Publications by authors named "Tobias Pischon"

230 Publications

Contribution of IQ in young adulthood to the associations of education and occupation with cognitive ability in older age.

BMC Geriatr 2021 06 5;21(1):346. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Robert-Rössle Str. 10, 13092, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Studies suggest that a higher education and occupation are each associated with a higher late-life cognitive ability, but their inter-relationships in their association with cognitive ability and the contribution of peak IQ in young adulthood ('pre-morbid IQ') often remain unclear.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 623 participants aged ≥65 years of the BioCog study. Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED; range 1 to 6). Occupation was coded as 'semi/unskilled', 'skilled manual', 'skilled non-manual', 'managerial', 'professional'. A summary score of global ability ('g') was constructed from six cognitive tests. Pre-morbid IQ was estimated from vocabulary. The Geriatric Depression Scale assessed symptoms of depression. Age- and sex-adjusted analyses of covariance were performed.

Results: Education (partial eta 0.076; p < 0.001) and occupation (partial eta = 0.037; p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with g. For education, the association was attenuated but remained statistically significant when pre-morbid IQ was controlled for (partial eta 0.036; p < 0.001) and was unchanged with additional adjustment for depression (partial eta 0.037; p < 0.001). For occupation, the association with g was no longer significant when pre-morbid IQ (partial eta = 0.015; p = 0.06) and depression (partial eta = 0.011; p = 0.18) were entered as covariates in separate steps. When education and occupation were entered concurrently into the fully adjusted model, only education was independently associated with g (partial eta 0.030; p < 0.001; occupation, p = 0.93).

Conclusion: While a higher education and a higher occupation were each associated with a higher late-life cognitive ability, only for education some unique contribution to cognitive ability remained over and above its relationship with pre-morbid IQ, depression, and occupation. Further research is needed to address whether a longer time spent in education may promote late-life cognitive ability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02290-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180039PMC
June 2021

Resting state brain network functional connectivity is not associated with inflammatory markers and blood cell counts in older adults.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 07 2;132(7):1677-1686. Epub 2021 May 2.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik für Anästhesiologie mit Schwerpunkt operative Intensivmedizin (CCM, CVK), Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: Systemic inflammation and monocyte counts have previously been associated with changes in resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We therefore investigated this association in a longitudinal study of older patients.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from older patients who underwent functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) scans before and 3 months after elective surgery. Additionally, serum levels of C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6 as markers of inflammation and leukocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were determined. Correlations between these markers and pre- or postoperative rsFC between regions previously associated with inflammatory markers were investigated using general linear regression models.

Results: We found no significant correlations between inflammatory markers or blood cell counts and mean connectivity within four resting state networks (RSNs), neither preoperatively nor postoperatively. Significant inter-region rsFC was found within these RSNs between a few regions either pre- or postoperatively, but no inter-region connections were consistently observed in both pre- and postoperative fMRI scans.

Conclusions: Inflammatory markers and monocyte counts were not associated with rsFC in our study, contrasting previous results.

Significance: Multiple measurements in the same individuals, as performed here, provide a way to reduce the high risk of false positive results in fMRI studies.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (registration number NCT02265263).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2021.03.042DOI Listing
July 2021

Dietary Macronutrient Composition in Relation to Circulating HDL and Non-HDL Cholesterol: A Federated Individual-Level Analysis of Cross-Sectional Data from Adolescents and Adults in 8 European Studies.

J Nutr 2021 Aug;151(8):2317-2329

Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Associations between increased dietary fat and decreased carbohydrate intake with circulating HDL and non-HDL cholesterol have not been conclusively determined.

Objective: We assessed these relations in 8 European observational human studies participating in the European Nutritional Phenotype Assessment and Data Sharing Initiative (ENPADASI) using harmonized data.

Methods: Dietary macronutrient intake was recorded using study-specific dietary assessment tools. Main outcome measures were lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations: HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) and non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dL). A cross-sectional analysis on 5919 participants (54% female) aged 13-80 y was undertaken using the statistical platform DataSHIELD that allows remote/federated nondisclosive analysis of individual-level data. Generalized linear models (GLM) were fitted to assess associations between replacing 5% of energy from carbohydrates with equivalent energy from total fats, SFAs, MUFAs, or PUFAs with circulating HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol. GLM were adjusted for study source, age, sex, smoking status, alcohol intake and BMI.

Results: The replacement of 5% of energy from carbohydrates with total fats or MUFAs was statistically significantly associated with 0.67 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.40, 0.94) or 0.99 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.37, 1.60) higher HDL cholesterol, respectively, but not with non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. The replacement of 5% of energy from carbohydrates with SFAs or PUFAs was not associated with HDL cholesterol, but SFAs were statistically significantly associated with 1.94 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.08, 3.79) higher non-HDL cholesterol, and PUFAs with -3.91 mg/dL (95% CI: -6.98, -0.84) lower non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. A statistically significant interaction by sex for the association of replacing carbohydrates with MUFAs and non-HDL cholesterol was observed, showing a statistically significant inverse association in males and no statistically significant association in females. We observed no statistically significant interaction by age.

Conclusions: The replacement of dietary carbohydrates with fats had favorable effects on lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in European adolescents and adults when fats were consumed as MUFAs or PUFAs but not as SFAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab077DOI Listing
August 2021

Simple Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake During Adolescence and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Precursors.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19;161(1):128-142.e20. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background & Aims: Recent increasing trends in early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) strongly supports that early-life diet is involved in CRC development. However, data are lacking on the relationship with high sugar intake during early life.

Methods: We prospectively investigated the association of adolescent simple sugar (fructose, glucose, added sugar, total sugar) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with CRC precursor risk in 33,106 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II who provided adolescent dietary information in 1998 and subsequently underwent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy between 1999 and 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for clustered data.

Results: During follow-up, 2909 conventional adenomas (758 high-risk) and 2355 serrated lesions were identified (mean age at diagnoses, 52.2 ± 4.3 years). High sugar and SSB intake during adolescence was positively associated with risk of adenoma, but not serrated lesions. Per each increment of 5% of calories from total fructose intake, multivariable ORs were 1.17 (95% CI, 1.05-1.31) for total and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06-1.60) for high-risk adenoma. By subsite, ORs were 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96-1.30) for proximal, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05-1.47) for distal, and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.10-1.86) for rectal adenoma. Per 1 serving/day increment in SSB intake, ORs were 1.11 (95% CI, 1.02-1.20) for total and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.08-1.55) for rectal adenoma. Contrary to adolescent intake, sugar and SSB intake during adulthood was not associated with adenoma risk.

Conclusions: High intake of simple sugars and SSBs during adolescence was associated with increased risk of conventional adenoma, especially rectal adenoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238879PMC
July 2021

Feasibility of a Culturally Adapted Dietary Weight-Loss Intervention among Ghanaian Migrants in Berlin, Germany: The ADAPT Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 9;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universitaet Berlin, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Background: Dietary weight-loss interventions often fail among migrant populations. We investigated the practicability and acceptability of a culturally adapted dietary weight-loss intervention among Ghanaian migrants in Berlin.

Methods: The national guidelines for the treatment of adiposity were adapted to the cultural characteristics of the target population, aiming at weight-loss of ≥2.5 kg in 3 months using food-based dietary recommendations. We invited 93 individuals of Ghanaian descent with overweight or obesity to participate in a 12-weeks intervention. The culturally adapted intervention included a Ghanaian dietician and research team, one session of dietary counselling, three home-based cooking sessions with focus on traditional Ghanaian foods, weekly smart-phone reminders, and monthly monitoring of diet and physical activity. We applied a 7-domains acceptability questionnaire and determined changes in anthropometric measures during clinic-based examinations at baseline and after the intervention.

Results: Of the 93 invitees, five participants and four family volunteers completed the study. Reasons for non-participation were changed residence (13%), lack of time to attend examinations (10%), and no interest (9%); 64% did not want to give any reason. The intervention was highly accepted among the participants (mean range: 5.3-6.0 of a 6-points Likert scale). Over the 12 weeks, median weight-loss reached -0.6 kg (range: +0.5, -3.6 kg); the diet was rich in meats but low in convenience foods. The median contribution of fat to daily energy intake was 24% (range: 16-40%).

Conclusions: Acceptance of our invitation to the intervention was poor but, once initiated, compliance was good. Assessment centers in the participants' vicinity and early stakeholder involvement might facilitate improved acceptance of the invitation. A randomized controlled trial is required to determine the actual effects of the intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827981PMC
January 2021

Dairy intake during adolescence and risk of colorectal adenoma later in life.

Br J Cancer 2021 03 4;124(6):1160-1168. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Higher dairy intake during adulthood has been associated with lower colorectal cancer risk. As colorectal carcinogenesis spans several decades, we hypothesised that higher dairy intake during adolescence is associated with lower risk of colorectal adenoma, a colorectal cancer precursor.

Methods: In 27,196 females from the Nurses' Health Study 2, aged 25-42 years at recruitment (1989), who had completed a validated high school diet questionnaire in 1998 and undergone at least one lower bowel endoscopy between 1998 and 2011, logistic regression for clustered data was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Colorectal adenomas were diagnosed in 2239 women. Dairy consumption during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk (OR highest vs. lowest [≥4 vs. ≤1.42 servings/day] quintile [95% CI] 0.94 [0.80, 1.11]). By anatomical site, higher adolescent dairy intake was associated with lower rectal (0.63 [0.42, 0.95]), but not proximal (1.01 [0.80, 1.28]) or distal (0.97 [0.76, 1.24]) colon adenoma risk. An inverse association was observed with histologically advanced (0.72 [0.51, 1.00]) but not non-advanced (1.07 [0.86, 1.33]) adenoma.

Conclusions: In this large cohort of younger women, higher adolescent dairy intake was associated with lower rectal and advanced adenoma risk later in life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01203-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960961PMC
March 2021

Mendelian Randomization Study on Amino Acid Metabolism Suggests Tyrosine as Causal Trait for Type 2 Diabetes.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 19;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany.

Circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids, glycine, or aromatic amino acids have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether those associations reflect causal relationships or are rather driven by early processes of disease development is unclear. We selected diabetes-related amino acid ratios based on metabolic network structures and investigated causal effects of these ratios and single amino acids on the risk of type 2 diabetes in two-sample Mendelian randomization studies. Selection of genetic instruments for amino acid traits relied on genome-wide association studies in a representative sub-cohort (up to 2265 participants) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study and public data from genome-wide association studies on single amino acids. For the selected instruments, outcome associations were drawn from the DIAGRAM (DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis, 74,124 cases and 824,006 controls) consortium. Mendelian randomization results indicate an inverse association for a per standard deviation increase in ln-transformed tyrosine/methionine ratio with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.87 (0.81-0.93)). Multivariable Mendelian randomization revealed inverse association for higher log-transformed tyrosine levels with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.19 (0.04-0.88)), independent of other amino acids. Tyrosine might be a causal trait for type 2 diabetes independent of other diabetes-associated amino acids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766372PMC
December 2020

School- and Leisure Time Factors Are Associated With Sitting Time of German and Irish Children and Adolescents During School: Results of a DEDIPAC Feasibility Study.

Front Sports Act Living 2020 23;2:93. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany.

The study aims to investigate to what extent school- and leisure time-related factors are associated with sedentary behavior during school in German and Irish children and adolescents. The study based on a sample of 198 children and adolescents surveyed in 2015. Sedentary and activity behavior were measured using the activPAL physical activity monitor. Information on socio-economic status, school- and leisure-time related factors were provided by questionnaires. Associations between school- and leisure time-related factors and sedentary time during school were estimated using linear multi-level models. Access to play equipment in school was associated with reduced sitting time (hours/day) of children (ß = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.06-1.48). Media devices in bedroom and assessing the neighborhood as activity friendly was associated with increased sitting time of children (ß = 0.92; 95%CI = 0.12-1.72 and ß = 0.30; 95%CI = 0.01-0.60, respectively). The permission to use media devices during breaks was associated with increased sitting time (hours/day) of adolescents (ß = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.06-0.69). A less safe traffic surrounding at school was associated with reduced sitting time of adolescents (ß = -0.42; 95% CI = -0.80 to -0.03). Results suggest that school- and leisure time-related factors are associated to the sedentary behavior during school. We suggest that future strategies to reduce sedentary time should consider both contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739729PMC
July 2020

BMI and mortality-time to revisit current recommendations for risk assessment.

Authors:
Tobias Pischon

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa324DOI Listing
December 2020

A Body Shape Index (ABSI) achieves better mortality risk stratification than alternative indices of abdominal obesity: results from a large European cohort.

Sci Rep 2020 09 3;10(1):14541. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada, Spain.

Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71302-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471961PMC
September 2020

Plasma leptin, but not adiponectin, is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 10 22;120:104783. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Robert-Rössle Str. 10, D-13092 Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universitaet Berlin, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany; MDC/BIH Biobank, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Robert-Rössle Str. 10, D-13092 Berlin, Germany.

Background: Leptin and adiponectin are adipose-tissue derived hormones primarily involved in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Both adipokines may cross the blood-brain barrier but evidence on their roles in cognitive impairment is limited and conflicting. Here, we determined associations of plasma adipokine concentration with cognitive impairment in older adults.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 669 participants aged ≥65 years of the Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly (BioCog) study were recruited 2014-2017 at study sites in Berlin, Germany and Utrecht, the Netherlands. Cognitive impairment was defined as the lowest tertile of a cognitive summary score derived from six neuropsychological tests.

Results: After adjustment for age, sex, fasting, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and coronary heart disease, higher leptin concentrations and a higher leptin/adiponectin ratio (LAR) were associated with a higher odds of cognitive impairment (OR per 1 SD higher leptin concentration, 1.33; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.69; p = 0.02; OR per 1 SD higher LAR, 1.26; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.57; p = 0.04). Sensitivity analyses determined that these findings were driven by the non-obese group (BMI < 30 kg/m), whereas leptin and LAR were not associated with cognitive impairment in the obese group (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m). Soluble leptin receptor, leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio, total adiponectin and high-molecular weight adiponectin concentrations were each not associated with impairment.

Conclusions: With leptin as a known promoter of atherosclerosis and inflammation, our findings point to a pathogenic role of leptin in age-related cognitive impairment that may be limited to non-obese individuals and warrants further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104783DOI Listing
October 2020

Association of body surface scanner-based abdominal volume with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome and comparison with manually measured waist circumference.

Sci Rep 2020 06 9;10(1):9324. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

To investigate abdominal volume determined by a new body scanner algorithm as anthropometric marker for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and its parameters compared to manually measured waist circumference (WC), we performed body scans in 411 participants (38% men, 20-81 years). WC and triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting glucose concentrations, and blood pressure were assessed as MetS parameters. We used Spearman correlations and linear regression to investigate associations and goodness-of-fit (R², BIC) of abdominal volume and WC with MetS parameters, and logistic regression to analyse the discriminative power of WC and abdominal volume to assess likelihoods of MetS components and MetS. Correlations with triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose concentration were slightly stronger for abdominal volume (r; 0.32, -0.32, and 0.34, respectively) than for WC (0.28, -0.28, and 0.29, respectively). Explained variances in MetS parameters were slightly higher and goodness-of-fit slightly better for abdominal volume than for WC, but differences were small. Exemplarily, glucose levels were 0.28 mmol/L higher (R² = 0.25; BIC = 945.5) per 1-SD higher  WC, and 0.35 mmol/L higher (R² = 0.28; BIC = 929.1) per 1-SD higher abdominal volume. The discriminative power to estimate MetS components was similar for WC and abdominal volume. Our data show that abdominal volume allows metabolic characterization comparable to established WC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66095-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283478PMC
June 2020

[Frequencies of musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders in the population-based German National Cohort (GNC)].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):415-425

Lehrstuhl für Epidemiologie, am UNIKA-T, LMU München, Augsburg, Deutschland.

Background: Musculoskeletal diseases and symptoms are very common in the general population. They lead to high healthcare costs and pose a significant burden to the national economy.

Objectives: Based on data from the population-based German National Cohort (GNC), frequencies of musculoskeletal symptoms and diseases are reported, including back pain, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and arthritis.

Materials And Methods: Data were collected from March 2014 to March 2017 in adults aged 20-75 years during the first half of the baseline survey of the GNC. The sample comprised 101,779 interviewed subjects, including 9370 subjects who underwent clinical musculoskeletal examinations. The interview included questions about specific musculoskeletal disorders. A clinical examination of the hand provided information about palpable swollen joints and pressure-sensitive joints. Resting pain of the knees and hips was also assessed by a clinical examination. Frequencies were standardized to the German standard population of the year 2011.

Results: Having ever been diagnosed with recurrent back pain (22.5%) or osteoarthritis (20.6%) were the most common complaints reported in the interview; osteoporosis (2.9%) and rheumatoid arthritis (1.9%) were stated more seldom. According to the hand examination, 6.0% of all participants experienced pain in at least one finger joint. Resting pain was present in at least one knee among 8.2% and in at least one hip among 5.1% of the participants as assessed during the clinical examination. Women were more likely to report musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms than men. The proportion of adults affected by musculoskeletal diseases increased strongly with age.

Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms occur frequently. The burden of complaints and diagnoses is comparable to previous population-based surveys.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03110-1DOI Listing
April 2020

[Self-reported infections in the German National Cohort (GNC) in the context of the current research landscape].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):404-414

Abteilung Epidemiologie von Krebserkrankungen, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Deutschland.

Background: Infectious diseases continue to play an important role for disease perception, health-economic considerations and public health in Germany. In recent years, infectious diseases have been linked to the development of non-communicable diseases. Analyses of the German National Cohort (GNC) may provide deeper insights into this issue and pave the way for new targeted approaches in disease prevention.

Objectives: The aim was to describe the tools used to assess infectious diseases and to present initial data on infectious disease frequencies, as well as to relate the GNC assessment tools to data collection methods in other studies in Germany.

Methods: As part of the baseline examination, questions regarding infectious diseases were administered using both an interview and a self-administered touchscreen questionnaire. Data from the initial 101,787 GNC participants were analysed.

Results: In the interview, 0.2% (HIV/AIDS) to 8.6% (shingles) of respondents reported ever having a medical diagnosis of shingles, postherpetic neuralgia (in cases where shingles was reported), hepatitis B/C, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis or sepsis if treated in hospital. In the questionnaire, 12% (cystitis) to 81% (upper respiratory tract infections) of respondents reported having experienced at least one occurrence of upper or lower respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, cystitis or fever within the past 12 months.

Outlook: The cross-sectional analyses of data and tools presented here - for example on determinants of susceptibility to self-reported infections - can be anticipated from the year 2021 onward. Beyond that, more extensive research into infectious disease epidemiology will follow, particularly once analyses of GNC biological materials have been performed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03114-xDOI Listing
April 2020

[Self-reported cancer in the German National Cohort (NAKO Gesundheitsstudie): assessment methods and first results].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):385-396

Institut für Medizinische Epidemiologie, Biometrie und Informatik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Deutschland.

Background: In the German National Cohort (NAKO Gesundheitsstudie), the largest prospective cohort study in Germany, data on self-reported cancer diagnoses are now available for the first half of participants.

Objectives: Description of the methods to assess self-reported cancer diagnoses and type of cancer in the NAKO and presentation of first results.

Materials And Methods: In a computer-assisted, standardized personal interview, 101,787 participants (54,526 women, 47,261 men) were asked whether they had ever been diagnosed with cancer (malignant tumors including in situ) by a physician and how many cancer diagnoses they had. The type of cancer was classified with a list. Absolute and relative frequencies of self-reported cancer diagnoses and types of cancer were calculated and compared with cancer registry data.

Results: A physician-diagnosed cancer was reported by 9.4% of women and 7.0% of men. Of the participants who reported a cancer diagnosis, 88.3% reported to have had only one cancer diagnosis. In women, the most frequent malignancies were breast cancer, cervical cancer, and melanoma. In men, the most frequent malignancies were prostate cancer, melanoma, and colorectal cancer. Comparing the frequencies of cancer diagnoses reported by 45- to 74-year-old NAKO participants within the last five years to cancer registry-based 5‑year prevalences, most types of cancer were less frequent in the NAKO, with the exception of melanoma in men and women, cervical cancer and liver cancer in women, and bladder cancer and breast cancer in men.

Conclusions: The NAKO is a rich data basis for future investigations of incident cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03113-yDOI Listing
April 2020

Plasma Amyloid Concentration in Alzheimer's Disease: Performance of a High-Throughput Amyloid Assay in Distinguishing Alzheimer's Disease Cases from Controls.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;74(4):1285-1294

Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for measurement of amyloid-β (Aβ) species is a gold standard in Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis, but has risks. Thus, establishing a low-risk blood Aβ test with high AD sensitivity and specificity is of outmost interest.

Objective: We evaluated the ability of a commercially available plasma Aβ assay to distinguish AD patients from biomarker-healthy controls.

Method: In a case-control design, we examined plasma samples from 44 AD patients (A + N+) and 49 controls (A-N-) from a memory clinic. AD was diagnosed using a combination of neuropsychological examination, CSF biomarker analysis and brain imaging. Total Aβ40 and total Aβ42 in plasma were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology using ABtest40 and ABtest42 test kits (Araclon Biotech Ltd.). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses with outcome AD were performed, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated.

Results: Plasma Aβ42/40 was weakly positively correlated with CSF Aβ42/40 (Spearman's rho 0.22; p = 0.037). Plasma Aβ42/40 alone was not able to statistically significantly distinguish between AD patients and controls (AUC 0.58; 95% CI 0.46, 0.70). At a cut-point of 0.076 maximizing sensitivity and specificity, plasma Aβ42/40 had a sensitivity of 61.2% and a specificity of 63.6%.

Conclusion: In this sample, the high-throughput blood Aβ assay was not able to distinguish well between AD patients and controls. Whether or not the assay may be useful in large-scale epidemiological settings remains to be seen.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242850PMC
May 2021

[Design and quality control of the oral health status examination in the German National Cohort (GNC)].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):426-438

Institut für Epidemiologie und Sozialmedizin, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Deutschland.

Background: Caries and periodontitis are highly prevalent worldwide. Because detailed data on these oral diseases were collected within the framework of the German National Cohort (GNC), associations between oral and systemic diseases and conditions can be investigated.

Objectives: The study protocol for the oral examination was designed to ensure a comprehensive collection of dental findings by trained non-dental staff within a limited examination time. At the mid-term of the GNC baseline examination, a first quality evaluation was performed to check the plausibility of results and to propose measures to improve the data quality.

Materials And Methods: A dental interview, saliva sampling and oral diagnostics were conducted. As part of the level‑1 examination, the number of teeth and prostheses were recorded. As part of the level‑2 examination, detailed periodontal, cariological and functional aspects were examined. All examinations were conducted by trained non-dental personnel. Parameters were checked for plausibility and variable distributions were descriptively analysed.

Results: Analyses included data of 57,967 interview participants, 56,913 level‑1 participants and 6295 level‑2 participants. Percentages of missing values for individual clinical parameters assessed in level 1 and level 2 ranged between 0.02 and 3.9%. Results showed a plausible distribution of the data; rarely, implausible values were observed, e.g. for measurements of horizontal and vertical overbite (overjet and overbite). Intra-class correlation coefficients indicated differences in individual parameters between regional clusters, study centres and across different examiners.

Conclusions: The results confirm the feasibility of the study protocol by non-dental personnel and its successful integration into the GNC's overall assessment program. However, rigorous dental support of the study centres is required for quality management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03107-wDOI Listing
April 2020

[The foundation has been laid - for improved prevention and early detection of major common diseases].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):373-375

Forschergruppe Molekulare Epidemiologie, Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (MDC), Robert-Rössle-Straße 10, 13125, Berlin, Deutschland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03119-6DOI Listing
April 2020

[The investigation of health outcomes in the German National Cohort: the most relevant endpoints and their assessment].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):376-384

Leibniz-Institut für Präventionsforschung und Epidemiologie - BIPS, Achterstr. 30, 28359, Bremen, Deutschland.

The focus of the German National Cohort, the largest population-based cohort study in Germany to date, is the investigation of the most important widespread diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and frequent respiratory and infectious diseases. This cohort will answer questions on the development of these diseases and on the impact of genetic, environmental and lifestyle-related risk factors. Another focus is on the identification of early, subclinical markers of emerging diseases. To answer these questions, a comprehensive assessment of these health outcomes as well as of all potential determinants and precursors is mandatory.This paper describes the various health outcomes that are assessed in the German National Cohort, as well as the examination modules that are applied for deep phenotyping of study participants. Repeated collection of biosamples as well as functional measurements and application of modern imaging techniques at various time points allow for assessing the dynamics of physiological changes related to the individuals' health status. The prognostic value of these changes for disease development will be explored and translated to novel approaches for prevention and personalised medicine. Incident diseases are being assessed through self-reports by study participants and through record linkage with data from health insurances and cancer registries. Additional information about clinical diagnoses is obtained from the treating physicians to ensure the highest possible validity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03111-0DOI Listing
April 2020

[Assessment of self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the German National Cohort (GNC, NAKO Gesundheitsstudie): methods and initial results].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):439-451

Institut für Prävention und Tumorepidemiologie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Deutschland.

Background: Data on self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are available for the first 100,000 participants of the population-based German National Cohort (GNC, NAKO Gesundheitsstudie).

Objectives: To describe assessment methods and the frequency of self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the German National Cohort.

Materials And Methods: Using a computer-based, standardized personal interview, 101,806 participants (20-75 years, 46% men) from 18 nationwide study centres were asked to use a predefined list to report medical conditions ever diagnosed by a physician, including cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. For the latter, we calculated sex-stratified relative frequencies and compared these with reference data.

Results: With regard to cardiovascular diseases, 3.5% of men and 0.8% of women reported to have ever been diagnosed with a myocardial infarction, 4.8% and 1.5% with angina pectoris, 3.5% and 2.5% with heart failure, 10.1% and 10.4% with cardiac arrhythmia, 2.7% and 1.8% with claudicatio intermittens, and 34.6% and 27.0% with arterial hypertension. The frequencies of self-reported diagnosed metabolic diseases were 8.1% and 5.8% for diabetes mellitus, 28.6% and 24.5% for hyperlipidaemia, 7.9% and 2.4% for gout, and 10.1% and 34.3% for thyroid diseases. Observed disease frequencies were lower than reference data for Germany.

Conclusions: In the German National Cohort, self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases diagnosed by a physician are assessed from all participants, therefore representing a data source for future cardio-metabolic research in this cohort.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03108-9DOI Listing
April 2020

[Occurrence of bronchial asthma and age at initial asthma diagnosis-first results of the German National Cohort].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Apr;63(4):397-403

Abteilung Epidemiologie von Krebserkrankungen, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Deutschland.

Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in both children and adults. Asthma first occurring in adulthood (adult-onset asthma, AOA) is associated with poorer prognosis compared to childhood-onset asthma (COA), which urgently calls for more research in this area. The aim of this work was to analyze the data on asthma collected in the German National Cohort and compare it with the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS), in particular regarding AOA.

Material And Methods: Our analysis was based on the dataset of the main questionnaire at mid-term of the German National Cohort baseline examination, comprising 101,723 participants. Variables considered in the analyses were self-reported diagnosis of asthma, age at first diagnosis, asthma treatment in the past 12 months, age, and sex.

Results: In the midterm dataset, 8.7% of women and 7.0% of men in the German National Cohort reported that they had ever been diagnosed with asthma. Approximately one third of participants with asthma received their initial diagnosis before their 18th birthday. COA affected 2.2% of women and 2.8% of men, whereas AOA affected 6.5% of women and 4.2% of men. During the previous 12 months, 33% of COA cases and 60% of AOA cases were medically treated.

Conclusion: The proportion of persons affected by asthma in the German National Cohort, as well as observed patterns regarding age and gender, corresponds to other data sources such as DEGS. However, in our analysis, the proportion of individuals with AOA was higher than described in the literature. The increase in cumulative asthma diagnoses with age is markedly steeper in younger participants, indicating a rising trend over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03105-yDOI Listing
April 2020

[Lung function in the German National Cohort: methods and initial results].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Mar;63(3):322-331

Abteilung Epidemiologie von Krebserkrankungen, DKFZ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Deutschland.

Background: A nationwide assessment of the respiratory status on the basis of standardized lung function measurements has so far not been available in Germany. The present work describes the lung function tests in the German National Cohort (GNC) and presents initial results based on the GNC Midterm Baseline Dataset.

Material And Methods: The assessment of lung function in the GNC comprised spirometry (level 1) and the determination of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, level 2). Our quality assurance concept included regular training of lung function test procedures at various GNC sites, interim evaluations of test quality, as well as regular calibration/measurement checks of test equipment. For spirometry, we established a stepwise procedure for offline quality control based on raw flow volume curves.

Results: In the present dataset (n = 101,734), spirometry was available for 86,893 study participants and FeNO was available for 15,228 participants. The average (±SD) FEV Z score (according to GLI 2012) was -0.321 ± 1.047, the FVC Z score was -0.153 ± 0.941, and the FEV/FVC Z score was -0.337 ± 0.901. The difference in FEV/FVC between current smokers and never-smokers increased with age. The average FeNO was 14.2 ÷ 2.0 ppb. Current smoking reduced FeNO levels by 43%, whereas respiratory allergy increased FeNO levels by 16% in nonsmokers.

Discussion: The results of spirometry and the FeNO measurements are in the expected range with regard to their distributions and correlates. The GNC provides a valuable basis for future investigations of respiratory health and its determinants as well as research into the prevention of respiratory diseases in Germany.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03102-1DOI Listing
March 2020

[Measuring physical fitness in the German National Cohort-methods, quality assurance, and first descriptive results].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Mar;63(3):312-321

Institut für Sozialmedizin, Epidemiologie und Gesundheitsökonomie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Deutschland.

Physical fitness is defined as an individual's ability to be physically active. The main components are cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength, and flexibility. Regardless of physical activity level, physical fitness is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality.The aim of the current study was to describe the physical fitness assessment methodology in the German National Cohort (NAKO) and to present initial descriptive results in a subsample of the cohort.In the NAKO, hand grip strength (GS) and CRF as physical fitness components were assessed at baseline using a hand dynamometer and a submaximal bicycle ergometer test, respectively. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO) was estimated as a result of the bicycle ergometer test. The results of a total of 99,068 GS measurements and 3094 CRF measurements are based on a data set at halftime of the NAKO baseline survey (age 20-73 years, 47% men).Males showed higher values of physical fitness compared to women (males: GS = 47.8 kg, VO = 36.4 ml·min · kg; females: GS = 29.9 kg, VO = 32.3 ml · min · kg). GS declined from the age of 50 onwards, whereas VO levels decreased continuously between the age groups of 20-29 and ≥60 years. GS and VO showed a linear positive association after adjustment for body weight (males β = 0.21; females β = 0.35).These results indicate that the physical fitness measured in the NAKO are comparable to other population-based studies. Future analyses in this study will focus on examining the independent relations of GS and CRF with risk of morbidity and mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03100-3DOI Listing
March 2020

[Physical activity in the German National Cohort (NAKO): use of multiple assessment tools and initial results].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Mar;63(3):301-311

Institut für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie (IMIBE), Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen, Deutschland.

Background: Physical activity is a complex behavior that is difficult to measure validly and reliably in large, population-based studies. Data on physical activity are available for the initial 100,000 participants of the German National Cohort.

Objectives: To describe the baseline physical activity assessment in the cohort and to present initial descriptive results.

Material And Methods: Physical activity was assessed using a combination of tools, including two self-administered questionnaires, the Questionnaire on Annual Physical Activity Pattern (QUAP) and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ); a computer-based 24‑h physical activity recall (cpar24); and 7‑day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X/+; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA).

Results: The availability of data varied between assessment instruments (QUAP: n = 16,372; GPAQ: n = 90,900; cpar24: n = 23,989; accelerometry: n = 35,218). Analyses across measurement tools showed that on average, women spent 75 to 216 min/d, and men spent 73 to 224 min/d in moderate or higher intensity total physical activity. Persons aged 20-39 years spent 66 to 200 min/d, and persons aged 40-69 years spent 78 to 244 min/d in moderate or higher intensity total physical activity.

Conclusions: Initial baseline analyses of physical activity in this cohort show the value of using a combination of questionnaires, 24‑h recalls, and a movement sensor. The comprehensive data collection represents a valuable resource for future analyses and will improve our understanding of the association between physical activity and disease prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03099-7DOI Listing
March 2020

[What makes us sick, what keeps us healthy?]

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 03;63(3):251-253

Forschergruppe Molekulare Epidemiologie, Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (MDC), Robert-Rössle-Straße 10, 13125, Berlin, Deutschland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03104-zDOI Listing
March 2020

[The baseline assessment of the German National Cohort (NAKO Gesundheitsstudie): participation in the examination modules, quality assurance, and the use of secondary data].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Mar;63(3):254-266

Institut für Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum (DDZ), Leibniz-Zentrum für Diabetes-Forschung, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Deutschland.

Background: The German National Cohort (NAKO) is an interdisciplinary health study aimed at elucidating causes for common chronic diseases and detecting their preclinical stages. This article provides an overview of design, methods, participation in the examinations, and their quality assurance based on the midterm baseline dataset (MBD) of the recruitment.

Methods: More than 200,000 women and men aged 20-69 years derived from random samples of the German general population were recruited in 18 study centers (2014-2019). The data collection comprised physical examinations, standardized interviews and questionnaires, and the collection of biomedical samples for all participants (level 1). At least 20% of all participants received additional in-depth examinations (level 2), and 30,000 received whole-body magnet resonance imaging (MRI). Additional information will be collected through secondary data sources such as medical registries, health insurances, and pension funds. This overview is based on the MBD, which included 101,839 participants, of whom 11,371 received an MRI.

Results: The mean response proportion was 18%. The participation in the examinations was high with most of the modules performed by over 95%. Among MRI participants, 96% completed all 12 MRI sequences. More than 90% of the participants agreed to the use of complementary secondary and registry data.

Discussion: Individuals selected for the NAKO were willing to participate in all examinations despite the time-consuming program. The NAKO provides a central resource for population-based epidemiologic research and will contribute to developing innovative strategies for prevention, screening and prediction of chronic diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03093-zDOI Listing
March 2020

[Nighttime transportation noise annoyance in Germany: personal and regional differences in the German National Cohort Study].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Mar;63(3):332-343

Institut für Community Medicine, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Greifswald, Deutschland.

Background: Noise annoyance is associated with adverse health-related conditions and reduced wellbeing. Thereby, subjective noise annoyance depends on the objective noise exposure and is modified by personal and regional factors.

Objective: How many participants of the German National Cohort Study (GNC; NAKO Gesundheitsstudie) were annoyed by transportation noise during nighttime and what factors were associated with noise annoyance?

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 86,080 participants from 18 study centers, examined from 2014 to 2017. We used multinomial logistic regression to investigate associations of personal and regional factors to noise annoyance (slightly/moderately or strongly/extremely annoyed vs. not annoyed) mutually adjusting for all factors in the model.

Results: Two thirds of participants were not annoyed by transportation noise during nighttime and one in ten reported strong/extreme annoyance with highest percentages for the study centers Berlin-Mitte and Leipzig. The strongest associations were seen for factors related to the individual housing situation like the bedroom being positioned towards a major road (OR of being slightly/moderately annoyed: 4.26 [95% CI: 4.01;4.52]; OR of being strongly/extremely annoyed: 13.36 [95% CI: 12.47;14.32]) compared to a garden/inner courtyard. Participants aged 40-60 years and those in low- and medium-income groups reported greater noise annoyance compared to younger or older ones and those in the high-income group.

Conclusion: In this study from Germany, transportation noise annoyance during nighttime varied by personal and regional factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03094-yDOI Listing
March 2020

[Socio-demographic and employment-related factors in the German National Cohort (GNC; NAKO Gesundheitsstudie)].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Mar;63(3):267-278

Institut für Prävention und Tumorepidemiologie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Deutschland.

Background: In epidemiologic studies, standardised measurement of socio-demographic and employment-related factors is becoming increasingly important, as variables such as gender, age, education or employment status are factors influencing health and disease risks.

Aims: The article gives an overview of the scientific background and assessment of socio-demographic factors in the German National Cohort Study. In addition, the distribution of individual characteristics in the cohort as well as relationships with health-related measures are presented by way of example.

Material And Methods: The analysis is based on the data of the first half of the baseline survey (n = 101,724). On this basis, we present the distribution of key socio-demographic characteristics and analyse relationships with exemplary selected health indicators (body mass index, self-reported health) to assess the validity of socio-demographic data measurements.

Results: On average, study participants were 52.0 years old (SD = 12.4). Of the participants, 53.6% were women, 54.3% had high education, 60.1% were married and 72% were employed while 3.4% were unemployed. Well-established correlations between socio-demographic factors and health could be reproduced with the German National Cohort data. For example, low education, old age and unemployment were associated with an increased prevalence of obesity and poor self-reported health.

Discussion: The German National Cohort provides a comprehensive measurement of socio-demographic characteristics. Combined with a wide range of health data and the longitudinal measurements available in the future, this opens up new opportunities for health science and social epidemiological research in Germany.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103-020-03098-8DOI Listing
March 2020
-->