Publications by authors named "Todd A Milbrandt"

84 Publications

Inter- and intra-rater reliability and accuracy of Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System when used by surgeons performing vertebral body tethering.

Spine Deform 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Pediatric orthopedic surgeons must accurately assess the skeletal stage of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients for selection and timing of optimal treatment. Successful treatment using vertebral growth modulation is highly dependent on skeletal growth remaining. We sought to evaluate the current-state use of the Sanders Skeletal Maturity System (SSMS) in regard to precision and accuracy. We hypothesized that pediatric orthopedic surgeons currently use SSMS with moderate precision and accuracy.

Methods: Eight practicing pediatric orthopedic surgeons who perform vertebral body tethering surgery without specific training in SSMS were asked to assign the SSMS stage for 34 de-identified hand radiographs from AIS patients. Precision was evaluated as inter-rater reliability, using both Krippendorff's α and Weighted Cohen's kappa statistics, and as intra-rater reliability, using only Weighted Cohen's kappa statistics. Surgeon accuracy was evaluated using Weighted Cohen's kappa statistics with comparison of surveyed surgeons' responses to the gold standard rating.

Results: Inter-rater reliability across the surveyed surgeons indicated moderate to substantial agreement using both statistical methods (α = 0.766, κ = 0.627) with the majority of discord occurring when assigning SSMS stages 2 through 4. The surveyed surgeons displayed substantial accuracy when compared to the gold standard (κ = 0.627) with the majority of inaccuracy involving the identification of stage 3B. When re-surveyed, the surgeons showed substantial intra-rater reliability (κ = 0.71) with increased inconsistencies when deciding between SSMS stage 3A and stage 3B.

Conclusion: The current-state use of SSMS across pediatric orthopedic surgeons for evaluation of AIS patients displays adequate but imperfect precision and accuracy with difficulties delineating SSMS stages 2 through 4, which correlate with adolescent growth periods germane to scoliosis growth modulation surgery. Centralized assessment of hand-bone age may help ensure standardized reporting for non-fusion scoliosis research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00386-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Measurable Thoracic Motion Remains at 1 Year Following Anterior Vertebral Body Tethering, with Sagittal Motion Greater Than Coronal Motion.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Anterior vertebral body tethering is an alternative to fusion surgery for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) that is purported to preserve spinal motion. There is limited information regarding the measurable motion that is maintained over the instrumented levels following thoracic anterior vertebral body tethering surgery in humans. The purpose of the present study was to assess radiographic spinal motion 1 year after anterior vertebral body tethering.

Methods: As part of a prospective U.S. Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study, 32 patients were treated with thoracic anterior vertebral body tethering. At 1 year postoperatively, patients were evaluated with standing flexion-extension and side-bending radiographs in a microdose biplanar slot scanning imaging system. The angle subtended by the screws at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) was measured on left and right-bending radiographs to evaluate the coronal arc of motion and was compared with preoperative values over the same levels. At 1 year postoperatively, the sagittal Cobb angle was measured over the instrumented levels on flexion and extension radiographs.

Results: Side-bending radiographs revealed that the mean angle subtended by the screws changed from 15° ± 8° on left-bending radiographs to 8° ± 6° on right-bending radiographs. The mean coronal arc of motion on bending was 7° ± 6°, with 20 (62.5%) of 32 patients having a coronal arc of motion of >5°. The mean preoperative coronal arc of motion over the instrumented segments was 30° ± 9°. On flexion-extension lateral radiographs made at 1 year postoperatively, the mean kyphotic angle over the instrumented segments was 33° ± 13° in flexion and 11° ± 14° in extension, for a mean postoperative arc of motion of 21° ± 12° between flexion and extension radiographs.

Conclusions: At 1 year following thoracic anterior vertebral body tethering for the treatment of AIS, the thoracic spine showed a measurable range of coronal and sagittal plane motion over the instrumented levels without evidence of complete autofusion. Motion in the coronal plane decreased by 77% following anterior vertebral body tethering. These findings provide proof of concept that sagittal spinal motion is preserved after thoracic anterior vertebral body tethering, although the functional importance remains to be determined.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01533DOI Listing
July 2021

Thoracic paravertebral nerve catheter reduces postoperative opioid use for vertebral body tethering patients.

Spine Deform 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose: Vertebral body tethering is increasingly being performed, yet postoperative pain management has not yet been optimized. We sought to determine whether the addition of a thoracic paravertebral block in addition to a standard multimodal postoperative pain management program could provide greater pain relief, reduced analgesic requirement, and reduced length of stay.

Methods: Patients who underwent VBT at a single tertiary referral center were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received a single-shot intrathecal (IT) injection at the completion of the procedure in addition to a standardized multimodal pain management program. 45 patients received a thoracic paravertebral catheter with lidocaine infusion (TPVB) which was left in place for 4-6 days, whereas 24 control patients did not have a TPVB. Length of stay, maximum postoperative Numeric Pain Intensity Scale (NPIS), and total dose of opioids, ibuprofen, ketorolac and acetaminophen administered during hospitalization were evaluated.

Results: 69 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean cumulative dose of opioids administered during hospitalization was 148 oral morphine milligram equivalent (MME) in the control group vs. 47 MME in the TPVB group (p < 0.0001). Severe postoperative NPIS of ≥ 7 was reported in 9 out of the 24 control patients (38%) and in 13 out of the 45 patients (29%) who received a TPVB in addition to the standardized care (p = 0.46). There was no significant difference in the mean cumulative dose of NSAIDs (ibuprofen, ketorolac) consumed by the control group compared to the TPVB group (2632 mg vs. 1630 mg, p = 0.77). Mean length of stay in the control group was 3.8 vs. 3.0 days in the TPVB group (p < 0.001). There were no major complications associated with use of the TPVB.

Conclusion: In this series compared to controls, patients treated with a TPVB had reduced postoperative requirement of opioids and decreased length of hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00381-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Trends in Incidence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Modern US Population-based Study.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jul;41(6):327-332

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: A successful disease screening strategy requires a high incidence of the condition, efficacy of early treatment, and efficient detection. There is limited population-based data describing trends in incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the United States and potential role of school screening programs on the incidence of AIS. Thus, we sought to evaluate the incidence of AIS over a 20-year period between 1994 and 2013 using a population-based cohort.

Methods: The study population comprised 1782 adolescents (aged 10 to 18 y) with AIS first diagnosed between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2013. The complete medical records and radiographs were reviewed to confirm diagnosis and coronal Cobb angles at first diagnosis. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States population. Poisson regression analyses were performed to examine incidence trends by age, sex, and calendar period.

Results: The overall age-adjusted and sex-adjusted annual incidence of AIS was 522.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 498.2, 546.8] per 100,000 person-years. Incidence was about 2-fold higher in females than in males (732.3 vs. 338.8/100,000, P<0.05). The incidence of newly diagnosed AIS cases with radiographs showing a Cobb angle >10 degrees was 181.7 (95% CI: 167.5, 196.0) per 100,000 person-years. The overall incidence of AIS decreased significantly after discontinuation of school screening in 2004 (P<0.001). The incidence of bracing and surgery at initial diagnosis was 16.6 (95% CI: 12.3, 20.9) and 2.0 (95% CI: 0.5, 3.4) per 100,000 person-years, respectively.

Conclusions: Overall population-based incidence of AIS decreased after school screening was discontinued. However, incidence of patients with a Cobb angle >10 degrees, initiation of bracing and surgery did not change significantly over time. This provides further data to help determine the role of scoliosis screening.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001808DOI Listing
July 2021

Defining the learning curve in CT-guided navigated thoracoscopic vertebral body tethering.

Spine Deform 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN, USA.

Estimated blood loss (EBL), anesthesia time, operative time, and length of stay decreased over 67 navigated vertebral body tethering (VBT) surgeries performed in a 5-year period, indicating a steep learning curve.

Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data.

Hypothesis: There would be a significant improvement in the performance of VBT procedures over time at a single tertiary center in terms of perioperative and postoperative outcomes.

Purpose: Learning a new procedure for surgeons takes time, and previous studies have described improved efficiency as experience grows. VBT procedures are increasingly being performed in the US, but there is limited data regarding the learning curve specifically regarding the use of CT-guided navigation. We sought to assess the learning curve of VBT with respect to estimated blood loss, anesthesia time, operative time, length of stay, percent correction of the major curve at first follow-up. We further sought to characterize change in rates of 90-day complications.

Methods: Pediatric scoliosis patients who underwent thoracic or lumbar CT-guided navigated VBT with a consistent surgical team at a single tertiary referral center between 2015 and 2020 were included. Student t-test was used to assess change in perioperative parameters over time, and also results between first and latest group of 20 patients were compared.

Results: 67 patients met inclusion criteria. Estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time, anesthesia time and length of stay significantly decreased over the 5-year study period. Specifically, on comparison of our first 20 patients with our last 20, the former had greater EBL (282 vs 116 ml, p = 0.0005; 8.5% vs 3.6%, p = 0.0024), operative time (4.8 h vs. 3.3 h, p < 0.001), anesthesia time (7.4 h vs. 5.7 h, p = 0.0001), and length of stay (3.7 days vs. 3.2 days, p = 0.019). We also found significant reduction in EBL, operative time, anesthesia time and LOS in patients who underwent VBT surgery after 2019. There was no significant change in the percent correction of the major Cobb angle at first erect imaging or 90-day complications over the 5-year study period or between the various cohorts.

Conclusion: This series has demonstrated improvements in surgical efficiency for VBT including reduced EBL, operative time, anesthesia time and hospital stay over a 5-year period. This indicates improved surgical technique and outlines the significant learning curve for surgeons who wish to perform this procedure. Improved surgeon training programs and newer instrumentation may reduce this learning curve.

Take Home Point: 67 cases in a 5-year period, VBT procedures performed at a single center had significantly decreased EBL, anesthesia time, operative time, and length of stay, indicating a steep learning curve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00364-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Comparison of slot-scanning standing, supine, and fulcrum radiographs for assessment of curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study.

Spine Deform 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose: With the goal of reducing radiation dosing for patients, we sought to compare the results of slot-scanning (EOS) standing flexibility radiographs to supine bending and fulcrum radiographs for surgical planning in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We hypothesized that slot-scanning standing bending radiographs provide similar mean curve flexibility as supine bending and fulcrum radiographs.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of 224 AIS patients with concomitant upright standing and flexibility images. Curve flexibility, defined the percent change in Cobb angle from standing upright to flexibility images, was used to compare the results of slot-scanning standing, supine and fulcrum radiographs. Statistical analysis utilized ANOVA one-way tests and two-sample t tests to detail differences as indicated.

Results: A total of 256 imaging studies were included, 75 slot-scanning standing, 112 supine, and 69 fulcrum radiographs. Fulcrum images only investigated thoracic curves and were, therefore, excluded from proximal thoracic and lumbar flexibility comparisons. Relevant mean standing curve magnitudes were similar between the groups with some variance in thoracic curves between fulcrum and supine image series (p = 0.003). There was no statistical difference in curve flexibility for proximal thoracic curves (p = 0.389) and lumbar curves (p = 0.798). However, for thoracic curves, slot-scanning standing images result in less measured curve flexibility compared to supine (p = 1.00E-7) and fulcrum images (p = 2.84E-18). Furthermore, supine bending images resulted in less measured curve flexibility in comparison to fulcrum images (p = 2.85E-7).

Conclusion: Slot-scanning standing bending films show comparable results in curve flexibility as supine bending films for proximal thoracic and lumbar curves but may show reduced flexibility for thoracic curves when compared to supine or fulcrum bending films. Given lower radiation dosing, slot-scanning films could be substituted for traditional supine films for assessment of proximal thoracic and lumbar curve flexibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00349-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Anterior Vertebral Body Tethering for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Early Results and Future Directions.

Orthop Clin North Am 2021 Apr;52(2):137-147

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Anterior vertebral body tether (AVBT) is a nonfusion surgical procedure for correction of scoliosis in skeletally immature individuals. With US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2019, AVBT technology is spreading and early to midterm reports are being published. Early clinical reports are promising while precise indications, outcomes, complication profiles, and best practices are being established. Patients who are skeletally immature and wish to avoid a fusion surgery may benefit from this procedure. This article highlights the translational science foundation, early to midterm clinical reports, and future directions for this growing technique in pediatric spinal deformity surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2021.01.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Does preoperative and intraoperative imaging for anterior vertebral body tethering predict postoperative correction?

Spine Deform 2021 May 22;9(3):743-750. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: Anterior vertebral body tethering (AVBT) is an emerging approach for idiopathic scoliosis. However, overcorrection and under-correction are common causes of revision surgery, and intraoperative tensioning of the cord is one key component to achieve appropriate curve correction. We sought to determine whether preoperative flexibility radiographs or intraoperative radiographs would predict correction at first erect imaging for scoliosis patients undergoing anterior vertebral body tethering (AVBT).

Methods: Single-center retrospective review. Fifty-one patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis underwent anterior body tethering. Preoperative flexibility films and intraoperative radiographs were compared to first erect standing radiographs to determine if there was a correlation in Cobb angle.

Results: Preoperative major Cobb angle measured 52° ± 9°. Major Cobb angle on bending films was 24° ± 8°. Intraoperative imaging showed correction to a mean of 17° ± 8°. Postoperative first erect standing radiographs showed correction to a mean of 26° ± 10°. The mean difference in major Cobb angle between intraoperative radiograph and a first erect radiograph was 10° ± 4°, whereas the mean difference from preoperative bending radiograph at first erect was 2° ± 7°. Thus, correction on preoperative flexibility films correlated with the first erect radiograph.

Conclusion: Preoperative bending radiographs provide a reasonable estimate of postoperative correction for patients undergoing AVBT with tensioning of the cord. Surgeons should expect the major Cobb angle to increase on first erect radiographs compared to intraoperative radiographs. These findings may guide patient selection and assist surgeons in achieving appropriate correction intraoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00267-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Characteristics and reoperation rates of paediatric tarsal coalitions: a population-based study.

J Child Orthop 2020 Dec;14(6):537-543

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Purpose: Tarsal coalitions are congenital fusions of two or more tarsal bones and can lead to foot pain and stiffness. Few studies examine the long-term reoperation rates following paediatric tarsal coalition surgery.

Methods: A population-based database, linking medical records at all medical centres to capture the entire medical history of the full population of a Midwest county, was used to identify tarsal coalitions in children between 1966 and 2018. Records were reviewed for clinical data, surgical records and followed up to identify any subsequent surgical interventions.

Results: A total of 58 patients (85 coalitions) were identified; 46 calcaneonavicular (CN) coalitions, 30 talocalcaneal (TC) coalitions and nine other coalitions (seven talonavicular, one naviculocuboid, one naviculocuneiform). In all, 46 coalitions were treated surgically (43 coalition resections, three arthrodeses) and 39 were treated nonoperatively. Patients treated surgically were less likely to report ongoing symptoms at final follow-up compared with patients managed nonoperatively (33% 67%; p = 0.0017). With a median 14.4 years (interquartile range 9.3 to 19.7) follow-up, there was an overall re-operation rate of 8.7% (4/46). Differences in reoperation rates by initial surgery (resection arthrodesis; p = 0.2936), coalition type (CN TC Other; p = 0.6487) or composition (osseous fibrocartilaginous; p = 0.29) did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: This is the first population-based study demonstrating the durability of surgical management of tarsal coalitions in a paediatric population. At final follow-up, patients treated surgically are less likely to report persistent symptoms compared with patients managed nonoperatively. Long-term reoperation rates appear to be low (8.7%).

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.14.200177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7740685PMC
December 2020

Is the axial spinal cord classification predictive of intraoperative neurologic alert for pediatric scoliosis patients? An independent retrospective validation study.

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 17;9(2):395-401. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose: We sought to determine whether the axial spinal cord classification by Sielatycki et al. would be associated with increased intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) alerts for pediatric scoliosis patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery.

Methods: Children less than age 19 with scoliosis undergoing PSF were retrospectively reviewed. Axial-T2 MRI of the thoracic apex was reviewed for spinal cord/CSF architecture as described by Sielatycki et al.: Type 1-circular cord with visible CSF, Type 2-circular cord but no visible CSF at apical concavity, and Type 3-cord deformed with no intervening CSF. Intraoperative neuromonitoring reports, operative records and preoperative radiographs were reviewed.

Results: 90 patients met the inclusion criteria. Rate of neurologic events was Type 1: 2% (1/41 patients), Type 2: 14.3% (4/28), Type 3: 57.1% (12/21) (Type 1 vs 2 p = 0.06; Type 1 vs 3 p < 0.0001; Type 2 vs 3 p = 0.0017). Three patients with a Type 3 cord awoke with significant deficits. In comparison to Type 1 cords, Type 3 and Type 2 spinal cords were associated with increased coronal and total deformity angular ratios (Type 1 vs 3 p = 0.035 and 0.0054 respectively; Type 1 vs 2 p = 0.042 and 0.03 respectively). There was no difference in gender, diagnosis category, age at surgery, Cobb angle or kyphosis between the three groups.

Conclusion: The axial spinal cord classification correlated with IONM alerts and greater severity of spinal deformity in pediatric scoliosis patients.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00241-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Incidence of Symptomatic Pediatric Tarsal Coalition in Olmsted County: A Population-Based Study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jan;103(2):155-161

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Tarsal coalitions are an important reason for foot pain in children. Early estimates placed the prevalence at up to 2%, while more recent data suggest that it is as high as 11% to 13%. To our knowledge, there have been no population-based studies to determine the true incidence of symptomatic tarsal coalitions in a pediatric population.

Methods: A population-based database was used to identify all new diagnoses of symptomatic tarsal coalitions in children 18 years old or younger between 1966 and 2018. Patient records were reviewed for clinical data, and comparisons were made between the types and characteristics of the coalitions identified to determine differences in the affected populations. The annual age-specific, sex-specific, and type-specific incidence rates were estimated.

Results: During the study period, 58 patients with a total of 79 symptomatic tarsal coalitions were identified (annual incidence = 3.5 per 100,000 children). There were 43 calcaneonavicular (CN) coalitions (annual incidence = 1.9 per 100,000 children), 27 talocalcaneal (TC) coalitions (annual incidence = 1.2 per 100,000 children), as well as 9 other coalitions (7 talonavicular, 1 naviculocuboid, and 1 naviculocuneiform) (annual incidence = 0.4 per 100,000 children). The overall incidence peaked between the ages of 10 and 14 years for both boys and girls (8.1 per 100,000 and 7.4 per 100,000 children, respectively). Statistical differences were identified between the types of tarsal coalitions. TC coalitions present at an older age relative to CN and other coalitions (mean,13.9, 12.7, and 11.4 years, respectively; p = 0.02). While CN and TC coalitions were similar in composition (23% and 30%, respectively, were osseous as opposed to fibrocartilaginous), other coalitions were more likely to be osseous (78%) (p = 0.0035). Other coalitions were also less likely to require surgery than CN and TC coalitions (11%, 74%, and 56%, respectively; p = 0.0015).

Conclusions: This population-based study demonstrates differences in the clinical presentation of tarsal coalitions and provides an estimate of the true incidence of symptomatic tarsal coalitions in a pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00707DOI Listing
January 2021

Meniscus repairs in the adolescent population-safe and reliable outcomes: a systematic review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Nov 26;28(11):3587-3596. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of meniscus repair in the adolescent population, including: (1) failure and reoperation rates, (2) clinical and functional results, and (3) activity-related outcomes including return to sport.

Methods: Two authors independently searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials & Cochrane Library, and CINHAL databases for literature related to meniscus repair in an adolescent population according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. No meta-analysis was performed in this qualitative systematic review.

Results: Thirteen studies, including no Level I, one Level II, one Level III, and eleven Level IV studies yielded 466 patients with 503 meniscus repairs. All defined meniscal re-tear as a primary endpoint, with a reported failure rate ranging from 0 to 42% at a follow-up ranging from 22 to 211 months. There were a total of 93 failed repairs. IKDC scores were reported in four studies with a mean improvement ranging from 24 to 42 (P < 0.001). Mean post-operative Lysholm scores were reported in seven studies, ranging from 85 to 96. Additionally, four of those studies provided mean pre-operative Lysholm scores, ranging from 56 to 79, with statistically significant mean score improvements ranging from 17 to 31. Mean post-operative Tegner Activity scores were reported in nine studies, with mean values ranging from 6.2 to 8.

Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates that both subjective and clinical outcomes, including failure rate, Lysholm, IKDC, and Tegner activity scale scores, are good to excellent following meniscal repair in the adolescent population. Further investigations should aim to isolate tear type, location, surgical technique, concomitant procedures, and rehabilitation protocols to overall rate of failure and clinical and functional outcomes.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06287-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654713PMC
November 2020

Accelerometer based assessment of daily physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(9):e0238181. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States of America.

Background: Studies have shown a positive correlation between higher physical activity (PA) and health benefits. However, device-based assessment of PA and sedentary time (ST) in people with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has not been deeply investigated.

Objective: Analysis and comparison of weekend and weekdays PA and ST using multiple accelerometers in people with AIS with different curvature severity compared to healthy controls.

Methods: 24 participants with AIS divided into 2 groups of 12 with Cobb angles < 40° and > 40°, along with 12 age and BMI matched healthy controls. Daily PA and ST during four consecutive days were measured using four tri-axial accelerometers. Clinical functional assessment was performed using the scoliosis research society (SRS-22) questionnaire.

Results: The combined weekend and weekdays average daily step count was found to be 22% and 29% lower in the AIS groups with Cobb angle < 40° and > 40°, respectively, compared to the controls. The average ST was also reported to be 5% and 7% higher in the AIS groups with Cobb angle < 40° and > 40°, respectively, compared to the controls. The reported differences were significant in the AIS group with higher Cobb angle (p≤0.05). No significant differences in PA or ST were reported between the AIS groups based on curvature severity.

Conclusions: Decreased PA and increased ST observed in patients with AIS may have long term health implications and may play a role in the disease process. The device-based assessment of PA to understand potential benefits in clinical practice is recommended.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238181PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467220PMC
October 2020

Vertebra Plana in Children May Result from Etiologies Other Than Eosinophilic Granuloma.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 10;478(10):2367-2374

F. Baky, T. A. Milbrandt, C. Arndt, M. T. Houdek, A. N. Larson, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USA.

Background: Vertebra plana in children is a diagnostic dilemma for orthopaedic surgeons. This radiographic finding sometimes has been said to be pathognomonic for eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis); however, vertebra plana may also be caused by a range of other conditions. We sought to determine whether vertebra plana can be associated with malignancies other than eosinophilic granuloma.

Questions/purposes: (1) To report the underlying diagnoses for children with vertebra plana and determine how frequently these patients were found to have eosinophilic granuloma as opposed to an underlying malignant process, (2) to evaluate the occurrence of nondiagnostic results on biopsy, and (3) to determine whether the presenting characteristics of spinal lesions were associated with the ultimate clinical diagnosis.

Methods: As part of a retrospective review, our institutional electronic medical record was searched for all patients younger than 18 years between 1976 and 2017 whose clinical record included the term vertebra plana. Patients with trauma were excluded. Twenty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria (mean [range] age 9 years [0 to 18]; 12 girls). To address our first research purpose about the underlying diagnoses of patients with vertebra plana, we reviewed the final clinical diagnosis. To address our second research purpose about the utility of biopsy, we reviewed which patients underwent a biopsy and whether it had been diagnostic. To address our third research purpose about the radiographic criteria, we classified the radiographs and compared this to the clinical diagnosis. Vertebral collapse was described as less than 50% collapse, 50% to 100% collapse, symmetrical, and asymmetrical. The location of each lesion was noted.

Results: Twelve of 27 patients had a diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Six of 27 had other neoplastic etiologies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, primary germ cell tumor, giant cell tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma and teratoma. Seventeen of 27 patients underwent biopsy to confirm the diagnosis; six biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic granuloma, six for other etiologies, and five were nondiagnostic. With the limited patient numbers available, there was no difference in the frequency of less than 50% loss of height or 50% to 100%, or symmetric and asymmetric loss of height, and location of the lesion among patients with eosinophilic granuloma and those with other diagnoses.

Conclusions: Eosinophilic granuloma or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a common cause of vertebra plana, but other causes must be considered in children presenting with this radiographic finding. Six of 27 of patients presenting to our center with vertebra plana had an underlying neoplasm other than eosinophilic granuloma. With the limited patient numbers available, pain, spinal location, and the degree and symmetry of collapse were not associated with a diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma in this series. Thus, patients presenting with vertebral plana and back pain need a comprehensive work-up and potentially tissue biopsy to determine diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491903PMC
October 2020

Does Shorter Time to Treatment of Pediatric Femur Shaft Fractures Impact Clinical Outcomes?

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 Jul;40(6):e435-e439

Division of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Annual rankings by US News and World Report are a widely utilized metric by both health care leaders and patients. One longstanding measure is time to treatment of femur shaft fractures. Hospitals able to provide at least 80% of pediatric patients with an operating room start time within 18 hours of admission to the emergency department score better as part of the overall pediatric orthopaedic ranking. Therefore, it is important to determine whether the 18-hour treatment time for pediatric femur shaft fractures is a clinically meaningful metric.

Methods: A retrospective review of clinical outcomes of 174 pediatric patients (aged below 16 y) with isolated femur shaft fractures (Injury Severity Score=9) was conducted from 1997 to 2017 at a single level I pediatric trauma center. The 2 comparison groups were patients receiving fracture reduction within 18 hours of emergency department admission (N=87) or >18 hours (N=87).

Results: Patient, injury, and surgical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Both groups had a similar mean age (treatment <18 h=7.5 y; treatment >18 h=8.1 y). Patients who received treatment within 18 hours were more often immobilized postoperatively (70.1% vs. 53.5%; P=0.0362) and had a shorter median hospital length of stay (2 vs. 3 d; P=0.0047). There were no statistically significant differences in any outcomes including surgical site infection, time to weight-bearing (treatment <18 h mean=48.1 d vs. 52.5 d), time to complete radiographic fracture healing (treatment <18 h mean=258.9 d vs. 232.0 d), decreased range of motion, genu varus/valgus, limb length discrepancy, loss of reduction, or persistent pain.

Conclusions: Treatment of pediatric femur shaft fractures within 18 hours does not impact clinical outcomes. National quality measures should therefore use evidence-based metrics to help improve the standard of care.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283976PMC
July 2020

Predictors of cost for posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Spine Deform 2020 06 24;8(3):421-426. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Study Design: Single-center retrospective review of pediatric patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Objective: To determine what clinical and operative factors influence inflation-adjusted hospital costs of posterior spine fusion surgery for AIS. With rising healthcare costs and the advent of bundled payments, it is essential understand the predictors of costs for surgical procedures. We sought to determine the components of hospital costs for AIS posterior spine fusion surgery using standardized, inflation-adjusted, line-item costs for services and procedures.

Methods: The study population comprised 148 AIS patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery at a large tertiary care center between 2009 and 2016. Data on medical characteristics, curve type, curve magnitude, number of screws and the number of levels was collected through manual chart review of X-rays and medical records. Hospital costs from admission until discharge were retrieved from an institutional database that contained line-item details of all procedures and services billed during the hospital episode. Bottom-up microcosting valuation techniques were used to generate standardized inflation-adjusted estimates of costs and standard deviations in 2016 dollars.

Results: Mean cost of AIS surgery was $48,058 ± 9379. Physician fees averaged 15% of the total cost ($7045 ± 1732). Implant costs and surgical/anesthesia/surgeon's fees accounted for over 70% of the hospital costs. Mean number of screws was 16 ± 4.5, mean number of levels fused was 11.2 ± 2.2, and the mean implant density (screws per level fused) was 1.45 ± 0.35. On multivariate analysis, the number of screws per level fused, number of levels fused, curve magnitude and length of stay were all significantly associated with hospital costs (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Bundled payments for AIS surgery should include adjustments for number of levels fused and curve size. Areas for cost savings include further reduction in implant costs, shortening length of stay, and reducing intraoperative costs.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00053-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Topical vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection in a rat spinal implant model.

Spine Deform 2020 08 20;8(4):553-559. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Division of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Study Design: Basic science.

Objective: Investigate the ability of local applicaiton of vancomycin, either in powder form or suspended within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (MS), to treat infection using a rat spinal model. Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a serious complication after spine surgery and are associated with high morbidity and mortality and often caused my coagulase negative staphylococci. A comprehensive approach to reduce SSIs has been recommended including the use of topical vancomycin. Animal and human studies have shown improved control of infection with local compared to systemic antibiotics.

Methods: K-wires seeded with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (MRSE) were treated with vancomycin powder, carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (microsphere carrier), vancomycin powder, blank MS or vancomycin-loaded MS for 24 or 48 h in vitro after which bacteria were enumerated. In addition, a spinal instrumentation model was developed in rats with a bacterial seeded K-wire implanted into the right side of L4 and L5. Rats underwent no treatment or were treated locally with either vancomycin powder, blank MS or vancomycin-loaded MS. After 8 weeks, the K-wire, bone, soft tissue and wire fastener were cultured and results analyzed.

Results: Vancomycin powder and vancomycin-loaded MS resulted in significantly fewer bacteria remaining in vitro than did CMC. Vancomycin powder- treated animals' cultures were significantly lower than all other groups (P < 0.0001) with negative culture results, except for one animal. The vancomycin-loaded MS-treated animals had lower bone bacterial counts than the controls (P < 0.0279); blank MS-treated animals had no differences in bacterial densities when compared to non-treated animals.

Conclusion: Vancomycin powder and vancomycin-loaded MS were active against MRSE in vitro, in a rat MRSE implant model; however, vancomycin MS were inferior to the topical vancomycin powder. Vancomycin powder prevented MRSE infection in a rat spinal implant infection model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00087-4DOI Listing
August 2020

Lower Extremity Fractures in Children: How to Avoid Pitfalls and Manage Complications.

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:427-442

One in three children in the United States will sustain a fracture before the age of 16 years, and nearly one of every four pediatric visits is for a lower extremity musculoskeletal complaint. Clinicians should be familiar with the epidemiology, management, and complications of pediatric pelvis, hip, femur, tibia, and ankle fractures.
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February 2020

Fractures Around the Knee in Children.

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:463-472

Knee injuries are common in children, but epiphyseal and physeal injuries involving the distal femur and proximal tibia are relatively rare. This can make diagnosis and evaluation of pediatric knee injuries challenging. Pediatric knee physeal injuries can also be complicated by vascular injuries with potentially devastating consequences, and thus, a heightened suspicion for these injuries is indicated. Distal femoral and proximal tibial physeal injuries can be diagnosed with plain radiographs or with advanced imaging if the initial findings are equivocal. Physeal fractures of the distal femur and proximal tibia can be managed nonsurgically if nondisplaced or surgically with cannulated screw fixation or smooth, percutaneous pin fixation. Tibial tubercle injuries can have point tenderness or an extensor lag, are diagnosed with plain radiographs, and are often managed with physeal-sparing cannulated screw fixation. These injuries have an increased risk of compartment syndrome. Tibial eminence fractures are epiphyseal avulsion injuries caused by traction from the anterior cruciate ligament. Arthroscopic and open techniques for reduction and stable fixation yield good outcomes. Patellar sleeve injuries are often misdiagnosed and may require advanced imaging for diagnosis. They represent pediatric extensor mechanism injuries that often necessitate open reduction and fixation or patellar tendon advancement. Understanding the relevant anatomy, diagnosis, and management options can help guide the treating physician in the management of the fractures of the pediatric knee.
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February 2020

Femoral Shaft Fractures in Pediatric Patients: An Algorithm for Success.

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:453-462

Femoral shaft fractures in children are common injuries requiring orthopaedic intervention. Options for management have expanded in the past several decades to include an array of surgical and nonsurgical intervention. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has produced practice guidelines for this injury to guide appropriate management. The age of the patient, the stability of the fracture, and the energy of the injury are factors when deciding the appropriate treatment for a patient. Orthopaedic surgeons should be familiar with the history of the management of pediatric femoral shaft fractures and understand the options available now.
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February 2020

Tibial Shaft Fractures in Children: What to Do When Casting Fails?

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:473-480

Tibial shaft fractures in children can often be successfully managed with a well-molded cast that controls length, alignment, and rotation of the fracture. Acceptable alignment of tibial shaft fractures in children is less than 10° of coronal and sagittal angulation, 50% translation, and 10 mm of shortening. Fractures of the tibial shaft without an associated fibular shaft fracture may fall into varus malalignment despite initial adequate reduction and should be followed closely during the first 3 weeks after injury. Surgical treatment should be considered in adolescent patients and those with open fractures, comminuted fractures, and fractures that cannot be adequately reduced and stabilized with a cast. The predominant modes of surgical stabilization of tibial shaft fractures in children are external fixation or internal fixation with flexible intramedullary nails or via minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis; both methods have reliable results.
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February 2020

Pediatric Ankle Fractures: When to Operate and When to Leave Alone?

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:481-488

Ankle fractures are a common pediatric orthopaedic injury and are the second most common site of physeal injury after the distal radius. Concerns regarding these injuries include the risk of premature physeal closure and intra-articular incongruence with subsequent degenerative changes. Salter-Harris type I and II injuries have high rates of premature physeal closure especially in those with a physeal gap greater than 3 mm and pronation-abduction injuries. The authors of this chapter recommend surgical management if acceptable alignment cannot be obtained with closed reduction. A residual physeal gap is not an appropriate sole indicator for surgical management. Salter-Harris type III and IV injuries also have high rates of premature physeal closure and can result in articular incongruence given their intra-articular nature. The authors of this chapter recommend surgical management of these fractures when intra-articular displacement is greater than 2 mm. Transitional fractures (ie, Tillaux and triplane) occur in older patients during distal tibial physeal closure. Fracture lines travel through the relatively weaker lateral tibial physis, which is the last to close in the transitional period. These intra-articular fractures with displacement greater than 2 mm should be managed surgically to anatomically reduce the articular surface and prevent early degenerative changes.
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February 2020

Monteggia Fracture-Dislocations in Children: History and Current Concepts and Management Schemes.

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:407-414

Since pediatric Monteggia fracture-dislocations were first described in 1814, they have been a complicated injury for orthopaedic surgeons to manage. These injuries typically consist of a fracture of the ulna with dislocation of the radial head. Unlike most pediatric injuries, Monteggia fracture-dislocations remodel very poorly, and the relationship between the radial head and the capitellum does not improve with time. As such, a more attentive approach is necessary. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to be knowledgeable about the history of Monteggia fractures, common pathologic mechanisms, closed reduction techniques, surgical indications and methods, and outcomes, in addition to preferred management principles.
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February 2020

Displaced Radial Neck Fractures: What Are My Options?

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:375-382

Pediatric radial head and neck fractures are uncommon injuries. Fractures are classified using the Judet system based on fracture angulation and displacement. Judet type I and II fractures can be managed nonsurgically with a short course of immobilization in a cast or splint without closed reduction. Most of these patients have an excellent prognosis and functional outcomes. Judet type III and IV injuries, as well as injuries that demonstrate a mechanical block to motion, should be closed reduced with the patient under conscious sedation or general anesthesia. Patients who undergo an unsuccessful closed reduction require closed or open reduction in the operating room. Closed reduction methods include the push and lever techniques with the use of Kirschner wires or Steinmann pins or intramedullary nails. Percutaneous fixation with wires or pins is needed only if the fracture fragment is determined to be unstable, whereas nails are left in place and require a second surgery for removal. Both methods have similar outcomes and an overall positive prognosis for patients. Open reduction and internal fixation should be avoided if at all possible given the higher incidence of wide-ranging complications.
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February 2020

Lateral Condyle Fractures in Children.

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:367-374

Lateral condyle fractures are the second most common fracture sustained in the pediatric elbow. Several classification systems are used to describe these fractures. The more recently described classifications help guide management, which is based on the degree of displacement and stability of the fracture. The goal of management is to obtain reduction of the articular surface and fracture union using closed or open reduction and fixation with Kirschner wires or screws. Motion should improve after the surgery. Complications, such as osteonecrosis and nonunion, are rare, but the treating surgeon should watch for these conditions.
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February 2020

Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients 20 Years Old and Younger.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Mar;102(6):519-525

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Historically, total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed in patients ≤20 years old has been associated with poor survivorship because of bearing-surface wear with conventional polyethylene, acetabular loosening with cemented sockets, and liner fracture in ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) THA. For this population, there is a paucity of data regarding outcomes of THAs performed with use of modern implants and bearing surfaces. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mid- to long-term outcomes of modern THA in patients ≤20 years old.

Methods: Utilizing a single-institution, prospectively collected total joint registry, we retrospectively identified 91 primary THAs performed in 78 patients ≤20 years old from 1998 to 2016. The average patient age was 17 years (range, 11 to 20 years), and the average body mass index was 26 kg/m (range, 16 to 49 kg/m). Forty-eight THAs (53%) were performed in male patients, and 47 (52%) were performed on the right hip. Bearing surfaces included CoC (53 THAs, 58%), metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene (MoP; 28 THAs, 31%), and ceramic-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene (CoP; 10 THAs, 11%). Outcome measures included reoperations, revisions, complications, clinical outcome scores, and bearing-surface wear.

Results: At an average follow-up of 8 years (range, 2 to 18 years), the average modified Harris hip score was 92 (range, 54 to 100), and 95% of patients reported feeling "much better" following the surgical procedure. Survivorship at 2, 5, and 10 years postoperatively was 96.7%, 96.7%, and 95.0% for reoperation; 98.9%, 98.9%, and 97.2% for revision; and 91.2%, 91.2%, and 89.5% for complications, respectively. The most common complications were instability (3 THAs, 3%), aseptic acetabular loosening (2 THAs, 2%), and postoperative foot drop (2 THAs, 2%). Linear articular wear averaged 0.019 mm/yr. There were no correlations between age, sex, body mass index, bearing surface, femoral head size, use of cement, or operative time and survivorship from complications, reoperations, or revisions. There were no differences in linear wear among CoC, CoP, and MoP bearing surfaces.

Conclusions: In patients ≤20 years old, THAs performed with use of modern implants exhibit excellent clinical outcome scores and survivorship at mid- to long-term follow-up. CoC, CoP, and MoP bearing surfaces have similar survivorship, clinical outcomes, and bearing-surface wear in this population.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.19.00699DOI Listing
March 2020

High-energy Pediatric Scapula Fractures and Their Associated Injuries.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Aug;39(7):377-381

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pediatric scapula fractures occurring in high-energy motorized vehicle accidents and their associated injury patterns in a pediatric patient population.

Methods: One thousand nine hundred sixty-eight pediatric patients who presented after either on-road or off-road motorized vehicle accidents between 1996 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-eight patients were found to have scapula fractures and the remaining 1930 were identified as controls.

Results: A total of 39 scapula fractures occurred in 38 patients. The most common pattern was the AO/OTA 14-A3 (n=32), followed by 14-A2 (n=5), 14-B1 (n=1), and 14-C2 (n=1). Scapula fracture patients experienced higher rate of spine fractures (42% vs. 18%, P=0.001), skull fractures (26% vs. 12%, P=0.02), rib fractures (40% vs. 7.6%, P<0.0001), clavicle fractures (34% vs. 6%, P<0.0001), and upper extremity fractures (58% vs. 21%, P<0.0001) compared with controls. Scapula fracture patients had higher Injury Severity Scores (22.1 vs. 10.8, P<0.0001), thoracic injury (79% vs. 31%, P<0.0001), intracranial hemorrhage (32% vs. 15%, P=0.012), pneumothorax (55% vs. 8%, P<0.0001), and lung contusion (63% vs. 12%, P<0.0001). No difference in mortality was observed for scapula and control patients (5% vs. 2%, P=0.302).

Conclusions: Pediatric scapula fractures were not associated with higher mortality rates in this series but were associated with significant morbidity as demonstrated by high rates of associated intracranial hemorrhage, skull fractures, thoracic injury, upper extremity fractures, and spine fractures compared with control patients. Surgeons who care for pediatric trauma patients should view scapula fractures as an indicator for more significant injuries.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000969DOI Listing
August 2019

Idiopathic Genu Valgum and Its Association With Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Aug;39(7):347-352

Shriners Hospitals for Children.

Background: Obesity as a cause of lower extremity deformity in children has been well established. This deformity is most often seen as tibia vara, however, at our institution we have observed more obese children and adolescents over age 7 years with excessive or progressive idiopathic genu valgum. Our hypothesis is that children with idiopathic genu valgum have high rates of obesity which impact the severity of their disease.

Methods: Retrospective review of existing data was performed on 66 consecutive children/112 limbs over age 7 years with idiopathic genu valgum, seen from 2010 to 2013. Children with known metabolic or skeletal disease were excluded. Genu valgum was defined as mechanical axis in zone II or III and mechanical tibiofemoral angle ≥4 degrees on standing anteroposterior radiograph of the lower extremities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and classified by Center for Disease Control percentiles. Skeletal maturation was rated by closure of pelvic and peri-genu physes. Severity of genu valgum was also assessed by femoral and tibial mechanical axes and the mechanical axis deviation.

Results: Mean patient age was 12.2±2.2 years. 47% of patients had BMI≥30 and 71% were categorized as obese (>95th percentile). No sex differences were identified. Skeletal maturation explained 25% of the variance in the mechanical axis deviation and 22% of the mechanical tibiofemoral angle. BMI predicted 9.8% of the tibial valgus. Because of its skewed distribution, BMI percentile was a less useful parameter for assessment.

Conclusions: The 71% obesity rate found in our children with idiopathic genu valgum is significantly higher than the normal population. Higher BMI is associated with more tibial valgum but skeletal maturation was the main predictor of overall valgus severity. This suggests that obesity may play a role in the etiology of idiopathic genu valgum which progresses with skeletal maturation, thereby increasing the risk of osteoarthritis in adulthood.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000971DOI Listing
August 2019

Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Spasticity: A Critical Analysis Review.

JBJS Rev 2019 04;7(4):e10

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.18.00115DOI Listing
April 2019