Publications by authors named "Todd M Bauer"

65 Publications

A Phase 1b Study of Telisotuzumab Vedotin in Combination With Nivolumab in Patients With NSCLC.

JTO Clin Res Rep 2022 Jan 4;3(1):100262. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California.

Introduction: Telisotuzumab vedotin (Teliso-V) is an anti-c-Met-directed antibody-drug conjugate that has exhibited antitumor activity as monotherapy in NSCLC. Its potential activity combined with programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitors has not been previously evaluated.

Methods: In a phase 1b study (NCT02099058), adult patients (≥18 y) with advanced NSCLC received combination therapy with Teliso-V (1.6, 1.9, or 2.2 mg/kg, every 2 wk) plus nivolumab (3 mg/kg, 240 mg, or per locally approved label). The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability; secondary objectives included the evaluation of antitumor activity.

Results: As of January 2020, a total of 37 patients received treatment with Teliso-V (safety population) in combination with nivolumab; 27 patients (efficacy population) were c-Met immunohistochemistry-positive. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) status was evaluated in the efficacy population (PD-L1-positive [PD-L1+]: n = 15; PD-L1-negative [PD-L1-]: n = 9; PD-L1-unknown: n = 3). The median age was 67 years and 74% (20 of 27) of patients were naive to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The most common any-grade treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (27%) and peripheral sensory neuropathy (19%). The pharmacokinetic profile of Teliso-V plus nivolumab was similar to Teliso-V monotherapy. The objective response rate was 7.4%, with two patients (PD-L1+, c-Met immunohistochemistry H-score 190, n = 1; PD-L1-, c-Met H-score 290, n = 1) having a confirmed partial response. Overall median progression-free survival was 7.2 months (PD-L1+: 7.2 mo; PD-L1-: 4.5 mo; PD-L1-unknown: not reached).

Conclusions: Combination therapy with Teliso-V plus nivolumab was well tolerated in patients with c-Met+ NSCLC with limited antitumor activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtocrr.2021.100262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8717236PMC
January 2022

Phase Ib Study of Atezolizumab Plus Interferon-α with or without Bevacizumab in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and Other Solid Tumors.

Curr Oncol 2021 Dec 20;28(6):5466-5479. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

This Phase Ib study combined programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, with other immunomodulatory agents in locally advanced and metastatic solid tumors. Arms B-D evaluated atezolizumab plus interferon-α, with/without vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, bevacizumab, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other solid tumors. Arm B predominantly recruited patients with previously treated RCC or melanoma to receive atezolizumab plus interferon α-2b. Arm C investigated atezolizumab plus polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon α-2a in previously treated RCC. Arm D evaluated atezolizumab plus PEG-interferon α-2a and bevacizumab. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability; secondary objectives included clinical activity. Combination therapy was well tolerated, with safety profiles consistent with known risks of individual agents. The most frequent treatment-related toxicities were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The objective response rate (ORR) in arm B was 20.0% overall and 17.8% in patients with previously treated checkpoint inhibitor-naive RCC ( = 45). No responses were reported in arm C. The highest ORR in arm D was 46.7% in patients with treatment-naive RCC ( = 15). Data showed preliminary clinical activity and acceptable tolerability of atezolizumab plus interferon α-2b in patients with previously treated checkpoint inhibitor-naive RCC and of atezolizumab plus PEG-interferon α-2a and bevacizumab in patients with treatment-naive RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700717PMC
December 2021

Plain language summary of the CROWN study comparing lorlatinib with crizotinib for people with untreated non-small cell lung cancer.

Future Oncol 2021 Dec 29;17(34):4649-4656. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USA.

This is a summary of a research study (known as a clinical trial) called CROWN. The study tested two medicines called lorlatinib and crizotinib in participants with untreated non-small cell lung cancer that had spread to other parts of their body. All those who took part had changes in a gene called ALK, which is involved in cell growth. In total, 296 participants from 23 countries took part. Half the participants took lorlatinib and half took crizotinib. After participants started taking lorlatinib or crizotinib, they were checked regularly to see if their tumors had grown or spread to other parts of their body (known as tumor progression) and to monitor any side effects. After 1 year of treatment, the participants who took lorlatinib were twice as likely to be alive with no tumor growth as the participants who took crizotinib. More participants who took lorlatinib had cancer that shrank (76%) compared with the participants who took crizotinib (58%). This was also true of the participants whose cancer had spread to their brain. The most common side effects in participants who took lorlatinib were increases in the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides (a type of fat) in their blood, swelling, weight gain, nerve damage, unclear thoughts, and diarrhea. Among the participants who took crizotinib, the most common side effects were diarrhea, feeling like you want to throw up, sight problems, swelling, vomiting, changes in liver function, and feeling tired. Overall, the CROWN study showed that fewer participants with advanced ALK+ non-small cell lung cancer died or had tumor growth with lorlatinib compared with crizotinib treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT number: NCT03052608.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2021-0904DOI Listing
December 2021

Safety and Clinical Activity of Atezolizumab Plus Ipilimumab in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results From a Phase 1b Trial.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA.

Background: This phase 1b study investigated safety and activity of combined checkpoint inhibition (CPI) with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody atezolizumab plus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor ipilimumab in NSCLC.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients had previously treated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or melanoma. A standard 3+3 dose escalation investigated atezolizumab (600-1200 mg IV every 3 weeks) plus ipilimumab starting at 1 mg/kg, administered as a single dose or 4 doses, administered every 3 weeks. The expansion stage included a cohort previously treated with atezolizumab. Patients were monitored for safety and tolerability; response was evaluated every 6 weeks.

Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled, 4 with melanoma and 23 with NSCLC; here, we focus on data for the NSCLC population. Three of 23 patients (13.0%) received prior CPI. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported during dose escalation; dose expansion occurred with atezolizumab 1200 mg plus 1 cycle of ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. Most common treatment-emergent adverse events were dyspnea (39%) and cough (35%); treatment-related Grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 11 patients (48%), most frequently pneumonitis (17%) and amylase or lipase elevation (9% each). Six of 23 NSCLC patients (26%) achieved confirmed responses, 5 of whom (25%) were CPI naive. Median duration of response was 23.0 (95% CI, 3.2-36.9) months overall and 36.9 (95% CI, 2.9-36.9) months in CPI-naive patients.

Conclusion: Preliminary efficacy of atezolizumab plus ipilimumab was observed in metastatic NSCLC. The combination had manageable toxicity, with a safety profile consistent with those of the individual agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2021.07.002DOI Listing
July 2021

Phase I Study of 2- or 3-Week Dosing of Telisotuzumab Vedotin, an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting c-Met, Monotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 11 23;27(21):5781-5792. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California.

Purpose: Telisotuzumab vedotin (Teliso-V) is an anti-c-Met-directed antibody-drug conjugate. Here, we present safety and efficacy data from a phase I/Ib study of Teliso-V monotherapy evaluated in once every 2 weeks/once every 3 weeks schedules in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients And Methods: During dose escalation, patients received Teliso-V monotherapy intravenously once every 3 weeks (0.15-3.3 mg/kg) or once every 2 weeks (1.6-2.2 mg/kg). The dose-expansion phase enrolled patients with NSCLC and c-Met -score ≥150 (c-Met+) or amplification/exon 14 skipping mutations. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy were assessed. Herein, the analysis of patients receiving ≥1.6 mg/kg once every 2 weeks or ≥2.4 mg/kg once every 3 weeks Teliso-V is reported.

Results: Fifty-two patients with NSCLC were enrolled and received ≥1.6 mg/kg Teliso-V once every 2 weeks ( = 28) or ≥2.4 mg/kg Teliso-V once every 3 weeks ( = 24). The most common adverse events were fatigue (54%), peripheral neuropathy (42%), and nausea (38%). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed for Teliso-V once every 2 weeks and once every 3 weeks up to 2.2 and 2.7 mg/kg, respectively. The recommended phase II dose was established at 1.9 mg/kg once every 2 weeks and 2.7 mg/kg once every 3 weeks on the basis of overall safety and pharmacokinetics. Forty of 52 patients were c-Met+ (33 nonsquamous, 6 squamous, 1 mixed histology) and were included in the efficacy-evaluable population. Of those, 9 (23%) had objective responses with median duration of response of 8.7 months; median progression-free survival was 5.2 months.

Conclusions: Teliso-V monotherapy was tolerated and showed antitumor activity in c-Met+ NSCLC. On the basis of overall safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy outcomes, 1.9 mg/kg Teliso-V once every 2 weeks and 2.7 mg/kg once every 3 weeks schedules were selected for further clinical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0765DOI Listing
November 2021

Phase 1 Trial of ALRN-6924, a Dual Inhibitor of MDMX and MDM2, in Patients with Solid Tumors and Lymphomas Bearing Wild-Type .

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Purpose: We describe the first-in-human dose-escalation trial for ALRN-6924, a stabilized, cell-permeating peptide that disrupts p53 inhibition by MDM2 and MDMX to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in wild-type tumors.

Methods: Two schedules were evaluated for safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and anti-tumor effects in patients with solid tumors or lymphomas: In arm A, patients received ALRN-6924 by intravenous infusion once-weekly for 3 weeks every 28 days; arm B, was twice-weekly for 2 weeks every 21 days.

Results: Seventy-one patients were enrolled: 41 in arm A (0.16-4.4 mg/kg), 30 in arm B (0.32-2.7 mg/kg). ALRN-6924 showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and increased serum levels of MIC-1, a biomarker of p53 activation. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were gastrointestinal side effects, fatigue, anemia, and headache. In arm A, at 4.4 mg/kg, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were Grade 3 (G3) hypotension, G3 alkaline phosphatase elevation, G3 anemia, and G4 neutropenia in one patient each. At the maximum tolerated dose in arm A of 3.1 mg/kg, G3 fatigue was observed in one patient. No DLTs were observed in arm B. No G3/G4 thrombocytopenia was observed in any patient. Seven patients had infusion-related reactions; three discontinued treatment. In 41 efficacy-evaluable patients with wild-type disease across both schedules the disease control rate was 59%. Two patients had confirmed complete responses, two had confirmed partial responses, 20 had stable disease. Six patients were treated for >1 year. The recommended phase 2 dose was schedule A, 3.1 mg/kg.

Conclusion: ALRN-6924 was well tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumor activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0715DOI Listing
July 2021

Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of JNJ-64041809, a live-attenuated, double-deleted Listeria monocytogenes-based immunotherapy, in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: The safety and immunogenicity of JNJ-64041809 (JNJ-809), a live-attenuated, double-deleted Listeria monocytogenes (LADD Lm)-based immunotherapy targeting 4 relevant prostate cancer antigens, was evaluated in a phase 1 study in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Methods: Men with progressive mCRPC who had received ≥2 prior approved therapies were enrolled. Primary study objectives were to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of JNJ-809.

Results: A total of 26 patients received JNJ-809 (1 × 10 CFU (n = 6); 1 × 10 CFU (n = 20)). No dose-limiting toxicities were reported, and 1 × 10 CFU was selected as the RP2D. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported were chills (92%), pyrexia (81%), and fatigue (62%). The most frequent grade ≥3 AEs were lymphopenia (27%) and hypertension (23%). Serious AEs were reported in 27% of patients including 1 patient with grade 3 intestinal obstruction. JNJ-809 transiently induced peripheral cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Of the 7 patients evaluable for T cell responses at the 1 × 10 CFU dose, evidence of post-treatment antigenic responses were observed in 6 to the Listeria antigen listeriolysin O and in 5 to ≥1 of the 4 encoded tumor antigens. Best overall response was stable disease in 13/25 response-evaluable patients. The study was terminated early as data collected were considered sufficient to evaluate safety and immunogenicity.

Conclusions: JNJ-809 has manageable safety consistent with other LADD Lm-based therapies. Limited antigen-specific immune responses were observed, which did not translate into objective clinical responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00402-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α in renal cell carcinoma with belzutifan: a phase 1 trial and biomarker analysis.

Nat Med 2021 05 22;27(5):802-805. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) is a transcription factor that frequently accumulates in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), resulting in constitutive activation of genes involved in carcinogenesis. Belzutifan (MK-6482, previously known as PT2977) is a potent, selective small molecule inhibitor of HIF-2α. Maximum tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and anti-tumor activity of belzutifan were evaluated in this first-in-human phase 1 study (NCT02974738). Patients had advanced solid tumors (dose-escalation cohort) or previously treated advanced ccRCC (dose-expansion cohort). Belzutifan was administered orally using a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design, followed by expansion at the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) in patients with ccRCC. In the dose-escalation cohort (n = 43), no dose-limiting toxicities occurred at doses up to 160 mg once daily, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached; the RP2D was 120 mg once daily. Plasma erythropoietin reductions were observed at all doses; erythropoietin concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations of belzutifan. In patients with ccRCC who received 120 mg once daily (n = 55), the confirmed objective response rate was 25% (all partial responses), and the median progression-free survival was 14.5 months. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events were anemia (27%) and hypoxia (16%). Belzutifan was well tolerated and demonstrated preliminary anti-tumor activity in heavily pre-treated patients, suggesting that HIF-2α inhibition might offer an effective treatment for ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01324-7DOI Listing
May 2021

A phase 1a/1b trial of CSF-1R inhibitor LY3022855 in combination with durvalumab or tremelimumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2021 10 14;39(5):1284-1297. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background LY3022855 is a recombinant, immunoglobulin, human monoclonal antibody targeting the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. This phase 1 trial determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of LY3022855 in combination with durvalumab or tremelimumab in patients with advanced solid cancers who had received standard anti-cancer treatments. Methods In Part A (dose-escalation), patients received intravenous (IV) LY3022855 25/50/75/100 mg once weekly (QW) combined with durvalumab 750 mg once every two weeks (Q2W) IV or LY3022855 50 or 100 mg QW IV with tremelimumab 75/225/750 mg once every four weeks. In Part B (dose-expansion), patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or ovarian cancer (OC) received recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of LY3022855 from Part A and durvalumab 750 mg Q2W. Results Seventy-two patients were enrolled (median age 61 years): Part A = 33, Part B = 39. In Part A, maximum tolerated dose was not reached, and LY3022855 100 mg QW and durvalumab 750 mg Q2W was the RP2D. Four dose-limiting equivalent toxicities occurred in two patients from OC cohort. In Part A, maximum concentration, area under the concentration-time curve, and serum concentration showed dose-dependent increase over two cycles of therapy. Overall rates of complete response, partial response, and disease control were 1.4%, 2.8%, and 33.3%. Treatment-emergent anti-drug antibodies were observed in 21.2% of patients. Conclusions LY3022855 combined with durvalumab or tremelimumab in patients with advanced NSCLC or OC had limited clinical activity, was well tolerated. The RP2D was LY3022855 100 mg QW with durvalumab 750 mg Q2W. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02718911 (Registration Date: May 3, 2011).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01088-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Capmatinib for patients with non-small cell lung cancer with MET exon 14 skipping mutations: A review of preclinical and clinical studies.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Apr 1;95:102173. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute / Tennessee Oncology, PLLC., 250 25th Avenue, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

The mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) receptor tyrosine kinase binds the hepatocyte growth factor to activate downstream cell signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Several genetic mechanisms can result in an aberrant activation of this receptor in cancer cells. One such activating mechanism involves the acquisition of gene mutations that cause MET exon 14 skipping (METex14) during mRNA splicing. Mutations leading to METex14 are found in approximately 3-4% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Accumulating evidence suggests that METex14 is a true, independent oncogenic driver in NSCLC, as well as being an independent prognostic factor for poorer survival in patients with NSCLC. The successes of target therapies have relied on improved understanding of the genetic alterations that lead to the dysregulation of the molecular pathways and more advanced molecular diagnostics. Multiple efforts have been made to target the MET pathway in cancer; however, real clinical progress has only occurred since the emergence of METex14 as a valid biomarker for MET inhibition. Capmatinib is a highly potent and selective type Ib inhibitor of MET. Following preclinical demonstration of activity against MET-dependent cancer cell line growth and MET-driven tumor growth in xenograft models, data from a phase 1 clinical trial showed an acceptable safety profile of capmatinib and preliminary evidence of efficacy in patients with MET-dysregulated NSCLC. The multicohort GEOMETRY mono-1 phase 2 trial reported objective response rates of 68% and 41% in treatment-naïve and in pre-treated patients with METex14 advanced NSCLC, respectively. These results have supported the approval of capmatinib by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients with metastatic NSCLC harboring METex14.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2021.102173DOI Listing
April 2021

Phase 1 cohort expansion study of LY3023414, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, in patients with advanced mesothelioma.

Invest New Drugs 2021 08 4;39(4):1081-1088. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

BACKGROUND LY3023414 is a selective, ATP competitive inhibitor of class I PI3K isoforms, mTORC1/2 and DNA-PK. A Phase 1 dose escalation, 200 mg twice daily (BID) of LY3023414 was the determined recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). We report the antitumor activity and safety of LY3023414 monotherapy in patients with advanced mesothelioma.METHODS Patients enrolled had advanced malignant pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma with measurable disease, ECOG PS 0-1, were refractory or ineligible to receive standard therapies. Patients received LY3023414 200 mg BID. This dose expansion cohort is intended to evaluate preliminary antitumor activity of LY3023414 by overall response rate. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were assessed. Biomarkers associated with treatment response was an exploratory endpoint. RESULTS Forty-two patients received LY3023414 for a median duration of 11.2 weeks (range: 1.1-53.0). One patient had a confirmed partial response (PR) (ORR 2.4%). Three patients had an unconfirmed PR. Seventeen patients had stable disease (SD) (DCR 43%). Most common adverse events (AEs) included fatigue (43%), nausea (43%), decreased appetite (38%), vomiting (33%), and diarrhea (29%). AEs were mostly mild or moderate. Grade ≥ 3 AEs were reported for 21% of patients with fatigue as the most frequent event (10%). Alterations of BAP1 were identified in 11/19 patients as the most common molecular aberration, followed by SETD2 and NF2 alterations. No obvious pattern of genetic changes/mutations in single genes or pathways was associated with anti-tumor activity. CONCLUSION LY3023414 monotherapy (200 mg BID) demonstrated an acceptable and manageable safety profile with limited single-agent activity in patients with advanced mesothelioma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01655225; Date of registration: 19 July 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01086-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280020PMC
August 2021

First-Line Lorlatinib or Crizotinib in Advanced -Positive Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2020 11;383(21):2018-2029

From the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center (A.T.S.) and Pfizer (G.P.) - both in Boston; Sarah Cannon Research Institute-Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (T.M.B.); European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS (F.M.), and Pfizer (A.P., A.M.C.) - both in Milan; Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology, International Oncology Bureau-Quirón, Barcelona (E.F.); National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Y.G.); Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (G.L.); Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France (J.M.); Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea (D.-W.K.); State Key Laboratory of Translational Oncology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (T.M.); Pfizer, La Jolla, CA (H.T.); and Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (B.J.S.).

Background: Lorlatinib, a third-generation inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), has antitumor activity in previously treated patients with -positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy of lorlatinib, as compared with that of crizotinib, as first-line treatment for advanced -positive NSCLC is unclear.

Methods: We conducted a global, randomized, phase 3 trial comparing lorlatinib with crizotinib in 296 patients with advanced -positive NSCLC who had received no previous systemic treatment for metastatic disease. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by blinded independent central review. Secondary end points included independently assessed objective response and intracranial response. An interim analysis of efficacy was planned after approximately 133 of 177 (75%) expected events of disease progression or death had occurred.

Results: The percentage of patients who were alive without disease progression at 12 months was 78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84) in the lorlatinib group and 39% (95% CI, 30 to 48) in the crizotinib group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.41; P<0.001). An objective response occurred in 76% (95% CI, 68 to 83) of the patients in the lorlatinib group and 58% (95% CI, 49 to 66) of those in the crizotinib group; among those with measurable brain metastases, 82% (95% CI, 57 to 96) and 23% (95% CI, 5 to 54), respectively, had an intracranial response, and 71% of the patients who received lorlatinib had an intracranial complete response. The most common adverse events with lorlatinib were hyperlipidemia, edema, increased weight, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive effects. Lorlatinib was associated with more grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly altered lipid levels) than crizotinib (in 72% vs. 56%). Discontinuation of treatment because of adverse events occurred in 7% and 9% of the patients, respectively.

Conclusions: In an interim analysis of results among patients with previously untreated advanced -positive NSCLC, those who received lorlatinib had significantly longer progression-free survival and a higher frequency of intracranial response than those who received crizotinib. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was higher with lorlatinib than with crizotinib because of the frequent occurrence of altered lipid levels. (Funded by Pfizer; CROWN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03052608.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2027187DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification of Actionable Fusions as an Anti-EGFR Resistance Mechanism Using a Circulating Tumor DNA Assay.

JCO Precis Oncol 2019 3;3. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Purpose: Gene fusions are established oncogenic drivers and emerging therapeutic targets in advanced colorectal cancer. This study aimed to detail the frequencies and clinicopathological features of gene fusions in colorectal cancer using a circulating tumor DNA assay.

Methods: Circulating tumor DNA samples in patients with advanced colorectal cancer were analyzed at 4,581 unique time points using a validated plasma-based multigene assay that includes assessment of fusions in , , , , , and Associations between fusions and clinicopathological features were measured using Fisher's exact test. Relative frequencies of genomic alterations were compared between fusion-present and fusion-absent cases using an unpaired test.

Results: Forty-four unique fusions were identified in 40 (1.1%) of the 3,808 patients with circulating tumor DNA detected: (n = 6; 36% of all fusions detected), (n = 2; 27%), (n = 10, 23%), (n = 3; 7%), (n = 2; 5%), and (n = 1; 2%). Relative to nonfusion variants detected, fusions were more likely to be subclonal (odds ratio, 8.2; 95% CI, 2.94 to 23.00; < .001). Mutations associated with a previously reported anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy resistance signature (subclonal and mutations) were found with fusions in (10 of 12 patients), (nine of 16 patients), and (seven of 10 patients). For the 27 patients with available clinical histories, 21 (78%) had EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment before fusion detection.

Conclusion: Diverse and potentially actionable fusions can be detected using a circulating tumor DNA assay in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Distribution of coexisting subclonal mutations in , , and in a subset of the patients with fusion-present colorectal cancer suggests that these fusions may arise as a novel mechanism of resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.19.00141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526699PMC
October 2019

Immunologic and tumor responses of pegilodecakin with 5-FU/LV and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Invest New Drugs 2021 02 10;39(1):182-192. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX, USA.

Background Treatment options for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are limited and checkpoint blockade inhibitors have been disappointing in this disease. Pegilodecakin has demonstrated single agent anti-tumor activity in immune-sensitive tumors. Phase 1 and preclinical data indicate synergy of pegilodecakin with 5-FU and platins. We assessed the safety and activity of pegilodecakin+FOLFOX in patients with PDAC. Methods IVY (NCT02009449) was an open-label phase 1b trial in the United States. Here we report on all enrolled patients from cohort C. Heavily pretreated patients were treated with pegilodecakin (self-administered subcutaneously daily at 2.5, 5, or 10 μg/kg) + 5-flurouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), dosed per manufacturers prescribing information, until tumor progression. Eligible patients had measurable disease per immune-related response criteria (irRC), were ≥ 18 years of age, and had ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were evaluated for primary(safety) and secondary (tumor response per irRC) endpoints. Results From 5 August 2014-12 July 2016, 39 patients enrolled in cohort C. All patients were evaluable for safety. In this advanced population, regimen had manageable toxicities with no immune-related adverse events (irAEs) greater than grade 1. The most common grade 3/4/5 TEAEs were thrombocytopenia (21[53.8%] of 39) and anemia (17[43.6%] of 39). In evaluable PDAC patients, the best overall response of pegilodecakin+FOLFOX was 3(14%) with CRs in 2(9%) patients. Conclusions Pegilodecakin+FOLFOX had an acceptable tolerability profile in PDAC, with no substantial irAEs seen, and promising efficacy with the combination yielding a 2-year OS of 24% (95% CI 10-42). These data led to the phase 3 study with pegilodecakin+FOLFOX as second-line therapy of PDAC (SEQUOIA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-01000-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Efficacy of Selpercatinib in -Altered Thyroid Cancers.

N Engl J Med 2020 08;383(9):825-835

From Massachusetts General Hospital (L.J.W.) and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (J. Lorch), Boston; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (E.S., A.D.); Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW (B.R.), and Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC (B.S.) - both in Australia; University of California, San Francisco-Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco (H.K.), David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (J.W.G.), and Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Orange (V.W.Z.) - all in California; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (F.W.), and START Midwest, Grand Rapids (N.L.) - both in Michigan; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (M.B.); University of Chicago, Chicago (J.P.); Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (S.L.), Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux (Y.G.), Aix Marseille University, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INSERM, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Early Phase Cancer Trial Center CLIP2, Hospital La Timone, Marseille (F.B.), Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (C.D.L.F.), and Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Faculté de Médecine Paris-Descartes, Paris (J.M.) - all in France; Mayo Clinic-Rochester, Rochester, MN (J.C.M.); Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta (T.K.O.); National Cancer Center Singapore, Singapore (D.S.W.T.); University of Bern, Bern, and Cantonal Hospital of Lucerne, Lucerne - both in Switzerland (O.G.); University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (J.W.); University of Wisconsin-Carbone Cancer Center, Madison (M.E.B.); British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada (J. Laskin); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (M.H.T.); Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Würzburg, Germany (M.K.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute-Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (T.M.B.); Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Washington, DC (B.L.); Fundación Jimenez Diaz, START-Madrid, Madrid (V.M.); Loxo Oncology, Stamford, CT (K.E., M.N., D.H., E.Y.Z., X.H., L.Y., J.K., S.M.R.); University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (V.S., M.E.C.); and Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus (M.H.S.).

Background: mutations occur in 70% of medullary thyroid cancers, and fusions occur rarely in other thyroid cancers. In patients with -altered thyroid cancers, the efficacy and safety of selective RET inhibition are unknown.

Methods: We enrolled patients with -mutant medullary thyroid cancer with or without previous vandetanib or cabozantinib treatment, as well as those with previously treated fusion-positive thyroid cancer, in a phase 1-2 trial of selpercatinib. The primary end point was an objective response (a complete or partial response), as determined by an independent review committee. Secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety.

Results: In the first 55 consecutively enrolled patients with -mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had previously received vandetanib, cabozantinib, or both, the percentage who had a response was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55 to 81), and 1-year progression-free survival was 82% (95% CI, 69 to 90). In 88 patients with -mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had not previously received vandetanib or cabozantinib, the percentage who had a response was 73% (95% CI, 62 to 82), and 1-year progression-free survival was 92% (95% CI, 82 to 97). In 19 patients with previously treated fusion-positive thyroid cancer, the percentage who had a response was 79% (95% CI, 54 to 94), and 1-year progression-free survival was 64% (95% CI, 37 to 82). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (in 21% of the patients), increased alanine aminotransferase level (in 11%), increased aspartate aminotransferase level (in 9%), hyponatremia (in 8%), and diarrhea (in 6%). Of all 531 patients treated, 12 (2%) discontinued selpercatinib owing to drug-related adverse events.

Conclusions: In this phase 1-2 trial, selpercatinib showed durable efficacy with mainly low-grade toxic effects in patients with medullary thyroid cancer with and without previous vandetanib or cabozantinib treatment. (Funded by Loxo Oncology and others; LIBRETTO-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03157128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005651DOI Listing
August 2020

Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Patients With Advanced Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results From the Phase IIIb/IV CheckMate 374 Study.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 12 16;18(6):461-468.e3. Epub 2020 May 16.

Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington and Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Background: The open-label phase IIIb/IV CheckMate 374 study (NCT02596035) was conducted to validate the safety and efficacy of flat-dose nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) in previously treated advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Three cohorts included patients with predominantly clear cell histology, non-clear cell histologies, or brain metastases. We report safety and efficacy from the advanced non-clear cell RCC (nccRCC) cohort of CheckMate 374.

Methods: Eligible patients received 0 to 3 prior systemic therapies. Patients received nivolumab 240 mg Q2W for ≤24 months or until confirmed progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was incidence of high-grade (grade 3-5) immune-mediated adverse events (IMAEs). Exploratory endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).

Results: Forty-four patients had advanced nccRCC (papillary [n = 24], chromophobe [n = 7], unclassified [n = 8], other [n = 5]); 34.1% received ≥1 prior systemic regimen in the advanced/metastatic setting. With median follow-up of 11 (range, 0.4-27) months, no all-cause grade 3-5 IMAEs or treatment-related grade 5 adverse events were reported. ORR was 13.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-27.4), with 1 complete response (chromophobe) and 5 partial responses (papillary [n = 2], chromophobe [n = 1], collecting duct [n = 1], and unclassified [n = 1] histology). Median PFS was 2.2 months (95% CI, 1.8-5.4). Median OS was 16.3 months (95% CI, 9.2-not estimable).

Conclusions: Safety of flat-dose nivolumab 240 mg Q2W was consistent with previous results. Clinically meaningful efficacy was observed with responses in several histologies, supporting nivolumab as a treatment option for patients with advanced nccRCC, a patient population with high unmet need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.05.006DOI Listing
December 2020

Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Patients With Advanced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results From the Phase IIIb/IV CheckMate 374 Study.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 12 14;18(6):469-476.e4. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

US Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV.

Background: The open-label, phase IIIb/IV CheckMate 374 study (NCT02596035) was conducted to validate the safety and efficacy of flat-dose nivolumab monotherapy 240 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) in previously treated advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Three cohorts included patients with predominantly clear cell histology, non-clear cell histologies, or brain metastases. We report safety and efficacy from the CheckMate 374 advanced clear cell RCC (ccRCC) cohort.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients received prior treatment regimens (1-2 antiangiogenic; 0-3 systemic) with progression on/after last treatment and ≤ 6 months of enrollment. Patients received nivolumab 240 mg Q2W for ≤ 24 months or until confirmed progression/unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was incidence of high-grade (grade 3-5) immune-mediated adverse events (IMAEs). Exploratory endpoints included objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival.

Results: Ninety-seven patients had advanced predominantly ccRCC; 75.3% received only 1 prior systemic regimen in the advanced/metastatic setting. After a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 0.4-26.9 months), no grade 5 IMAEs occurred, and 9.3% of patients reported grade 3/4 IMAEs (hepatitis, 4.1%; diabetes mellitus, 2.1%; nephritis and renal dysfunction, 1.0%; rash, 1.0%; adrenal insufficiency, 1.0%). The objective response rate was 22.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.8%-32.3%). Three patients had a complete response; 19 had partial responses. The median progression-free survival was 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.0-5.5 months). The median overall survival was 21.8 months (95% CI, 17.4 months to not estimable).

Conclusions: This study validates the safety and efficacy of nivolumab 240 mg Q2W flat-dose monotherapy for previously treated advanced ccRCC and adds to previous safety and efficacy data using the 3 mg/kg Q2W dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.06.002DOI Listing
December 2020

A first-in-human phase 1 dose escalation study of spartalizumab (PDR001), an anti-PD-1 antibody, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 03;8(1)

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Spartalizumab is a humanized IgG4κ monoclonal antibody that binds programmed death-1 (PD-1) and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2. This phase 1/2 study was designed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of spartalizumab in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

Methods: In the phase 1 part of the study, 58 patients received spartalizumab, intravenously, at doses of 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, administered every 2 weeks (Q2W), or 3 or 5 mg/kg every 4 weeks (Q4W).

Results: Patients had a wide range of tumor types, most commonly sarcoma (28%) and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (10%); other tumor types were reported in ≤3 patients each. Most patients (93%) had received prior antineoplastic therapy (median three prior lines) and two-thirds of the population had tumor biopsies negative for PD-L1 expression at baseline. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The recommended phase 2 doses were selected as 400 mg Q4W or 300 mg Q3W. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and adverse events included those typical of other PD-1 antibodies. The most common treatment-related adverse events of any grade were fatigue (22%), diarrhea (17%), pruritus (14%), hypothyroidism (10%), and nausea (10%). Partial responses occurred in two patients (response rate 3.4%); one with atypical carcinoid tumor of the lung and one with anal cancer. Paired tumor biopsies from patients taken at baseline and on treatment suggested an on-treatment increase in CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration in patients with clinical benefit.

Conclusions: Spartalizumab was well tolerated at all doses tested in patients with previously treated advanced solid tumors. On-treatment immune activation was seen in tumor biopsies; however, limited clinical activity was reported in this heavily pretreated, heterogeneous population. The phase 2 part of this study is ongoing in select tumor types.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02404441.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-000530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073791PMC
March 2020

Brain Penetration of Lorlatinib: Cumulative Incidences of CNS and Non-CNS Progression with Lorlatinib in Patients with Previously Treated ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Target Oncol 2020 02;15(1):55-65

Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Lorlatinib is a potent, third-generation ALK/ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) designed to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

Objective: We report the cumulative incidence of central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS progression with lorlatinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with ALK TKIs.

Patients And Methods: In an ongoing phase II study (NCT01970865), 198 patients with ALK-positive NSCLC with ≥ 1 prior ALK TKI were enrolled into expansion cohorts (EXP) based on treatment history. Patients received lorlatinib 100 mg once daily. Patients were analyzed for progressive disease, categorized as CNS or non-CNS progression, by independent central review. Cumulative incidence probabilities were calculated adopting a competing risks approach.

Results: Fifty-nine patients received crizotinib as their only prior ALK TKI (EXP2-3A); cumulative incidence rates (CIRs) of CNS and non-CNS progression were both 22% at 12 months in patients with baseline CNS metastases (n = 37), and CIR of non-CNS progression at 12 months was higher versus that for CNS progression in patients without baseline CNS metastases [43% vs. 9% (n = 22)]. In patients who received ≥ 1 prior second-generation ALK TKI [EXP3B-5 (n = 139)], CIR of non-CNS progression at 12 months was higher versus that for CNS progression in patients both with and without baseline CNS metastases (35% vs. 23% (n = 94) and 55% vs. 12% (n = 45), respectively).

Conclusions: Lorlatinib showed substantial intracranial activity in patients with pretreated ALK-positive NSCLC, with or without baseline CNS metastases, whose disease progressed on crizotinib or second-generation ALK TKIs. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Identifier: NCT01970865.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-020-00702-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028836PMC
February 2020

Adenosine Signaling Is Prognostic for Cancer Outcome and Has Predictive Utility for Immunotherapeutic Response.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 05 17;26(9):2176-2187. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Translational Medicine, Research and Early Development, Oncology R&D, AstraZeneca, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: There are several agents in early clinical trials targeting components of the adenosine pathway including A2AR and CD73. The identification of cancers with a significant adenosine drive is critical to understand the potential for these molecules. However, it is challenging to measure tumor adenosine levels at scale, thus novel, clinically tractable biomarkers are needed.

Experimental Design: We generated a gene expression signature for the adenosine signaling using regulatory networks derived from the literature and validated this in patients. We applied the signature to large cohorts of disease from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and cohorts of immune checkpoint inhibitor-treated patients.

Results: The signature captures baseline adenosine levels ( = 0.92, = 0.018), is reduced after small-molecule inhibition of A2AR in mice ( = -0.62, = 0.001) and humans (reduction in 5 of 7 patients, 70%), and is abrogated after A2AR knockout. Analysis of TCGA confirms a negative association between adenosine and overall survival (OS, HR = 0.6, < 2.2e) as well as progression-free survival (PFS, HR = 0.77, = 0.0000006). Further, adenosine signaling is associated with reduced OS (HR = 0.47, < 2.2e) and PFS (HR = 0.65, = 0.0000002) in CD8 T-cell-infiltrated tumors. Mutation of TGFβ superfamily members is associated with enhanced adenosine signaling and worse OS (HR = 0.43, < 2.2e). Finally, adenosine signaling is associated with reduced efficacy of anti-PD1 therapy in published cohorts (HR = 0.29, = 0.00012).

Conclusions: These data support the adenosine pathway as a mediator of a successful antitumor immune response, demonstrate the prognostic potential of the signature for immunotherapy, and inform patient selection strategies for adenosine pathway modulators currently in development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-2183DOI Listing
May 2020

Phase 1 study of capmatinib in MET-positive solid tumor patients: Dose escalation and expansion of selected cohorts.

Cancer Sci 2020 Feb 30;111(2):536-547. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

State Key Laboratory of Translational Oncology, Phase 1 Clinical Trial Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Capmatinib is an oral, ATP-competitive, and highly potent, type 1b MET inhibitor. Herein, we report phase 1 dose-escalation results for capmatinib in advanced MET-positive solid tumor patients and dose expansion in advanced non-lung tumors. Capmatinib was well tolerated with a manageable safety profile across all explored doses. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occurred at 200 mg twice daily (bid), 250 mg bid, and 450 mg bid capsules; however, no DLT were reported at 600 mg bid (capsules). Capmatinib tablets at 400 mg bid had comparable tolerability and exposure to that of 600 mg bid capsules. Maximum tolerated dose was not reached; recommended phase 2 dose was 400 mg bid tablets/600 mg bid capsules; at this dose, C >EC (90% inhibition of c-MET phosphorylation in animal models) is expected to be achieved and maintained. Among the dose-expansion patients (N = 38), best overall response across all cohorts was stable disease (gastric cancer 22%, hepatocellular carcinoma 46%, other indications 28%); two other indication patients with gene copy number (GCN) ≥6 achieved substantial tumor reduction. Near-complete immunohistochemically determined phospho-MET inhibition (H-score = 2) was shown following capmatinib 450 mg bid capsule in paired biopsies obtained from one advanced colorectal cancer patient. Incidence of high-level MET GCN (GCN ≥6) and MET-overexpressing (immunohistochemistry 3+) tumors in the expansion cohorts was 8% and 13%, respectively; no MET mutations were observed. Thus, the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of capmatinib was 600 mg bid capsule/400 mg bid tablet. Capmatinib was well tolerated and showed antitumor activity and acceptable safety profile at the RP2D. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01324479).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004521PMC
February 2020

Efficacy and safety of buparlisib, a PI3K inhibitor, in patients with malignancies harboring a PI3K pathway activation: a phase 2, open-label, single-arm study.

Oncotarget 2019 Nov 5;10(60):6526-6535. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Medical Oncology, US Oncology Research and Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation plays a key role in tumorigenesis and has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to multiple therapies in various cancers. There were 146 patients enrolled; common tumor types were colorectal, sarcoma, and ovarian. Tumors had PI3K pathway alterations and a median of four mutations with tissue-specific patterns of mutation burden (lowest: sarcoma [2.5]; highest: esophagus, germ cell tumor, skin non-melanoma, vaginal [7]). The number of prior therapies did not correlate with the number of genetic alterations (Pearson = -0.037). The clinical benefit rate was 15.1% ( = 22). An additional patient had an unconfirmed complete response. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, hyperglycemia, decreased appetite, and diarrhea. In this phase 2, open-label, single-arm study, patients with solid or hematologic malignancies with PI3K pathway activation and progression on or after standard treatment received buparlisib (100 mg once daily). The primary endpoint was clinical benefit rate per local investigator assessment (response or stable disease at ≥16 weeks). Buparlisib was well tolerated, however efficacy was limited despite selection of PI3K pathway aberrations. Future studies may provide insight into buparlisib efficacy by refining the molecular selection of different tumor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849647PMC
November 2019

Population pharmacokinetics of vactosertib, a new TGF-β receptor type Ι inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 01 30;85(1):173-183. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Vactosertib, a novel inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β type Ι receptor, is under development for the treatment of various cancers. The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of vactosertib in patients with solid tumors.

Methods: Vactosertib population pharmacokinetics was assessed by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling of plasma concentration-time data obtained from a first-in-human phase 1 trial conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. The final population pharmacokinetic model was constructed by assessing the effect of covariates on pharmacokinetic parameters including demographic characteristics, laboratory values, hepatic and renal function, and concomitant medications. The robustness of the final model was evaluated using a bootstrap method as well as visual predictive check based on Monte Carlo simulations and goodness-of-fit plots.

Results: A total of 559 concentrations from 29 patients were available for pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment linear model with first-order absorption and absorption lag time adequately described the population pharmacokinetics of vactosertib. The estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of central compartment (V/F) were 31.9 L/h (inter-individual variability, 0.481) and 82.9 L (inter-individual variability, 0.534), respectively. The mixture model accounts for both typical absorption profile in the majority of patients and distinct profile in some patients with uncommon gastrointestinal conditions. Body mass index was significantly associated with V/F.

Conclusions: The model developed in this study adequately describes the population pharmacokinetics of vactosertib in patients with advanced solid tumors. The pharmacokinetic characteristics assessed using the model would provide useful quantitative information to assist the future clinical development of vactosertib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-019-03979-zDOI Listing
January 2020

Lorlatinib in advanced ROS1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 1-2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 12 25;20(12):1691-1701. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Lorlatinib is a potent, brain-penetrant, third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets ALK and ROS1 with preclinical activity against most known resistance mutations in ALK and ROS1. We investigated the antitumour activity and safety of lorlatinib in advanced, ROS1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: In this open-label, single-arm, phase 1-2 trial, we enrolled patients (aged ≥18 years) with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC, with or without CNS metastases, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less (≤1 for phase 1 only) from 28 hospitals in 12 countries worldwide. Lorlatinib 100 mg once daily (escalating doses of 10 mg once daily to 100 mg twice daily in phase 1 only) was given orally in continuous 21-day cycles until investigator-determined disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent, or death. The primary endpoint was overall and intracranial tumour response, assessed by independent central review. Activity endpoints were assessed in patients who received at least one dose of lorlatinib. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01970865.

Findings: Between Jan 22, 2014, and Oct 2, 2016, we assessed 364 patients, of whom 69 with ROS1-positive NSCLC were enrolled. 21 (30%) of 69 patients were TKI-naive, 40 (58%) had previously received crizotinib as their only TKI, and eight (12%) had previously received one non-crizotinib ROS1 TKI or two or more ROS1 TKIs. The estimated median duration of follow-up for response was 21·1 months (IQR 15·2-30·3). 13 (62%; 95% CI 38-82) of 21 TKI-naive patients and 14 (35%; 21-52) of 40 patients previously treated with crizotinib as their only TKI had an objective response. Intracranial responses were achieved in seven (64%; 95% CI 31-89) of 11 TKI-naive patients and 12 (50%; 29-71) of 24 previous crizotinib-only patients. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were hypertriglyceridaemia (13 [19%] of 69 patients) and hypercholesterolaemia (ten [14%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in five (7%) of 69 patients. No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: Lorlatinib showed clinical activity in patients with advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC, including those with CNS metastases and those previously treated with crizotinib. Because crizotinib-refractory patients have few treatment options, lorlatinib could represent an important next-line targeted agent.

Funding: Pfizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30655-2DOI Listing
December 2019

Pegilodecakin combined with pembrolizumab or nivolumab for patients with advanced solid tumours (IVY): a multicentre, multicohort, open-label, phase 1b trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 11 25;20(11):1544-1555. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: IL-10 has anti-inflammatory and CD8+ T-cell stimulating activities. Pegilodecakin (pegylated IL-10) is a first-in-class, long-acting IL-10 receptor agonist that induces oligoclonal T-cell expansion and has single-agent activity in advanced solid tumours. We assessed the safety and activity of pegilodecakin with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody inhibitors in patients with advanced solid tumours.

Methods: We did a multicentre, multicohort, open-label, phase 1b trial (IVY) at 12 cancer research centres in the USA. Patients were assigned sequentially into cohorts. Here, we report on all enrolled patients from two cohorts treated with pegilodecakin combined with anti-PD-1 inhibitors. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced malignant solid tumours refractory to previous therapies, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients with uncontrolled infectious diseases were excluded. Pegilodecakin was provided in single-use 3 mL vials and was self-administered subcutaneously by injection at home at 10 μg/kg or 20 μg/kg once per day in combination with pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 200 mg every 3 weeks) or nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks at the approved dosing), both of which were given intravenously at the study site. Patients received pembrolizumab or nivolumab with pegilodecakin until disease progression, toxicity necessitating treatment discontinuation, patient withdrawal of consent, or study end. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, assessed in all patients enrolled in the study who received any amount of study medication including at least one dose of pegilodecakin, and pharmacokinetics (previously published). Secondary endpoints included objective response by immune-related response criteria in all patients who were treated and had evaluable measurements. The study is active but no longer recruiting, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02009449.

Findings: Between Feb 13, 2015, and Sept 12, 2017, 111 patients were enrolled in the two cohorts. 53 received pegilodecakin plus pembrolizumab, and 58 received pegilodecakin plus nivolumab. 34 (31%) of 111 patients had non-small-cell lung cancer, 37 (33%) had melanoma, and 38 (34%) had renal cell carcinoma; one (<1%) patient had triple-negative breast cancer and one (<1%) had bladder cancer. Data cutoff was July 1, 2018. Median follow-up was 26·9 months (IQR 22·3-31·5) for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, 33·0 months (29·2-35·1) for those with melanoma, and 22·7 months (20·9-27·0) for those with renal cell carcinoma. At least one treatment-related adverse event occurred in 103 (93%) of 111 patients. Grade 3 or 4 events occurred in 73 (66%) of 111 patients (35 [66%] of 53 in the pembrolizumab group and 38 [66%] of 58 in the nivolumab group), the most common of which were anaemia (12 [23%] in the pembrolizumab group and 16 [28%] in the nivolumab group), thrombocytopenia (14 [26%] in the pembrolizumab group and 12 [21%] in the nivolumab group), fatigue (11 [21%] in the pembrolizumab group and 6 [10%] in the nivolumab group) and hypertriglyceridaemia (three [6%] in the pembrolizumab group and eight [14%] in the nivolumab group). There were no fatal adverse events determined to be related to the study treatments. Of the patients evaluable for response, objective responses were 12 (43%) of 28 (non-small-cell lung cancer), three (10%) of 31 (melanoma), and 14 (40%) of 35 (renal cell carcinoma).

Interpretation: In this patient population, pegilodecakin with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies had a manageable toxicity profile and preliminary antitumour activity. Pegilodecakin with pembrolizumab or nivolumab could provide a new therapeutic opportunity for previously treated patients with renal cell carcinoma and non-small-cell carcinoma.

Funding: ARMO BioSciences, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30514-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436252PMC
November 2019

A phase Ib, open-label, dose-escalation study of the safety and pharmacology of taselisib (GDC-0032) in combination with either docetaxel or paclitaxel in patients with HER2-negative, locally advanced, or metastatic breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019 Nov 31;178(1):121-133. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: This open-label, phase Ib, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion study (NCT01862081) evaluated taselisib with a taxane in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (BC) and/or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Patients received taselisib (2-6 mg tablet or 3-6 mg capsule) plus docetaxel or paclitaxel. Primary endpoints were safety, dose-limiting toxicities, maximum tolerated dose, and identification of a recommended phase II dose. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity assessment.

Results: Eighty patients (BC: 72; NSCLC: 7; BC/NSCLC: 1) were enrolled (docetaxel-receiving arms: 21; paclitaxel-receiving arms: 59). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and AEs leading to death were reported in 90.5%, 42.9%, and 14.3% of patients, respectively (docetaxel-receiving arms), and 78.9%, 40.4%, and 3.5% of patients, respectively (paclitaxel-receiving arms). Eight patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities. The maximum tolerated dose was exceeded with 3 mg taselisib (capsule) for 21 consecutive days plus 75 mg/m docetaxel and not exceeded with 6 mg taselisib (tablet) for 5 days on/2 days off plus 80 mg/m paclitaxel. Objective response rates and clinical benefit rates were 35.0% and 45.0%, respectively (docetaxel-receiving arms), and 20.4% and 27.8%, respectively (paclitaxel-receiving arms). Exposure for paclitaxel or docetaxel plus taselisib was consistent with the single agents.

Conclusions: Taselisib in combination with a taxane has a challenging safety profile. Despite evidence of antitumor activity, the benefit-risk profile was deemed not advantageous. Further development is not planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-019-05360-3DOI Listing
November 2019

Pharmacokinetic characteristics of vactosertib, a new activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors in a first-in-human phase 1 study.

Invest New Drugs 2020 06 13;38(3):812-820. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Purposes Vactosertib is a new investigational inhibitor of activin receptor-like kinase 5. The objective of this study was to characterize vactosertib pharmacokinetics that are to be applied for subsequent clinical studies. Methods Vactosertib plasma concentration-time data were obtained from a multicenter, dose-escalation, first-in-human phase 1 study conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. Each patient orally received a fixed dose of vactosertib with the range of 30 mg to 340 mg once daily under fasted condition. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a non-compartmental method. Results Pharmacokinetic data were evaluable in 29 patients. Vactosertib was rapidly absorbed after the first dose with a median time to maximum concentration (t) of 1.2 h (interquartile range, 0.8-1.8 h) and quickly eliminated with a median terminal half-life (t) of 3.2 h (2.2-4.2 h) over the dose range studied. Such trend was also observed after repeated doses for five days (median t, 1.5 h; median t, 3.0 h). The area under the concentration-time curve within a dosing interval increased in proportion to dose. The median values of apparent clearance and volume of distribution were 29 L/h (21-44 L/h) and 133 L (77-222 L), respectively. The median accumulation ratio after repeated once-daily doses for five days was 0.87 (0.69-1.07). Conclusions Vactosertib pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional within tested dose range with negligible accumulation when administered once daily for five days. Considering the short half-life, it seems necessary to administer vactosertib twice- or thrice-daily to maintain its concentrations above minimum effective level over a dosing interval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00835-yDOI Listing
June 2020

Phase I, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation Study of the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Efficacy of GSK2879552 in Relapsed/Refractory SCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 10 28;14(10):1828-1838. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Introduction: This first-time-in-humans study assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and clinical activity of GSK2879552 in patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC.

Methods: This phase I, multicenter, open-label study (NCT02034123) enrolled patients (≥18 years old) with relapsed or refractory SCLC (after ≥1 platinum-containing chemotherapy or refusal of standard therapy). Part 1 was a dose-escalation study; Part 2 was a dose-expansion study. Dose escalations were based on safety, PK, and PD. The primary end point (Part 1) was to determine the safety, tolerability, and recommended dose and regimen of GSK2879552. Secondary end points were to characterize PK and PD parameters and measure disease control rate at week 16. Part 2 was not conducted.

Results: Between February 4, 2014, and April 18, 2017, a total of 29 patients were allocated to one of nine dose cohorts (0.25 mg-3 mg once daily and 3-mg or 4-mg intermittent dosing). In all, 22 patients completed the study; 7 withdrew, primarily owing to adverse events (AEs). Most patients (24 of 29 [83%]) had at least one treatment-related AE, most commonly thrombocytopenia (12 of 29 [41%]). Twelve serious AEs (SAEs) were reported by nine patients; six were considered treatment related, the most common of which was encephalopathy (four SAEs). Three patients died; one death was related to SAEs. PK was characterized by rapid absorption, slow elimination, and a dose-proportional increase in exposure.

Conclusions: GSK2879552 is a potent, selective inhibitor of lysine demethylase 1A and has demonstrated favorable PK properties but provided poor disease control and a high AE rate in patients with SCLC. The study was terminated, as the risk-benefit profile did not favor continuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.06.021DOI Listing
October 2019
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