Publications by authors named "Tolou Golkar"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Look and Outlook on Enzyme-Mediated Macrolide Resistance.

Front Microbiol 2018 20;9:1942. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Since their discovery in the early 1950s, macrolide antibiotics have been used in both agriculture and medicine. Specifically, macrolides such as erythromycin and azithromycin have found use as substitutes for β-lactam antibiotics in patients with penicillin allergies. Given the extensive use of this class of antibiotics it is no surprise that resistance has spread among pathogenic bacteria. In these bacteria different mechanisms of resistance have been observed. Frequently observed are alterations in the target of macrolides, i.e., the ribosome, as well as upregulation of efflux pumps. However, drug modification is also increasingly observed. Two classes of enzymes have been implicated in macrolide detoxification: macrolide phosphotransferases and macrolide esterases. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview on what is known about macrolide resistance with an emphasis on the macrolide phosphotransferase and esterase enzymes. Furthermore, we explore how this information can assist in addressing resistance to macrolide antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109786PMC
August 2018

PCR Analysis of IgH and TCR-γ Gene Rearrangements as a Confirmatory Diagnostic Tool for Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2015 Mar 4;31(1):38-45. Epub 2014 May 4.

Health Research Institute, Research Center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

This study investigates PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements on paraffin-embedded tissue sections and bone marrow aspirates of patients suspected to have lymphoproliferative disorders but with inconclusive diagnosis in histopathological examination. 130 samples of patients with inconclusive immunohistochemistry results were evaluated for clonal rearrangement of IgH and TCR genes. Based on histopathology examination, the patients were divided into three groups: the first group without any definite diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders (60 cases, 46.2 %), the second group suspected to have a lymphoproliferative disorder but in favor of benign disorders (19 cases, 14.6 %) and the third group suspect to lymphoproliferative disorders but relatively in favor of malignant disorders (51 cases, 39.2 %). After DNA extraction and quality control, semi-nested PCR was performed using consensus primers for amplification of TCR-γ and CDR-3 regions of IgH genes. PCR products were analyzed after heteroduplex analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were subject to silver staining. Totally, in over half of the cases (55.4 %), a monoclonal pattern was found in IgH or TCR-γ genes rearrangements. Monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement was detected in 48.1 % of patients, whereas monoclonal TCR-γ gene rearrangement was found in 33.6 % of them, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.008). Only in 32 patients (24.6 %) were the results of TCR-γ and IgH gene rearrangements consistent with respect to the presence (2.3 %) or absence (22.3 %) of monoclonality. Finally, PCR analysis of TCR-γ and IgH gene rearrangements led to definite diagnosis in 105 patients (80.8 %), and only 25 cases (19.2 %) remained inconclusive. Our results emphasize the usefulness of gene rearrangement study in cases without a definite diagnosis in immunohistochemistry studies. Multiple PCR analysis results when combined with patient's clinical course and immunohistochemistry can lead to early diagnosis and subsequent therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-014-0387-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4275529PMC
March 2015