Publications by authors named "Tom Wj Huizinga"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

White matter hyperintensities associate with cognitive slowing in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

RMD Open 2021 Jul;7(2)

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective: To compare cognitive function between patients with different phenotypes of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and assess its association with brain and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes.

Methods: Patients attending the Leiden University Medical Centre NPSLE clinic between 2007 and 2015 without large brain infarcts were included (n=151; 42±13 years, 91% women). In a multidisciplinary consensus meeting, neuropsychiatric symptoms were attributed to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (NPSLE, inflammatory (n=24) or ischaemic (n=12)) or to minor/non-NPSLE (n=115). Multiple regression analyses were performed to compare cognitive function between NPSLE phenotypes and to assess associations between brain and WMH volumes and cognitive function cross-sectionally.

Results: Global cognitive function was impaired in 5%, learning and memory (LM) in 46%, executive function and complex attention (EFCA) in 39% and psychomotor speed (PS) in 46% of all patients. Patients with inflammatory NPSLE showed the most cognitive impairment in all domains (p≤0.05).Higher WMH volume associated with lower PS in the total group (B: -0.14 (95% CI -0.32 to -0.02)); especially in inflammatory NPSLE (B: -0.36 (95% CI -0.60 to -0.12). In the total group, lower total brain volume and grey matter volume associated with lower cognitive functioning in all domains (all: 0.00/0.01 (0.00;0.01)) and lower white matter volume associated with lower LM, EFCA and PS (all: 0.00/0.01 (0.00;0.01)).

Conclusion: We demonstrated that an association between brain and WMH volumes and cognitive function is present in patients with SLE, but differs between (NP)SLE phenotypes. WMHs associated with PS especially in inflammatory NPSLE, which suggests a different, potentially more severe underlying pathophysiological mechanism of cognitive impairment in this phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2021-001650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320250PMC
July 2021

Fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and neuropsychiatric symptoms is associated with anxiety and depression rather than inflammatory disease activity.

Lupus 2021 Jun 28;30(7):1124-1132. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Introduction: We aimed to investigate risk factors for fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric symptoms in order to identify potential interventional strategies.

Methods: Patients visiting the neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) clinic of the Leiden University Medical Center between 2007-2019 were included. In a multidisciplinary consensus meeting, SLE patients were classified as having neuropsychiatric symptoms of inflammatory origin (inflammatory phenotype) or other origin (non-inflammatory phenotype). Fatigue was assessed with the SF-36 vitality domain (VT) since 2007 and the multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) since 2011. Patients with a score on the SF-36 VT ≥1 standard deviation (SD) away from the mean of age-related controls of the general population were classified as fatigued; patients ≥2 SD away were classified as extremely fatigued. Disease activity was measured using the SLE disease activity index-2000. The influence of the presence of an inflammatory phenotype, disease activity and symptoms of depression and anxiety as measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was analyzed using multiple regression analyses corrected for age, sex and education.

Results: 348 out of 371 eligible patients filled in questionnaires and were included in this study . The majority was female (87%) and the mean age was 43 ± 14 years. 72 patients (21%) had neuropsychiatric symptoms of an inflammatory origin. Fatigue was present in 78% of all patients and extreme fatigue was present in 50% of patients with an inflammatory phenotype vs 46% in the non-inflammatory phenotype. Fatigue was similar in patients with an inflammatory phenotype compared to patients with a non-inflammatory phenotype on the SF-36 VT (β: 0.8 (95% CI -4.8; 6.1) and there was less fatigue in patients with an inflammatory phenotype on the MFI and VAS (β: -3.7 (95% CI: -6.9; -0.5) and β: -1.0 (95% CI -1.6; -0.3)). There was no association between disease activity and fatigue, but symptoms of anxiety and depression (HADS) associated strongly with all fatigue measurements.

Conclusion: This study suggests that intervention strategies to target fatigue in (NP)SLE patients may need to focus on symptoms of anxiety and depression rather than immunosuppressive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09612033211005014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120630PMC
June 2021

Changes in selected haematological parameters associated with JAK1/JAK2 inhibition observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with baricitinib.

RMD Open 2020 10;6(3)

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA.

Objective: To characterise changes in selected haematological parameters following once-daily oral baricitinib dosing.

Methods: Data were pooled from eight randomised clinical trials (four phase 3, three phase 2, one phase 1b) and one long-term extension. Changes in haematological parameters were evaluated up to 128 weeks (N=2387); overall safety of baricitinib was assessed up to 6 years (N=3492).

Results: Mean absolute neutrophil counts decreased (-1.36×10/L) within 1 month, followed by stabilisation within the normal reference range through week 128. The incidence of serious infections was not elevated in patients with neutropenia during the 24-week placebo-controlled period. Mean lymphocyte counts increased (+0.30×10/L) within 1 month, then decreased to baseline (weeks 12-24). Mean platelet counts increased at week 2 (+51×10/L), then decreased towards baseline. Overall, mean haemoglobin concentrations decreased (-0.12 mmol/L), then returned to baseline; however, reduced baseline haemoglobin concentrations observed in the highest baseline high-sensitivity C reactive protein quartile increased over time. Permanent drug discontinuation occurred due to laboratory abnormalities related to neutrophil count in 8 (0.2%), lymphocyte counts in 6 (0.2%), platelet counts in 8 (0.2%), and haemoglobin levels in 16 (0.5%) of all baricitinib-treated patients (N=3492 with 7993 total person-years of exposure).

Conclusions: Moderate decreases in neutrophils were seen during baricitinib treatment; however, serious infection was uncommon in patients with neutropenia. Transient increases were observed in lymphocytes and platelets, which returned to baseline over time. Changes in haemoglobin concentration were generally small. Haematological abnormalities seldom led to drug discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722368PMC
October 2020

Predictive factors for treatment-related mortality and major adverse events after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for systemic sclerosis: results of a long-term follow-up multicentre study.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 08 14;79(8):1084-1089. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Rheumatic Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Background: Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) improves survival in systemic sclerosis (SSc) with poor prognosis, but is hampered by treatment-related mortality (TRM).

Objective: To evaluate event-free survival (EFS), TRM, response to treatment, disease progression and patient characteristics associated with events.

Methods: All patients treated with HSCT for SSc in The Netherlands until 2017 (n=92) were included. Data on skin involvement (modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS), pulmonary function (forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO)), extent of interstitial lung disease on high-resolution CT using Goh scores and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were collected at baseline, 1, 2 and 5 years. Occurrence of events, defined as death or major organ failure, were collected until 2019. As control, a comparison between patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC) and patients with HSCT who participated in the Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Scleroderma (ASTIS) trial was performed.

Results: Median follow-up was 4.6 years. EFS estimates at 5, 10 and 15 years were 78%, 76% and 66%, respectively. Twenty deaths occurred. Mean FVC, DLCO, mRSS and Goh scores all improved significantly. Disease progression occurred in 22 patients. Frequency of TRM decreased over time and occurred more often in males. Events were independently associated with male sex, LVEF <50% and older age. In ASTIS, patients treated with HSCT (n=23) 7 events occurred versus 13 in the CYC group (n=22).

Conclusion: Our data confirm long-term efficacy of HSCT in improving survival, skin and lung involvement in SSc. Male sex, lower LVEF and older age at baseline were identified as risk factors for events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217058DOI Listing
August 2020

On the presence of HLA-SE alleles and ACPA-IgG variable domain glycosylation in the phase preceding the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

Ann Rheum Dis 2019 12 30;78(12):1616-1620. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine/Rheumatology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objective: Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients display a unique feature defined by the abundant presence of -linked glycans within the variable domains (V-domains). Recently, we showed that -glycosylation sites, which are required for the incorporation of V-domain glycans, are introduced following somatic hypermutation. However, it is currently unclear when V-domain glycosylation occurs. Further, it is unknown which factors might trigger the generation of V-domain glycans and whether such glycans are relevant for the transition towards RA. Here, we determined the presence of ACPA-IgG V-domain glycans in paired samples of pre-symptomatic individuals and RA patients.

Methods: ACPA-IgG V-domain glycosylation was analysed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in paired samples of pre-symptomatic individuals (median interquartile range (IQR) pre-dating time: 5.8 (5.9) years; n=201; 139 ACPA-positive and 62 ACPA-negative) and RA patients (n=99; 94 ACPA-positive and 5 ACPA-negative).

Results: V-domain glycans on ACPA-IgG were already present up to 15 years before disease in pre-symptomatic individuals and their abundance increased closer to symptom onset. Noteworthy, human leucocyte antigen class II shared epitope (HLA-SE) alleles associated with the presence of V-domain glycans on ACPA-IgG.

Conclusion: Our observations indicate that somatic hypermutation of ACPA, which results in the incorporation of -linked glycosylation sites and consequently V-domain glycans, occurs already years before symptom onset in individuals that will develop RA later in life. Moreover, our findings provide first evidence that HLA-SE alleles associate with ACPA-IgG V-domain glycosylation in the pre-disease phase and thereby further refine the connection between HLA-SE and the development of ACPA-positive RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215698DOI Listing
December 2019

Impact of the combined presence of erosions and ACPA on rheumatoid arthritis disease activity over time: results from the METEOR registry.

RMD Open 2019 30;5(2):e000969. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: To investigate associations between baseline presence of erosions and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) on functional ability, disease activity and treatment survival over time.

Methods: Real life data from newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients were identified in the international METEOR registry. Patients were grouped according to presence/absence of ACPA and/or erosions at baseline. Associations between the presence of ACPA and/or erosions (four groups) with the change of Disease Activity Score (DAS) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) over time were assessed using linear mixed models during maximum 6 or maximum 12 months from baseline. Treatment survival was assessed using multiple failure-times Cox regression.

Results: Data were included from 701 ACPA‒/erosions‒, 334 ACPA‒/erosions+, 1585 ACPA+/erosions‒ and 1993 ACPA+/erosions+ patients. We found statistically significant differences in DAS and HAQ change over time between the four groups, both after maximum follow-up durations of 6 and of 12 months, but after stratification differences proved small and not clinically meaningful. Patients in the ACPA‒/erosions‒ group were less likely to switch treatment compared with the ACPA+/erosions‒ reference group (p<0.001). The other two ACPA/erosions groups did not differ from the reference group.

Conclusions: In this analysis of worldwide real life data, we found statistically significant, but clinically irrelevant differences in treatment response to initial disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapies as measured by DAS and HAQ in ACPA‒/erosions‒, ACPA‒/erosions+, ACPA+/erosions‒ and ACPA+/erosions+ rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, after maximum follow-up durations of 6 and 12 months all groups had a similar response to initial treatment, but with a lower likelihood to switch treatment for ACPA‒/erosions‒ patients during the first year of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2019-000969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667972PMC
April 2020

On using machine learning algorithms to define clinically meaningful patient subgroups.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 12 11;79(12):e154. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215959DOI Listing
December 2020

Association of response to TNF inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis with quantitative trait loci for and CD39.

Ann Rheum Dis 2019 08 29;78(8):1055-1061. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Centre for Experimental Medicine and Rheumatology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Objectives: We sought to investigate whether genetic effects on response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be localised by considering known genetic susceptibility loci for relevant traits and to evaluate the usefulness of these genetic loci for stratifying drug response.

Methods: We studied the relation of TNFi response, quantified by change in swollen joint counts ( Δ SJC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( Δ ESR) with locus-specific scores constructed from genome-wide assocation study summary statistics in 2938 genotyped individuals: 37 scores for RA; scores for 19 immune cell traits; scores for expression or methylation of 93 genes with previously reported associations between transcript level and drug response. Multivariate associations were evaluated in penalised regression models by cross-validation.

Results: We detected a statistically significant association between Δ SJC and the RA score at the locus (p=0.0004) and an inverse association between Δ SJC and the score for expression of CD39 on CD4 T cells (p=0.00005). A previously reported association between CD39 expression on regulatory T cells and response to methotrexate was in the opposite direction. In stratified analysis by concomitant methotrexate treatment, the inverse association was stronger in the combination therapy group and dissipated in the TNFi monotherapy group. Overall, ability to predict TNFi response from genotypic scores was limited, with models explaining less than 1% of phenotypic variance.

Conclusions: The association with the CD39 trait is difficult to interpret because patients with RA are often prescribed TNFi after failing to respond to methotrexate. The CD39 and pathways could be relevant for targeting drug therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669378PMC
August 2019

Re-treatment with abatacept plus methotrexate for disease flare after complete treatment withdrawal in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: 2-year results from the AVERT study.

RMD Open 2019 8;5(1):e000840. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Objectives: To complete reporting of outcomes after total withdrawal of all rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy and re-treatment after flare in Assessing Very Early Rheumatoid arthritis Treatment study (NCT01142726).

Methods: Patients with early RA were initially randomised to double-blind, weekly subcutaneous abatacept plus methotrexate, or abatacept or methotrexate monotherapy. At month 12, patients with Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 C reactive protein (CRP) <3.2 had all RA treatments rapidly withdrawn and were observed for ≤12 months or until flare. After ≥3 months' withdrawal, patients with protocol-defined RA flare received open-label abatacept plus methotrexate for 6 months (re-treatment).

Results: Proportion of patients in DAS28-CRP-defined remission remained numerically higher in original abatacept plus methotrexate and abatacept arms versus methotrexate arm up to day 253 of withdrawal. At the end of the withdrawal period, few patients remained in remission across all arms: 9/73 (12.3%), 7/50 (14.0%) and 6/53 (11.3%), respectively. For patients entering re-treatment, after 6 months' re-treatment, 95/124 (76.6%) and 78/124 (62.9%) patients achieved DAS28-CRP <3.2 and <2.6, respectively; mean changes in DAS28-CRP and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index scores from re-treatment baseline were -2.87 and 0.76, respectively. Re-treatment was well tolerated; exposure-adjusted infection rates per 100 patient-years were lower with abatacept plus methotrexate during withdrawal (7.2) and re-treatment (17.2) versus initial treatment periods of months 0-6 (116.6) and 6-12 (64.6).

Conclusions: Most patients flared within 6 months of therapy withdrawal and few sustained major responses for 1 year. Re-treatment with abatacept plus methotrexate was effective and well tolerated in this controlled setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2018-000840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446179PMC
April 2020

Functional limitations in the phase of clinically suspect arthralgia are as serious as in early clinical arthritis; a longitudinal study.

RMD Open 2017 29;3(1):e000419. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: A phase of arthralgia may precede the emergence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although several studies have focused on biomarkers, the relevance of this phase for patients is less studied. It is unknown if patients already have functional limitations and if this is correlated to the extent of subclinical inflammation. Therefore, we assessed functional disability in patients with clinically suspect arthralgia (CSA), its association with MRI-detected subclinical inflammation and its course during progression to clinical arthritis.

Methods: From April 2012 to March 2015, 241 patients had arthralgia for <1 year and were, based on clinical presentation, considered at risk for RA by their rheumatologists. At baseline, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were determined and unilateral 1.5 T MRI of metacarpophalangeal, wrist and metatarsophalangeal joints were made. Presence of MRI-detected subclinical inflammation was assessed by summing synovitis, tenosynovitis and bone marrow oedema scores (range 0-189). Patients were followed on arthritis development and HAQ scores were repeated when clinical arthritis had developed.

Results: The median HAQ score at presentation with CSA was 0.50. Higher MRI-inflammation scores were associated with higher HAQ scores (β=0.017, 95% CI=0.004 to 0.030). During median 103 weeks follow-up, 44 patients progressed to clinical arthritis. HAQ scores ≥1.0 were associated with arthritis development (HR=2.50, 95% CI=1.03 to 6.10). Within converters, median HAQ scores did not increase from presentation with CSA to arthritis development (0.88 and 0.75, p=0.36).

Conclusions: HAQ scores ≥1.0 at presentation were associated with the development of clinical arthritis. Functional limitations in the prearthritis phase of CSA were as serious as in the early clinical phase, demonstrating the relevance of CSA from patients' perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2016-000419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574454PMC
June 2017

Pathway analysis to identify genetic variants associated with efficacy of adalimumab in rheumatoid arthritis.

Pharmacogenomics 2017 Jul 22;18(10):945-953. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aim: About 30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients have no clinical benefit from TNF inhibitors. Genome-wide association (GWA) and candidate gene studies tested several putative genetic variants for TNF inhibitor efficacy with inconclusive results. Therefore, this study applied a systematic pathway analysis.

Patients & Methods: A total of 325 rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with adalimumab were genotyped for 223 SNPs. We tested the association between SNPs and European League Against Rheumatism response and remission at 14 weeks under the additive genetic model using logistic regression.

Results: A total of 3 SNPs located in CD40LG (rs1126535), TANK (rs1267067) and VEGFA (rs25648) showed association with both end points. TNFAIP3 (rs2230926) had the strongest effect related to European League Against Rheumatism response.

Conclusion: This exploratory study suggests that TNFAIP3, CD40LG, TANK and VEGFA play a role in the response to adalimumab treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs-2017-0047DOI Listing
July 2017

Differences in the symptomatic phase preceding ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative RA: a longitudinal study in arthralgia during progression to clinical arthritis.

Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Oct 12;76(10):1751-1754. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Although anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have different aetiopathology, the clinical presentation at the time of diagnosis is similar. This study evaluated whether there are phenotypic differences in the symptomatic pre-RA phase.

Methods: Patients with arthralgia included in the Leiden clinically suspect arthralgia cohort who developed arthritis during follow-up were studied (n=67). Symptoms at symptom onset, symptoms and signs at presentation with arthralgia and time to arthritis development were compared between ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative patients.

Results: In ACPA-negative patients (n=37), the location of initial symptoms less often included the lower extremities (22% vs 50%, p=0.014). At presentation with arthralgia, ACPA-positive patients had a longer symptom duration (median 22 vs 14 weeks, p=0.005), less tender joints (mean 5 vs 9, p=0.007) and less difficulty making a fist (11% vs 43%, p=0.004). However, after presentation with arthralgia, ACPA-positive patients developed arthritis more quickly (median 6 vs 18 weeks, p=0.015). A partial least squares regression analysis showed clustering of ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative patients based on the above-mentioned clinical variables.

Conclusion: This study is the first showing that ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative patients have clinical differences in the symptomatic phase preceding clinical arthritis. This contributes to the notion that ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative RA develop differently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211325DOI Listing
October 2017

Assessment of Global Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Patients and Physicians: Differences Across Countries in the METEOR Database.

J Clin Rheumatol 2015 Oct;21(7):349-54

From the Departments of *Rheumatology and †Biostatistics, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; ‡Rheumatology Department, Hospital Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil; §Cochin Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, and Paris-Descartes University, Paris, France; ∥Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, and NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, United Kingdom; ¶on behalf of GISEA, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; #UMass Memorial Medical Center and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA; **Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; ††University of Liverpool Academic Rheumatology Unit, Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom; ‡‡Department of Rheumatology, Coimbra University, Portugal; §§Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; ∥∥Department of Rheumatology and Medicine Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; and ¶¶Rheumatology department, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam & Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen, the Netherlands.

Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the differences between patient global disease activity (PtGDA) and physician global disease activity (PhGDA) score within and across 13 countries in the METEOR (Measurement of Efficacy of Treatment in the "Era of Outcome" in Rheumatology) database.

Methods: Data from METEOR were used to compare PtGDA and PhGDA, scored independently on a 100-mm visual analog scale from 0 (best possible) until 100 (worst possible), in 23,117 visits in 5709 anonymized patients during the period between 2008 and 2012. Linear mixed models were used to model mean differences between PtGDA and PhGDA in 13 countries (Brazil, Czech Republic, France, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, and the United States), adjusted for differences in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). Generalized estimating equations were used to model differences (>20 mm) between PtGDA and PhGDA score as the outcome and countries as determinants, adjusted for DAS28.

Results: Mean difference between PtGDA and PhGDA scores varied by country, from -2 mm (physician scores higher) in Mexico to +14 mm (patient scores higher) in Brazil. "Country" was a significant determinant of the difference between PtGDA and PhGDA scores, independent of differences in DAS28. With the Netherlands as reference, PtGDA and PhGDA scores for individual patients differ significantly in almost all (n = 10) countries, with the exception of France and Spain.

Conclusions: Differences between patients' and physicians' assessment of GDA vary across the countries. Influence of country must be taken into account when interpreting discordances between the patient's and the physician's assessment of GDA in rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000000296DOI Listing
October 2015

Predicting the severity of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis; the contribution of genetic factors.

Ann Rheum Dis 2015 May 15;74(5):876-82. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: The severity of radiologic progression is variable between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Recently, several genetic severity variants have been identified and were replicated, these belong to 12 loci. This study determined the contribution of the identified genetic factors to the explained variance in radiologic progression and whether genetic factors, in addition to traditional risk factors, improve the accuracy of predicting the severity of radiologic progression.

Methods: 426 early RA patients with yearly radiologic follow-up were studied. The main outcome measure was the progression in Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS) over 6 years, assessed as continuous outcome or categorised in no/little, moderate or severe progression. Assessed were improved fit of a linear mixed model analysis on serial radiographs, R(2) using linear regression analyses, C-statistic and the net proportion of patients that was additionally correctly classified when adding genetic risk factors to a model consisting of traditional risk factors.

Results: The genetic factors together explained 12-18%. When added to a model including traditional factors and treatment effects, the genetic factors additionally explained 3-7% of the variance (p value R(2)change=0.056). The percentage of patients that was correctly classified increased from 56% to 62%; the net proportion of correct reclassifications 6% (95% CI 3 to 10%). The C-statistic increased from 0.78 to 0.82. Sensitivity analyses using imputation of missing radiographs yielded comparable results.

Conclusions: Genetic risk factors together explained 12-18% of the variance in radiologic progression. Adding genetic factors improved the predictive accuracy, but 38% of the patients were still incorrectly classified, limiting the value for use in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204277DOI Listing
May 2015

Role of rheumatology clinical nurse specialists in optimizing management of hand osteoarthritis during daily practice in secondary care: an observational study.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2011 1;4:403-11. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a single one-hour consultation by a clinical nurse specialist in patients with hand osteoarthritis during daily rheumatology practice in secondary care.

Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed by rheumatologists to have primary hand osteoarthritis and referred to the clinical nurse specialist were eligible for entry into this study. The standardized 1-hour consultation consisted of assessments and education on hand osteoarthritis by a clinical nurse specialist. Before and 3 months after the consultation, assessments were done to evaluate treatment (use of assistive devices, acetaminophen), health-related quality of life (physical component summary [PCS] score of Short-Form 36), and hand pain/function (Australian/ Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index [AUSCAN]). Paired t-tests and McNemar tests were used to analyze differences between baseline and follow-up. Satisfaction was measured after consultation at follow-up using a multidimensional questionnaire comprising 13 items (rated on a four-point scale).

Results: A total of 439 patients were referred, with follow-up data available for 195 patients, comprising 177 (87%) females, and of mean age 59 ± 9.0 years. After consultation, the proportions of patients using assistive devices and/or acetaminophen increased significantly from 30% to 39% and from 35% to 49%, respectively. PCS improved significantly (P = 0.03) whereas AUSCAN hand pain/function showed no significant differences compared with baseline (P values 0.52 and 0.92, respectively). The proportions of patients reporting to be satisfied or fully satisfied ranged from 78% to 99% per item.

Conclusion: A single, comprehensive, standardized assessment and education by a clinical nurse specialist improved the physical dimension of health-related quality of life in hand osteoarthritis. Most patients were satisfied with the consultation. Further controlled trials are needed to determine the added value of the clinical nurse specialist in care for hand osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S25269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3215348PMC
October 2012

Functional polymorphisms and methotrexate treatment outcome in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

Pharmacogenomics 2010 Feb;11(2):163-75

Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, NL 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aims: Clinical response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment differs among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Genetic variation can partly account for this phenomenon. In this study, functional polymorphisms in genes related to the mechanism of action of MTX or immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis were studied for association with treatment outcome in a Dutch cohort of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, tests for replication of previous research on these genetic variants were performed according to reported end points.

Materials & Methods: Seven polymorphisms in seven genes were analyzed in 205 genotyped patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. All patients received standardized MTX treatment (< or =25 mg per week orally) combined with folic acid. MTX treatment outcome was evaluated by disease activity score criteria and adverse drug events. The following genetic variants were analyzed and correlated: ABCB1 3435C>T, ITPA IVS2 +21A>C, HLA-G (-14 bp >+14 bp), TGFB1 +869T>C and TLR4 +896A>G. In case of significant differences, regression analyses were applied. Since carriers of the minor alleles of the SNPs DHFR 829C>T and IMPDH2 +787C>T were not observed, no statistical analyses could be performed.

Results: No significant associations or replications of these genetic variants with MTX efficacy were demonstrated. Regarding toxicity, patients carrying the ABCB1 3435T-allele and TLR4 +896G-allele were 2.5-times more likely to develop adverse drug events at 6 months (odds ratio: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.2, and odds ratio: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-6.1, respectively). Additionally, this chance increased almost fourfold in patients with the two unfavorable genotypes (odds ratio: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5-10.3). However, none of these associations remained significant after correction for multiple testing (p < 0.004).

Conclusion: Our data indicate that MTX toxicity was potentially associated with ABCB1 3435C>T and TLR4 +896A>G. However, after correction, none of these associations remained significant. Furthermore, no significant associations or replications of these functional variants with efficacy were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs.09.139DOI Listing
February 2010

Integration of gene ontology pathways with North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium genome-wide association data via linear modeling.

BMC Proc 2009 Dec 15;3 Suppl 7:S94. Epub 2009 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, P,O, Box 9604, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

We describe an empirical Bayesian linear model for integration of functional gene annotation data with genome-wide association data. Using case-control study data from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium and gene annotation data from the Gene Ontology, we illustrate how the method can be used to prioritize candidate genes for further investigation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2795998PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1753-6561-3-s7-s94DOI Listing
December 2009
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