg) supplementation protocol. Before and after treatments, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised of a discipline-specific field performance test conducted between two separate Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnTs).

Results: Progressive-chronic SB supplementation improved anaerobic capacity in the first bout of WAnTs, as observed based on an increase in mean power (MP: 575 ± 71 vs. 602 ± 67 W,  = 0.005, ~ + 4.7%), peak power (PP: 749 ± 94 vs. 777 ± 96 W,  = 0.002, ~ + 3.7%), power carry threshold (P) at 97% (727 ± 91 vs. 753 ± 93 W,  = 0.002, ~ + 3.6%) and average power over P (739 ± 94 vs. 765 ± 95 W,  = 0.001, ~ + 3.5%). Acute SB supplementation had no effect on anaerobic capacity. However, an improvement in time during discipline-specific field performance test was observed after progressive-chronic (919 ± 42 vs. 912 ± 27 s,  = 0.05; ~ - 0.8%) and acute (939 ± 26 vs. 914 ± 22 s,  = 0.006, ~ 2.7%) SB supplementation. Acute SB supplementation also improved post-exercise parameters of acid-base balance (based on blood pH, bicarbonate concentration and base excess) compared to no supplementation or placebo.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that both chronic and acute SB supplementation positively supports discipline-specific performance among field hockey athletes. Moreover, the chronic protocol supported anaerobic power indices before the inset of exercise-induced fatigue but had no significant impact afterwards. However, only the acute protocol significantly affected the buffering capacity, which can be used to determine athlete's performance during high-intensity sporting events. This study design therefore highlighted that future studies focusing on sodium bicarbonate supplementation in team sports should concentrate on the efficiency of chronic and acute supplementation in varying time frames.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00457-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245907PMC
May 2020

Ecological drivers of African swine fever virus persistence in wild boar populations: Insight for control.

Ecol Evol 2020 Mar 18;10(6):2846-2859. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Mammal Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences Białowieża Poland.

Environmental sources of infection can play a primary role in shaping epidemiological dynamics; however, the relative impact of environmental transmission on host-pathogen systems is rarely estimated. We developed and fit a spatially explicit model of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in wild boar to estimate what proportion of carcass-based transmission is contributing to the low-level persistence of ASFV in Eastern European wild boar. Our model was developed based on ecological insight and data from field studies of ASFV and wild boar in Eastern Poland. We predicted that carcass-based transmission would play a substantial role in persistence, especially in low-density host populations where contact rates are low. By fitting the model to outbreak data using approximate Bayesian computation, we inferred that between 53% and 66% of transmission events were carcass-based that is, transmitted through contact of a live host with a contaminated carcass. Model fitting and sensitivity analyses showed that the frequency of carcass-based transmission increased with decreasing host density, suggesting that management policies should emphasize the removal of carcasses and consider how reductions in host densities may drive carcass-based transmission. Sensitivity analyses also demonstrated that carcass-based transmission is necessary for the autonomous persistence of ASFV under realistic parameters. Autonomous persistence through direct transmission alone required high host densities; otherwise re-introduction of virus periodically was required for persistence when direct transmission probabilities were moderately high. We quantify the relative role of different persistence mechanisms for a low-prevalence disease using readily collected ecological data and viral surveillance data. Understanding how the frequency of different transmission mechanisms vary across host densities can help identify optimal management strategies across changing ecological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083705PMC
March 2020

Anabolic-catabolic hormonal responses in youth soccer players during a half-season.

Res Sports Med 2021 Mar-Apr;29(2):141-154. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Methodology of Recreation, Poznań University of Physical Education , Poznań, Poland.

This study sought to evaluate the hormonal response (i.e. total testosterone, free testosterone, cortisol, and their ratios TT/C and FT/C) in the under-19 youth soccer team (n = 18) throughout a six-month period. All sport medical examinations were conducted four times: before the beginning of the preparation period (T1), just after preparation period (T2), in the middle of the competitive period (T3), and at the end of the season (T4). The cortisol concentration was decreased at the T3 (-16.9%; p = 0.014), then increased at the T2 (16.8%; p = 0.001) and at the T4 (12.7%; p = 0.062), respectively, compared to the initial value. The analyses for total and free testosterone demonstrated no differences between the measurements. Finally, values of the TT/C and FT/C ratios were increased during the T3 (25%; p = 0.017, 24.4%; p = 0.021) in comparison with the initial measurement and decreased at the T4 (-28.9%; p = 0.001, - 30.8%; p = 0.001) in comparison with the T3. The study results showed that the lowest level of peripheral fatigue was recorded in the T3, which may suggest that a correct selection of training loads does not affect the severity of catabolic processes in youth players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2020.1734930DOI Listing
April 2021

The gender dependent influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on anaerobic power and specific performance in female and male wrestlers.

Sci Rep 2020 02 5;10(1):1878. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department od Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznań University of Physical Education, Poznań, 61-871, Poland.

The aim of this study was the assessment of progressive low-dose sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO) supplementation on the anaerobic indices in two bouts of Wingate tests (WT) separated by wrestling-specific performance test and assessing the gender differences in response. Fifty-one (18 F) wrestlers completed a randomized trial of either a NaHCO (up to 100 mg·kg) or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first WT, dummy throw test (DT), and second WT. The number of completed throws increased significantly in males from 19.3 ± 2.6 NaHCO to 21.7 ± 2.9 NaHCO. ΔWT-WT improved particularly in the midsection of 30-s WT on NaHCO. However, no significant differences were found in peak power (PP), power drop (PD) and average power (AP) (analyzed separately for each WT), and ΔWT-WT in PP and PD. Interaction with gender was significant for AP, PP and PD, every second of WT and WT, as well as DT test. In conclusion, our study suggests that the response to NaHCO may be gender-specific and progressive low-dose NaHCO supplementation allows the advantageous strengthening of wrestling-specific performance in males. It can also lead to maintenance of high anaerobic power mainly in the midsection of the 30-s Wingate test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-57590-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7002590PMC
February 2020

Endocrine Responses to Various 1 × 1 Small-Sided Games in Youth Soccer Players.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 12 6;16(24). Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Methodology of Recreation, Poznań University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

The aim of this study was to determine relationships between repeated 1 × 1 small-sided games (SSGs) (variable duration, constant work-to-rest ratio) and the concentration of steroid hormones and characteristic fatigue markers in youth soccer players. Eighteen young male soccer players were assigned at random to two experimental groups: E1-undertaking a six 30 s one-on-one SSGs with a 2 min rest period; and E2-playing six 45 s SSGs with a 3 min rest interval. Capillary blood was collected from the players at rest, after the last game, and 15 and 30 min after the exercise protocol. The variables assessed included serum cortisol (C), free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT). An effect was observed between the measurement times (TT (F = 15.26, ≤ 0.0001), FT (F = 6.86, = 0.0006)). In terms of cortisol (C) levels, no interactions or effect between the studied groups were revealed, but an interaction was found (F = 4.01, = 0.0126) and the effect appeared between the measurement times (F = 11.16, ≤ 0.0001). The study results show that in all likelihood, longer rest intervals in repeated 30 s 1 × 1 SSGs can reduce catabolic reactions and hence the risk of overtraining in youth soccer players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950523PMC
December 2019

Relationship between body composition and the level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity in highly trained male rowers.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2019 Sep;59(9):1526-1535

Institute of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Background: Body composition may affect the potential for success in sports. For this reason, our study aimed to determine the impact of body composition on the level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity in competitive rowers.

Methods: The study involved 48 males aged 20±2 years. Body composition was analysed using electrical bioimpedance. Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) and average anaerobic power (AP) were determined using an incremental cycling test until exhaustion and a standard Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAT), respectively.

Results: The optimal ranges of body components with respect to the level of anaerobic and aerobic capacity at preparatory period for highly trained rowers aged 17-23 years, with body mass 67.5-104.7 kg, were 86-88% for fat free mass (FFM), 63-65% for total body water (TBW) and 11-13% for fat mass (FM). Regression analyses showed that BM and FFM significantly contributed to the prediction of VO2max and AP. The increase in FFM and BM by 1 kg resulted in the change of VO2max by +0.161 l.min-1 and -0.057 l.min-1, and AP by +5.51 W and +4.74 W, respectively.

Conclusions: Body composition is closely related to the level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity in rowers, and we suggest that its regulation can serve as an effective tool to improve physical performance. The regression models we developed seem to be promising for estimating the changes in physical capacity based on body composition modifications, however, their accuracy should be verified in an experimental study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.08951-5DOI Listing
September 2019

Deathbed choice by ASF-infected wild boar can help find carcasses.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Sep 22;66(5):1821-1826. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bialowieza, Poland.

African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease infectious to wild and domesticated suids. This disease entered the European Union in 2014 and recently reached western Europe, with the first cases observed in Belgium in September 2018. Carcasses of ASF-infected wild boar play an important role in the spread and persistence of the virus in the environment. Thus, rapidly finding and removing carcasses is a crucial measure for effective ASF control. Using distribution modelling, we investigated whether the fine-scale distribution of ASF-infected animals can be predicted and support wild boar carcass searches. Our results suggest that ASF-infected wild boar selected deathbeds in cool and moist habitats; thus, deathbed choice was mostly influenced by topographic and water-dependent covariates. Furthermore, we show that in the case of an epidemic, it is important to quickly collect a minimum of 75-100 carcasses with exact locations to build a well-performing and efficient carcass distribution model. The proposed model provides an indication of where carcasses are most likely to be found and can be used as a guide to strategically allocate resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13267DOI Listing
September 2019

Spatial epidemiology of African swine fever: Host, landscape and anthropogenic drivers of disease occurrence in wild boar.

Prev Vet Med 2020 Apr 15;177:104691. Epub 2019 May 15.

National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland.

Host abundance and landscape structure often interact to shape spatial patterns of many wildlife diseases. Emergence, spread, and persistence of African swine fever (ASF) among wild boar in eastern Europe has raised questions on the factors underlying ASF dynamics in this novel host-pathogen system. This work identifies drivers of ASF occurrence in natural wild boar population. We evaluated factors shaping the probability of ASF-postitive wild boar during the first three years (2014-2016) of the ASF epidemic in Poland. We expected to observe positive effects of wild boar density, proportion of forested area, human activity, and proximity to previous infections on ASF case probability. We tested these predictions using the infection status of 830 wild boar samples and generalized mixed-effects models. The probability of ASF case increased from 3 to 20% as population density rose from 0.4 to 2 ind./km. The positive effect of population density on ASF case probability was stronger at locations near previous ASF incidents. ASF was more likely to occur in forested areas, with the probability of detecting an ASF positive sample rising from 2 to 11% as forest cover around the sample increased from 0.5 to 100%. This pattern was consistent at both low and high wild boar densities. Indicators of human activity were poor predictors of ASF occurrence. Disease control efforts, such as culling and carcass search, should be focused on high-density populations where chances of detecting and eliminating ASF-positive wild boar are higher. The intensity of control measures should decrease with distance from the infected area to match the observed spatial pattern of ASF case probability. Woodlands represent areas of the highest risk of ASF case occurrence. Distribution and connectivity of suitable habitats over the landscape can be used to prioritize disease-management actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104691DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of medium-term green tea extract supplementation combined with CrossFit workout on blood antioxidant status and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in young men: a pilot study.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2019 Mar 21;16(1):13. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland.

Background: Potential health benefits are attributed to the antioxidant properties of green tea polyphenolic compounds. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation combined with CrossFit workout on blood antioxidant status and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in men.

Methods: Sixteen young males involved in CrossFit training were randomized into two groups supplemented with GTE or placebo for six weeks. Each participant performed an exercise test for the evaluation of maximum oxygen uptake (VOmax) twice, i.e., before starting (1st trial) and after completing the supplementation combined with CrosFit workout (2nd trial). Venous blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately post-test and after one hour of recovery in order to estimate activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], reduced glutathione [GR]), non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid [UA], total phenolics), total antioxidant capacity (FRAP), lipid peroxidation products (TBARS), and BDNF.

Results: Except for a significantly higher SOD activity and FRAP level recorded at rest and post-exercise in the 2nd trial compared to the corresponding values in the 1st trial, no significant differences were recorded among other assayed measures such as CAT, GPx, GR, GSH and BDNF. Moreover, a percentage increase in FRAP level was twice as high after six weeks' GTE consumption than after placebo. Regardless of the trial, an increase in plasma UA concentration and a decrease in plasma total phenolics level were observed after exercise test. Plasma TBARS concentrations were significantly higher in PLA group after six weeks' CrossFit training, while in GTE group they were slightly lower compared to the corresponding values in the 1st trial. Moreover, there was a significant inverse correlation between FRAP and TBARS in the GTE-supplemented group (r = - 0.40, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: A six weeks' consumption of GTE had marginal effect on aerobic capacity and serum BDNF level in CrossFit-trained men, but it caused a marked increase in the blood antioxidant capacity and a moderate attenuation of the training-induced lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-019-0280-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429762PMC
March 2019

Skeletal Muscle Cell Damage Indicators in Volleyball Players after the Competitive Phase of the Annual Training Cycle.

J Hum Kinet 2018 Jun 13;62:81-90. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Biomedical Foundations of Physical Activity, University School of Physical Education in Poznań, Poznań, Poland.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the competitive phase on physiological and metabolic indices and selected markers of skeletal muscle damage in male volleyball players. The study group consisted of 24 young male volleyball players. During the study, participants underwent two series of measurements, before and after the competitive phase of the annual training cycle. In both study terms, players performed an incremental treadmill running test to determine their ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake. Venous and capillary blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. There was no significant difference in the physical fitness level, values of biochemical variables and the level of antioxidant status in the surveyed athletes between the two study terms. Significant changes within skeletal muscle damage markers were observed between the beginning and the end of the competitive period: an increase in the concentration of cellular DNA damage products (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in muscle activity of creatine kinase (p<0.05). In spite of the increment in cell damage markers, the unaffected level of physiological and biochemical markers may indicate that the experienced cell destruction did not negatively affect the level of physical fitness. When designing the annual training plan, coaches and athletes need to take into consideration that temporary physiological states - oxidative stress and inflammation - may be required to attain training adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006534PMC
June 2018

The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance.

Nutrients 2018 May 30;10(6). Epub 2018 May 30.

Institute of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 60-624 Poznań, Poland.

Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB) use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo ( = 0.0142), was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10060697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024820PMC
May 2018

Do wild boar movements drive the spread of African Swine Fever?

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 25;65(6):1588-1596. Epub 2018 May 25.

National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland.

The spatial behaviour of hosts can seriously affect the transmission of pathogens and spatial spread of diseases. Understanding the relationship between host movements and disease dynamics is of prime importance for optimizing disease control efforts. African swine fever (ASF), a devastating disease of wild and domestic suids, has been spreading continuously through eastern Europe since 2007. The wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been implicated in the epidemiology of this disease, but the role of wild boar movements in ASF dynamics and spread has not been studied and remains largely speculative. Here, we examined whether monthly parameters of wild boar movements (dispersal distance of yearlings, home range size of adult males and females) can explain variation in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the ASF outbreak in the wild boar population in north-eastern Poland, 2014-2015. We expected to observe a positive relationship between host mobility and disease spread. Contrary to our expectations, we found that movements of wild boar, despite their seasonal variation, were poor predictors of ASF dynamics in space and time. During the 2 years of the study, ASF spread gradually at a steady pace of 1.5 km/month without significant changes across seasons. None of the analysed movement parameters explained variation in the measures of ASF occurrence and spread (i.e., number of cases, prevalence, size and expansion rate of the outbreak area). We believe that the factor limiting the influence of host movements on ASF dynamics is the severity of the disease, which quickly hampers extensive movements and restricts disease transmission to only the most immediate individuals. Three natural factors constrain direct disease transmission: wild boar social structure, the short duration of low-level virus shedding and high virus-induced lethality, followed by indirect transmission through infected carcasses. These most likely shape the gradual spread of ASF in space and its persistence in already infected areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12910DOI Listing
December 2018

The effect of chronic progressive-dose sodium bicarbonate ingestion on CrossFit-like performance: A double-blind, randomized cross-over trial.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(5):e0197480. Epub 2018 May 17.

Institute of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Background: Sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been proposed as an ergogenic aid, as it improves high-intensity and resistance exercise performance. However, no studies have yet investigated SB application in CrossFit. This study examined the effects of chronic, progressive-dose SB ingestion on CrossFit-like performance and aerobic capacity.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, 21 CrossFit-trained participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups and underwent 2 trials separated by a 14-day washout period. Participants ingested either up to 150 mg∙kg-1 of SB in a progressive-dose regimen or placebo for 10 days. Before and after each trial, Fight Gone Bad (FGB) and incremental cycling (ICT) tests were performed. In order to examine biochemical responses, blood samples were obtained prior to and 3 min after completing each exercise test.

Results: No gastrointestinal (GI) side effects were reported during the entire protocol. The overall FGB performance improved under SB by ~6.1% (p<0.001) and it was ~3.1% higher compared to post placebo (PLApost) (p = 0.040). The number of repetitions completed in each round also improved under SB (mean from baseline: +5.8% to +6.4%). Moreover, in ICT, the time to ventilatory threshold (VT) (~8:25 min SBpost vs. ~8:00 min PLApost, p = 0.020), workload at VT (~218 W SBpost vs. ~208 W PLApost, p = 0.037) and heart rate at VT (~165 bpm SBpost vs. ~161 bpm PLApost, p = 0.030) showed higher SBpost than PLApost. Furthermore, the maximum carbon dioxide production increased under SB by ~4.8% (from ~3604 mL∙min-1 to ~3776 mL∙min-1, p = 0.049). Pyruvate concentration and creatine kinase activity before ICT showed higher SBpost than PLApost (~0.32 mmol∙L-1 vs. ~0.26 mmol∙L-1, p = 0.001; ~275 U∙L-1 vs. ~250 U∙L-1, p = 0.010, respectively). However, the small sample size limits the wide-application of our results.

Conclusions: Progressive-dose SB ingestion regimen eliminated GI side effects and improved CrossFit-like performance, as well as delayed ventilatory threshold occurrence.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197480PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5957406PMC
November 2018

Effects of unextruded and extruded cranberry pomace on selected metabolic parameters in high-fat diet fed rats.

Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2018 Jan-Mar;17(1):91-100

Institute of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Poznań University of Life Sciences , Poland.

Background: The effects of un-extruded (UCP) and extruded cranberry pomace (ECP) on fecal fat excretion, liver index, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inhibition of oxidative stress due to a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats were studied.

Methods: The Wistar rats for 8 weeks received one of the four diets: (1) control (modified the American Institute of Nutrition: AIN based diet containing 7% fat), (2) HFD (AIN based diet containing 30% fat), (3) HFD with 3% un-extruded (UCP) and (4) HFD with 3% (ECP).

Results: Both UCP and ECP significantly improved the plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid per- oxidation in rats fed a HFD. However, only the addition of 3% UCP into the HFD significantly increased the fecal lipid excretion and considerably decreased serum triglycerides level in rats.

Conclusions: Further investigation is needed to determine the role of an individual components present in UCP and ECP in the improvement of metabolic conditions observed in the current study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.0542DOI Listing
October 2018

Aerobic and concentration training and allele 7 in the dopamine receptor D4 () gene increase chances of smoking cessation in young Polish women.

Arch Med Sci 2018 Jan 19;14(1):199-206. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Dance Sciences, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: One reason for the limited effectiveness of the available smoking cessation methods is the fact that the causes of tobacco addiction have not been adequately explained yet. Numerous anti-smoking programs aimed at women involve intense physical activity. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of health training for smoking cessation by young women in connection with the dopamine receptor gene () in their genetic profile.

Material And Methods: Forty-eight adult female smokers were randomly assigned to: 1) a concentration training group, or 2) an aerobic and concentration training group. Genetic and phenotypic data were obtained from 48 participants. Genotyping was performed for allele 7 in the gene.

Results: Individuals with allele 7 in the dopamine receptor D4 gene have two times greater chances (OR = 2.13: 95% CI: 0.91-4.96) of quitting smoking than individuals without allele 7. No statistical significance was revealed ( = 0.0805). Individuals undertaking aerobic training in combination with concentration training are three times more likely (OR = 3.06: 95% CI: 1.03-9.05) to quit smoking than individuals who do not perform aerobic training ( = 0.0439).

Conclusions: The results of the study show that an intensive, 6-week health training program had a significant influence on smoking cessation. Smoking quitters, who are genetically predisposed and decide to take up aerobic training in combination with concentration training, have much greater chances of quitting smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2018.72243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778432PMC
January 2018

Influence of low versus moderate glycemic index of diet on substrate oxidation and energy expenditure during incremental exercise in endurance athletes: a randomized counterbalanced cross-over trial.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Sep 18;69(6):741-752. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

a Institute of Human Nutrition and Dietetics , Poznań University of Life Sciences , Poznań , Poland.

The study was aimed at assessing the influence of 3-week low glycemic index (LGI) versus moderate glycemic index (MGI) diet on substrate oxidation during incremental exercise. 17 runners completed two 3-week trials of either LGI or MGI diet in a randomised counterbalanced manner. Before and after each trial the incremental cycling test was performed. Metabolic alternations were observed only within tested diets and no significant differences in fat and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation were found between MGI and LGI diets. Following MGI diet CHO oxidation rate increased. The AUC of fat oxidation decreased after both diets. Percent contribution of fat to energy yield declined, whereas contribution of CHO was augmented following MGI diet. This study indicates that the 3-week MGI diet increased the rate of carbohydrate oxidation during incremental cycling test and improved performance in acute intense exercise test, while both high-carbohydrate diets downregulated fat oxidation rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2017.1411891DOI Listing
September 2018