Publications by authors named "Todd Sandell"

2 Publications

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Functional genetic diversity in an exploited marine species and its relevance to fisheries management.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 02 24;288(1945):20202398. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, 1122 NE Boat Street, Seattle WA 98105, USA.

The timing of reproduction influences key evolutionary and ecological processes in wild populations. Variation in reproductive timing may be an especially important evolutionary driver in the marine environment, where the high mobility of many species and few physical barriers to migration provide limited opportunities for spatial divergence to arise. Using genomic data collected from spawning aggregations of Pacific herring () across 1600 km of coastline, we show that reproductive timing drives population structure in these pelagic fish. Within a specific spawning season, we observed isolation by distance, indicating that gene flow is also geographically limited over our study area. These results emphasize the importance of considering both seasonal and spatial variation in spawning when delineating management units for herring. On several chromosomes, we detected linkage disequilibrium extending over multiple Mb, suggesting the presence of chromosomal rearrangements. Spawning phenology was highly correlated with polymorphisms in several genes, in particular , which influences the development of retinal photoreceptors in vertebrates. is probably within a chromosomal rearrangement in Pacific herring and is also associated with spawn timing in Atlantic herring (). The observed genetic diversity probably underlies resource waves provided by spawning herring. Given the ecological, economic and cultural significance of herring, our results support that conserving intraspecific genetic diversity is important for maintaining current and future ecosystem processes.
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February 2021

Comparison and evaluation of Renibacterium salmoninarum quantitative PCR diagnostic assays using field samples of Chinook and coho salmon.

Dis Aquat Organ 2011 Jan;93(2):129-39

Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

Renibacterium salmoninarum is a Gram-positive bacterium causing bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in susceptible salmonid fishes. Several quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to measure R. salmoninarum infection intensity have been reported, but comparison and evaluation of these assays has been limited. Here, we compared 3 qPCR primer/probe sets for detection of R. salmoninarum in field samples of naturally exposed Chinook and coho salmon first identified as positive by nested PCR (nPCR). Additional samples from a hatchery population of Chinook salmon with BKD were included to serve as strong positive controls. The 3 qPCR assays targeted either the multiple copy major soluble antigen (msa) genes or the single copy abc gene. The msa/non-fluorescent quencher (NFQ) assay amplified R. salmoninarum DNA in 53.2% of the nPCR positive samples, whereas the abc/NFQ assay amplified 21.8% of the samples and the abc/TAMRA assay 18.2%. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) successfully quantified only 16.4% of the nPCR positive samples. Although the msa/NFQ assay amplified a greater proportion of nPCR positive samples, the abc/NFQ assay better amplified those samples with medium and high ELISA values. A comparison of the geometric mean quantity ratios highlighted limitations of the assays, and the abc/NFQ assay strongly amplified some samples that were negative in other tests, in contrast to its performance among the sample group as a whole. These data demonstrate that both the msa/NFQ and abc/NFQ qPCR assays are specific and effective at higher infection levels and outperform the ELISA. However, most pathogen studies will continue to require multiple assays to both detect and quantify R. salmoninarum infection.
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January 2011