Publications by authors named "Tobias Gedde-Dahl"

57 Publications

Cytogenetic risk classification maintains its prognostic significance in transplanted FLT3-ITD mutated acute myeloid leukemia patients: On behalf of the acute leukemia working party/European society of blood and marrow transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2022 Jan 3. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Hôpital Saint-Antoine, EBMT ALWP Office, Paris, France.

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutational status is a pivotal prognosticator in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and significantly increases the risk of disease relapse. However, it remains unclear whether in FLT3-ITD patients referred for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), baseline cytogenetics significantly impacts clinical outcome. Using the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry, we performed a retrospective analysis of 1631 FLT3-ITD AML patients who underwent allo-SCT with the aim of determining the influence of cytogenetic risk category on patient outcomes. Median patient age was 49 years and median follow-up duration was 36 months. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) and incidence of relapse were 54% and 31.6%, respectively. Non-relapse mortality was experienced by 14.4% with a 2-year overall survival (OS) of 60.1%. On multivariate analysis, LFS was significantly lower in patients with intermediate and adverse risk cytogenetics compared with those with favorable risk cytogenetics, (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.06; p = .02), and (HR = 01.65, 95% CI, 1.13-2.40; p = .009), respectively. OS was significantly lower in patients with adverse risk cytogenetics compared with patients with favorable risk cytogenetics (HR = 1.74, 95% CI, 1.16-2.61; p = .008) with a trend toward lower OS in patients with intermediate risk cytogenetics compared to those with favorable risk cytogenetics (HR = 1.43, 95% CI, 1.00-2.05; p = .052). In addition, adverse risk patients and intermediate risk patients experienced higher relapse rates compared with favorable risk patients (HR = 1.83, 95% CI, 1.13-2.94; p = .013 and HR = 1.82, 95% CI, 1.19-2.77; p = .005). Overall, cytogenetic studies aid in refinement of risk stratification in transplanted FLT3-ITD AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26442DOI Listing
January 2022

A Nationwide Study of GATA2 Deficiency in Norway-the Majority of Patients Have Undergone Allo-HSCT.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Dec 10. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Section of Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Rheumatology, Dermatology and Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: GATA2 deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency that has become increasingly recognized due to improved molecular diagnostics and clinical awareness. The only cure for GATA2 deficiency is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The inconsistency of genotype-phenotype correlations makes the decision regarding "who and when" to transplant challenging. Despite considerable morbidity and mortality, the reported proportion of patients with GATA2 deficiency that has undergone allo-HSCT is low (~ 35%). The purpose of this study was to explore if detailed clinical, genetic, and bone marrow characteristics could predict end-point outcome, i.e., death and allo-HSCT.

Methods: All medical genetics departments in Norway were contacted to identify GATA2 deficient individuals. Clinical information, genetic variants, treatment, and outcome were subsequently retrieved from the patients' medical records.

Results: Between 2013 and 2020, we identified 10 index cases or probands, four additional symptomatic patients, and no asymptomatic patients with germline GATA2 variants. These patients had a diverse clinical phenotype dominated by cytopenia (13/14), myeloid neoplasia (10/14), warts (8/14), and hearing loss (7/14). No valid genotype-phenotype correlations were found in our data set, and the phenotypes varied also within families. We found that 11/14 patients (79%), with known GATA2 deficiency, had already undergone allo-HSCT. In addition, one patient is awaiting allo-HSCT. The indications to perform allo-HSCT were myeloid neoplasia, disseminated viral infection, severe obliterating bronchiolitis, and/or HPV-associated in situ carcinoma. Two patients died, 8 months and 7 years after allo-HSCT, respectively.

Conclusion: Our main conclusion is that the majority of patients with symptomatic GATA2 deficiency will need allo-HSCT, and a close surveillance of these patients is important to find the "optimal window" for allo-HSCT. We advocate a more offensive approach to allo-HSCT than previously described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-01189-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8664000PMC
December 2021

Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide versus Cyclosporine A and Methotrexate in Matched Sibling Donor Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical Hematology and Cellular Therapy, Saint-Antoine Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne University, Paris, France; Sorbonne University, INSERM, Saint-Antoine Research Centre, Paris, France.

Cyclosporine A (CSA) and methotrexate (MTX) is the standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen for matched sibling donor (MSD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recently, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has been shown to be effective in GVHD prevention. In this registry-based study, we compared outcomes of 118 patients treated with PTCy and 1202 patients with CSA/MTX who underwent MSD allo-HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia. In a matched-pair analysis, PTCy was associated with a higher incidence of relapse at 2 years compared with CSA/MTX (41.1% versus 21.3%; P = .039). The incidences of day +180 grade II-IV acute GVHD and 2-year chronic GVHD were comparable in the PTCy and CSA/MTX arms (25.2% versus 25.4% [P = .90] and 42.6% versus 42.6% [P = .84], respectively). Similarly, 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS; 54.4% versus 74.32%; P = .052), overall survival (OS; 70.6% versus 79.7%; P = .15), and GVHD-free relapse-free survival (GRFS; 38.1% versus 52.5%; P = .49) were not statistically different in the 2 arms. Our data show that GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy is feasible, resulting in similar incidences of GVHD, GRFS, LFS, and OS as seen with conventional CSA/MTX in patients undergoing allo-HCT from an MSD. The higher rate of relapse observed with PTCy needs further evaluation in a prospective study. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.11.013DOI Listing
November 2021

Long-term tolerability and efficacy after initial PegIFN-α addition to dasatinib in CML-CP: Five-year follow-up of the NordCML007 study.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Dec 31;107(6):617-623. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Hematology, St Olavs Hospital Trondheim, Trondheim, Norway.

Objectives: Treatment-free remission (TFR) has emerged as a treatment goal in chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). Attempts to increase proportion of patients achieving TFR include combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and other drugs. Interferon-α in addition to TKI has shown promising efficacy but with dose-dependent toxicity and discontinuations. NordCML007 was initiated to study the efficacy and safety of low dose pegylated IFN-α (PegIFN-α) in combination with dasatinib (DAS) in CML-CP.

Methods: Forty patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were given DAS upfront. After month 3 (M3) 15 μg/wk of PegIFN-α was added and increased to 25 μg/wk from M7 until M15. DAS treatment was continued and adverse events and BCR-ABL1 qRT-PCR values were reported yearly after M24. Results from M1 to M18 have previously been published, and here we present long-term data.

Results: After 5 years of follow-up, there were no suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions, no increase in serosal effusions, no disease progressions and no CML-related deaths. Rates of MR (MMR), MR and MR were 84.6%, 64.1% and 51.3% respectively at M60, and 95% of patients reached MMR at some point during the study.

Conclusion: Initial addition of PegIFN-α to DAS shows good long-term efficacy without increased toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13699DOI Listing
December 2021

Fast and reliable quantification of busulfan in blood plasma using two-channel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Validation of assay performance in the presence of drug formulation excipients.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 17;203:114216. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

A fast and reliable method based on two-channel liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and successfully validated for quantification of busulfan. The drug vehicle polyethylene glycol 400 was quantified simultaneously in patient samples. The sample preparation consisted of simple protein precipitation using a mixture of methanol and zinc sulphate containing busulfan-d8 as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a short biphenyl column (30 mm × 3.0 mm, 5 μm particles) using a step gradient from 30 % to 85 % methanol, ensuring co-elution of the analyte and internal standard. Quantification was performed using the mass transition of 264.1 > 151.1 for busulfan and 272.1 > 159.1 for the internal standard. Using only 20 μL of plasma sample, the lower limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL. Signal to noise ratio at the lower limit of quantification exceeded 300. The assay performance was not adversely affected by matrix effects originating from drug formulation excipients or other sample components. The coefficient of variation was ≤4 % and the mean accuracy 101-108 % across the calibration range 25-5 000 ng/mL. Chromatographic run time was 2 min and 8 s, allowing an effective run-time of 1 min and 10 s when using two alternating LC-channels. The assay has been implemented in routine practice with accreditation according to the ISO 15189 standard, and performs well in external quality control assessments. We present for the first time that shortly after an IV infusion of busulfan, the plasma levels of polyethylene glycol 400 may be in the range of 400-800 mg/L. The presence of these levels of detergent in patient samples may have detrimental effects on assay performance in LC-MS/MS, not limited to busulfan assays. This may be a concern for any LC-MS/MS analysis performed on samples collected within the first 24 h after an IV infusion of busulfan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114216DOI Listing
September 2021

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for AML patients with RUNX1 mutation in first complete remission: a study on behalf of the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 10 31;56(10):2445-2453. Epub 2021 May 31.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Acute myeloid leukemia with runt-related transcription factor 1 gene mutation (RUNX1+ AML) is associated with inferior response rates and outcome after conventional chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective, registry-based analysis to elucidate the prognostic value of RUNX1 mutation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). All consecutive adults undergoing alloSCT for AML in first complete remission (CR1) between 2013 and 2019 with complete information on conventional cytogenetics and RUNX1 mutational status were included. Endpoints of interest were cumulative relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, overall and leukemia-free survival (OS/LFS), and GvHD-free/relapse-free survival. A total of 674 patients (183 RUNX1+, 491 RUNX1-) were identified, with >85% presenting as de novo AML. Median follow-up was 16.4 (RUNX1+) and 21.9 (RUNX1-) months. Survival rates showed no difference between RUNX1+ and RUNX1- patients either in univariate or multivariate analysis (2-year OS: 67.7 vs. 66.1%, p = 0.7; 2-year LFS: 61.1 vs. 60.8%, p = 0.62). Multivariate analysis identified age, donor type and poor cytogenetics as risk factors for inferior outcome. Among patients with RUNX+ AML, older age, reduced intensity conditioning and minimal residual disease at alloSCT predicted inferior outcome. Our data provide evidence that the negative influence of RUNX1 mutations in patients with AML can be overcome by transplantation in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01322-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486660PMC
October 2021

Comparing outcomes of a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant using HLA-matched unrelated versus T-cell replete haploidentical donors in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a study of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 30;56(9):2194-2202. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains undefined. We compared outcomes using HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUD) versus haploidentical donors in this population. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The MUD allo-HCT group comprised 104 patients (male = 56, 54%), median age 36 years, mostly (76%) with B-cell phenotype in complete remission (CR) (CR2/CR3 + = 76, 73%). The 61 patients (male = 38, 62%) in the haploidentical group were younger, median age 30 years (p = 0.002), had mostly (79%) a B-cell phenotype and the majority were also in CR at time of the second allo-HCT (CR2/CR3 + = 40, 66%). Peripheral blood stem cells was the most common cell source in both, but a significantly higher number in the haploidentical group received bone marrow cells (26% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001). A haploidentical donor second allo-HCT had a 1.5-fold higher 2-year OS (49% vs. 31%), albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.13). A longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse was associated with improved OS, leukemia-free survival, graft-versus-host disease-free-relapse-free survival, and lower cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality. Results suggest no major OS difference when choosing either a MUD or haploidentical donor for ALL patients needing a second allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01317-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Superior Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free Relapse-Free Survival in Matched Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG) Compared to Matched Related Donor without ATG.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07 24;27(7):621.e1-621.e3. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Haematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; CanCell-Centre of Cancer Cell Reprogramming, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

The use of anti-T cell globulin (ATG) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation with matched unrelated donors (MUDs) is considered standard of care in many transplant centers, as these patients are at higher risk of developing acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Several publications have reported reduced incidence of chronic GVHD compared to matched related donors (MRDs). This may support the idea of introducing ATG in prospective clinical trials, also in MRDs, in an effort to reduce the long-term complications with moderate and severe GVHD. We retrospectively analyzed 169 patients, in whom ATG was given to patients who underwent transplantation with MUDs (n = 124) and not MRDs (n = 45). The incidence acute GVHD II to IV and III to IV was significantly lower in the MUD group compared to the MRD group (28.2% versus 51.3% and 8.1% versus 24.7%). Extensive chronic GVHD incidence was 5% versus 40%. Our results further support the rationale for examining the efficacy of ATG in MRDs in prospective randomized trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of early candidemia on the long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in non-leukemic patients: an outcome analysis on behalf of IDWP-EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 07 29;56(7):1563-1572. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Collegium Medicum UMK Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

We assessed the incidence and outcome of early candidemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The analysis included all first HSCTs performed from 2000 to 2015 in adult and pediatric patients with a non-leukemic disease and recorded in the EBMT registry. Overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse mortality (RM) were evaluated. Candidemia was diagnosed in 420 of 49,852 patients at a median time of 17 days post HSCT (range 0-100), the cumulative incidence being 0.85%. In 65.5% of episodes, candidemia occurred by day 30 after HSCT. The mortality rate by day 7 was 6.2%, whereas 100-day NRM was higher (HR 3.47, p < 0.0001), and 100-day OS was lower (HR 3.22, p < 0.0001) than that of patients without candidemia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 5-year OS, NRM, and RM for patients with and without candidemia were 50.5% vs. 60.8%, p < 0.0001, 28.2% vs.18.8%, p < 0.0001, and 25.3% vs. 27.2%, p = 0.4, respectively. In conclusion, in non-leukemic transplant patients, the occurrence of an early episode of candidemia is rare but it is still associated with a negative effect on the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01212-1DOI Listing
July 2021

A cell competition-based small molecule screen identifies a novel compound that induces dual c-Myc depletion and p53 activation.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100179. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Breakpoint Cluster Region-Abelson kinase (BCR-Abl) is a driver oncogene that causes chronic myeloid leukemia and a subset of acute lymphoid leukemias. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide an effective treatment for these diseases, they generally do not kill leukemic stem cells (LSCs), the cancer-initiating cells that compete with normal hematopoietic stem cells for the bone marrow niche. New strategies to target cancers driven by BCR-Abl are therefore urgently needed. We performed a small molecule screen based on competition between isogenic untransformed cells and BCR-Abl-transformed cells and identified several compounds that selectively impair the fitness of BCR-Abl-transformed cells. Interestingly, systems-level analysis of one of these novel compounds, DJ34, revealed that it induced depletion of c-Myc and activation of p53. DJ34-mediated c-Myc depletion occurred in a wide range of tumor cell types, including lymphoma, lung, glioblastoma, breast cancer, and several forms of leukemia, with primary LSCs being particularly sensitive to DJ34. Further analyses revealed that DJ34 interferes with c-Myc synthesis at the level of transcription, and we provide data showing that DJ34 is a DNA intercalator and topoisomerase II inhibitor. Physiologically, DJ34 induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and cell differentiation. Taken together, we have identified a novel compound that dually targets c-Myc and p53 in a wide variety of cancers, and with particularly strong activity against LSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.015285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948465PMC
August 2021

Peripheral host T cells survive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and promote graft-versus-host disease.

J Clin Invest 2020 09;130(9):4624-4636

Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Donor T cells are key mediators in pathogenesis, but a contribution from host T cells has not been explored, as conditioning regimens are believed to deplete host T cells. To evaluate a potential role for host T cells in GVHD, the origin of skin and blood T cells was assessed prospectively in patients after HSCT in the absence of GVHD. While blood contained primarily donor-derived T cells, most T cells in the skin were host derived. We next examined patient skin, colon, and blood during acute GVHD. Host T cells were present in all skin and colon acute GVHD specimens studied, yet were largely absent in blood. We observed acute skin GVHD in the presence of 100% host T cells. Analysis demonstrated that a subset of host T cells in peripheral tissues were proliferating (Ki67+) and producing the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 in situ. Comparatively, the majority of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in tissue in acute GVHD were donor derived, and donor-derived APCs were observed directly adjacent to host T cells. A humanized mouse model demonstrated that host skin-resident T cells could be activated by donor monocytes to generate a GVHD-like dermatitis. Thus, host tissue-resident T cells may play a previously unappreciated pathogenic role in acute GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI129965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456221PMC
September 2020

Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disease Treated by Retransplantation.

Case Reports Immunol 2020 25;2020:9403123. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV-) induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The main risk factor is anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). Patients who fail first-line treatment with rituximab have a poor prognosis. Though adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T cells is a potentially effective option, it is not readily available. In this case report, the patient developed PTLD following transplantation for aplastic anemia using ATG as part of the conditioning. He failed rituximab treatment and developed graft failure. We were aware that the stem cell donor had a recent EBV infection prior to transplantation, whereas the patient most likely was EBV negative before transplant. We describe our strategy to meet the patient's urgent need for EBV-specific T cells, as well as new hematopoietic stem cells. The same donor was used for a second transplant, using peripheral blood stem cells. The conditioning used was thiotepa/busulfan/fludarabin with a single dose of cyclophosphamide after transplant as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The EBV DNA levels fell when conditioning was started, and have been undetectable since day +15 and remained so till 18 months after transplantation. The patient is doing well. This case reports successful use of cyclophosphamide after transplantation as GVHD prophylaxis, preserving virus-specific immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9403123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060862PMC
February 2020

The Systemic Metabolic Profile Early after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Effects of Adequate Energy Support Administered through Enteral Feeding Tube.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 14;26(2):380-391. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Section for Hematology, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Section for Hematology, Institute of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation usually require nutritional support. There is no consensus on whether enteral support through tube feeding should be preferred. A recent randomized study could not detect any difference between enteral and parenteral feeding with regard to post-transplant outcomes, whereas 2 retrospective studies described an association between enteral feeding and a favorable post-transplant outcome. We compared pre- and post-transplant plasma metabolomic profiles for 10 patients receiving mainly enteral nutritional support and 10 patients receiving mainly parenteral support. Samples were collected before conditioning and 3 weeks post-transplant; 824 metabolites were analyzed using mass spectrometry. The pretransplant metabolite profiles showed a significant overlap between the 2 groups. Post-transplant samples for both patient groups showed an increase of secondary bile acids and endocannabinoids, whereas reduced levels were seen for food preservatives, plasmalogens, and retinol metabolites. The main post-transplant differences between the groups were decreased levels of fatty acids and markers of mitochondrial activation in the control group, indicating that these patients had insufficient energy intake. A significant effect was also seen for heme/bilirubin metabolism for the parenteral support. To conclude, allotransplant recipients showed altered metabolic profiles early after transplantation; this was mainly due to the conditioning/transplantation/reconstitution, whereas the type of nutritional support had minor effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.005DOI Listing
February 2020

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in second complete remission for core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Haematologica 2020 06 22;105(6):1723-1730. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Paris, France.

Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises two subtypes with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22). Since long-term response to chemotherapy in these leukemias is relatively good, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered in patients who relapse and achieve second complete remission. To evaluate the outcomes of allogeneic transplantation in this indication, we studied 631 patients reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry between the years 2000 and 2014. Leukemia-free survival probabilities at two and five years were 59.1% and 54.1%, while overall survival probabilities were 65% and 58.2%, respectively. The incidence of relapse and risk of non-relapse mortality at the same time points were 19.8% and 22.5% for relapse and 20.9% and 23.3% for non-relapse mortality, respectively. The most important adverse factors influencing leukemia-free and overall survival were: leukemia with t(8;21), presence of three or more additional chromosomal abnormalities, and Karnofsky performance score <80. Relapse risk was increased in t(8;21) leukemia and associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities as well as reduced intensity conditioning. Measurable residual disease in molecular evaluation before transplantation was associated with increased risk of relapse and inferior leukemia-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.222810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271580PMC
June 2020

Allogeneic haemopoietic transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia in second complete remission: a registry report by the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Leukemia 2020 01 30;34(1):87-99. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) may be curative in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in second complete remission (CR2) but the impact of reduced intensity (RIC) versus myeloablative conditioning (MAC) is uncertain. The Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation Registry studied an AML CR2 cohort characterised by age ≥ 18 years, first allo-HCT 2007-2016, available cytogenetic profile at diagnosis, donors who were matched family, volunteer unrelated with HLA antigen match 10/10 or 9/10 or haplo-identical. The 1879 eligible patients included 1010 (54%) MAC allo-HCT recipients. In patients <50 years (y), two year outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent with leukaemia-free survival (LFS) 54% for each, overall survival (OS), 61% vs 62%, non-relapse mortality (NRM) 18% vs 15% and graft versus host disease relapse-free survival (GRFS) 38% vs 42%. In patients ≥50 y, 2 y outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent for LFS 52% vs 49%, OS 58% vs 55% and GRFS 42.4% vs 36%. However, NRM was significantly inferior after MAC allo-HCT, 27% vs 19% (P = 0.01) despite worse cGVHD after RIC-allo (32% vs 39%). These data support the need for ongoing prospective study of conditioning intensity and GVHD mitigation in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0527-4DOI Listing
January 2020

A prospective non-interventional study on the impact of transfusion burden and related iron toxicity on outcome in myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 10 18;60(10):2404-2414. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

University Hospital Eppendorf , Hamburg , Germany.

Most myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-patients receive multiple red blood cell transfusions (RBCT). Transfusions may cause iron-related toxicity and mortality, influencing outcome after allogeneic HSCT. This prospective non-interventional study evaluated 222 MDS and CMML patients undergoing HSCT. Overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse incidence (RI) at 36 months were 52%, 44%, 25%, and 31%, respectively. Age, percentage of marrow blasts and severe comorbidities impacted OS. RFS was significantly associated with RBCT burden prior to HSCT (HR: 1.7;  = .02). High ferritin levels had a significant negative impact on OS and RI, but no impact on NRM. Administration of iron chelation therapy prior to HSCT did not influence the outcome, but early iron reduction after HSCT (started before 6 months) improved RFS significantly after transplantation (56% in the control group vs. 90% in the treated group, respectively;  = .04). This study illustrates the impact of RBCT and related parameters on HSCT-outcome. Patients with an expected prolonged survival after transplantation may benefit from early iron reduction therapy after transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2019.1594215DOI Listing
October 2019

Epigenetic age is a cell-intrinsic property in transplanted human hematopoietic cells.

Aging Cell 2019 04 2;18(2):e12897. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

The age of tissues and cells can be accurately estimated by DNA methylation analysis. The multitissue DNA methylation (DNAm) age predictor combines the DNAm levels of 353 CpG dinucleotides to arrive at an age estimate referred to as DNAm age. Recent studies based on short-term observations showed that the DNAm age of reconstituted blood following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) reflects the age of the donor. However, it is not known whether the DNAm age of donor blood remains independent of the recipient's age over the long term. Importantly, long-term studies including child recipients have the potential to clearly reveal whether DNAm age is cell-intrinsic or whether it is modulated by extracellular cues in vivo. Here, we address this question by analyzing blood methylation data from HSCT donor and recipient pairs who greatly differed in chronological age (age differences between 1 and 49 years). We found that the DNAm age of the reconstituted blood was not influenced by the recipient's age, even 17 years after HSCT, in individuals without relapse of their hematologic disorder. However, the DNAm age of recipients with relapse of leukemia was unstable. These data are consistent with our previous findings concerning the abnormal DNAm age of cancer cells, and it can potentially be exploited to monitor the health of HSCT recipients. Our data demonstrate that transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells have an intrinsic DNAm age that is unaffected by the environment in a recipient of a different age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413751PMC
April 2019

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Relapsing 25 Years after Allogenic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Case Rep Hematol 2018 23;2018:2045985. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Section for Hematology, Institute of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder in which neoplastic cells exhibit the Philadelphia chromosome and the related oncoprotein . Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) was considered the first-line treatment for CML, before the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, patients are at risk for relapse years after transplantation. We present a patient who relapsed 25 years after allo-SCT for chronic phase CML. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected gradually evaluated levels of transcripts, eventually leading to the diagnosis of relapsed disease. Additional mutational analyses did not reveal mutations in the gene, or other cooperating mutations. The patient was successfully treated with imatinib 400 mg daily, leading to new molecular remission. The case presentation emphasizes the need for long-term follow-up of such patients and the potential benefit of initiating TKI treatment with early signs of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2045985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174736PMC
September 2018

Improved outcome in patients following autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in south eastern Norway 2001-2010: a retrospective, population based analysis.

BMC Cancer 2018 Aug 8;18(1):801. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Haematology, Oslo University Hospital, P.O.Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: With the advent of novel drugs improved overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma, including patients who received up-front autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), has been reported from several centers. Here we report on overall survival in a population-based cohort of patients receiving ASCT as first line treatment and in whom novel agents were an option for second and later lines of treatment.

Methods: Patients with multiple myeloma ≤ 65 years of age who were considered for ASCT from 01.01.2001-31.06.2005 (period 1) and from 01.07.2005 until 31.12.2009 (period 2) at Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were identified. Relevant data were collected from the patients' medical records.

Results: Altogether, 293/355 patients received ASCT. In all, median OS was 82.9 months in patients ≤ 60 years of age and 59.0 months in patients 61-65 years. For patients ≤ 60 years of age median OS increased from 70.6 months to 87.7 months (p = 0. 22) and median survival after start of second line therapy increased from 34.5 months to 46.5 months (p = 0.015) between the two periods. For patients 61-65 years of age median OS increased from 57.3 months to 61.2 months (p = 0. 87) and median survival after start of second line therapy was practically unchanged (32.6 months vs. 33.1 months (p = 0.97) between the periods. In patients ≤ 60 years of age salvage ASCT was used in 34% of the patients while in patients 61-65 years of age salvage ASCT was used in 7.3% of the patients. The use of salvage ASCT and novel drugs, as well as the number of treatment lines, were higher in patients ≤ 60 years of age and increased during the study period.

Conclusion: In patients ≤ 60 years of age an increased median OS of 17 months between the two periods were noted, but the difference failed to reach statistical significance. However, a statistically significant difference in median survival of 12 months after start of second line therapy was found in this age group, which may be explained by a more active second line treatment. In patients 61-65 years only a slight increase of survival, not statistically significant, was noted between the periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4722-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6083560PMC
August 2018

Comparable outcomes of haploidentical, 10/10 and 9/10 unrelated donor transplantation in adverse karyotype AML in first complete remission.

Am J Hematol 2018 10 3;93(10):1236-1244. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Université Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most powerful therapy preventing relapse in patients with adverse cytogenetics acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). In the absence of a matched related donor, potential alternatives include 10/10, 9/10 HLA-matched unrelated (UD) or haploidentical (Haplo) donors. We analyzed clinical outcomes of patients undergoing T-cell repleted Haplo (n = 74), 10/10 UD (n = 433) and 9/10 UD HSCT (n = 123) from 2007 to 2015, reported to the EBMT Registry. Adverse risk AML was defined according to the 2017 ELN cytogenetic risk classification. The 2-year nonrelapse mortality was 19% for Haplo, 18% for 10/10 UD and 18% for 9/10 UD (P = .9). The relapse incidence was not significantly affected by donor source, with a 2-year incidence of 27% for Haplo HSCT, 39% for 10/10 UD and 37% for 9/10 UD SCT (P = .3). We show comparable probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 2 years among Haplo HSCT, 10/10 UD SCT and 9/10 UD SCT (53% and 59%, 43% and 50%, 44% and 50%, respectively, P = .5 for both parameters). The type of donor was not significantly associated with either acute or chronic graft-vs.-host disease incidence. Using multivariable Cox model, Haplo HSCT recipients experienced comparable OS and LFS to 10/10 and 9/10 UD. In the present series of adverse cytogenetics AML patients in CR1, Haplo HSCT recipients had comparable outcomes to those of 10/10 and 9/10 UDs, suggesting that all these types of HSCT may be considered a valid option in this high risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25231DOI Listing
October 2018

Runaway Train: A Leaky Radiosensitive SCID with Skin Lesions and Multiple Lymphomas.

Case Reports Immunol 2018 14;2018:2053716. Epub 2018 May 14.

Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

The nuclease Artemis is essential for the development of T-cell and B-cell receptors and repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and a loss of expression or function will lead to a radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency with no functional T-cells or B-cells (T-B-SCID). Hypomorphic mutations in the gene can lead to a functional, but reduced, T-cell and B-cell repertoire with a more indolent clinical course called "leaky" SCID. Here, we present the case of a young man who had increasingly aggressive lymphoproliferative skin lesions from 2 years of age which developed into multiple EBV+ B-cell lymphomas, where a hypomorphic mutation in the gene was found in a diagnostic race against time using whole exome sequencing. The patient was given a haploidentical stem cell transplant while in remission for his lymphomas and although the initial course was successful, he succumbed to a serious pneumonia 5 months after the transplant. The case underscores the importance of next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of patients with suspected severe immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2053716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5977007PMC
May 2018

Outcome of patients with Myelofibrosis relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplant: a retrospective study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of EBMT.

Br J Haematol 2018 08 29;182(3):418-422. Epub 2018 May 29.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (allo-HSCT) remains the only curative approach for Myelofibrosis (MF). Scarce information exists in the literature on the outcome and, indeed, management of those MF patients who relapse following transplant. We hereby report on the management and outcome of 202 patients who relapsed post allo-HSCT for MF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15407DOI Listing
August 2018

Cost-utility of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Norway.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 05 22;53(5):657-660. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Department of Haematology and Oncology, Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0091-yDOI Listing
May 2018

Relatively favorable outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for BCR-ABL1-positive AML: A survey from the acute leukemia working party of the European Society for blood and marrow transplantation (EBMT).

Am J Hematol 2018 01 31;93(1):31-39. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Hôpital Saint Antoine, ALWP office, Service d'Hématologie et de Thérapie cellulaire, Paris, France.

The aim of the study was to assess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients diagnosed with BCR-ABL1-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Fifty-seven patients (median age, 48 years, range: 19-67) with BCR-ABL1 positive AML undergoing SCT were identified. The majority of the patients (70%) received a TKI before the transplant. At SCT 48 patients were in CR (45 in CR1), while 9 patients were transplanted in a more advanced stage of the disease. MRD was negative (BCR-ABL1/ABL < 10 ) at time of SCT in 36.1% (14/40). After SCT, 16 (61.5%) out of 26 patients with MRD positive at transplantation reached MRD negativity. After a median follow-up of 6.3 years (0.7-14.2), NRM, RI, LFS, OS, and GRFS at 5 years were 18.1%, 37%, 44.2%, 53.8%, and 32.1%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute GvHD grade II-IV was 16.4%, incidence of chronic GvHD 24.9%, and of extensive cGvHD 21.4%, respectively. In patients who received SCT in CR1, 5-yr NRM, RI, LFS, OS, and GRFS were 15.9%, 36.4%, 46.5%, 59.4%, and 34.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age (<50 vs. ≥50 years) was associated with RI (5-yr: 22.7 vs. 50%), LFS (5-yr: 61.9 vs. 31.8%), and GRFS (5-yr: 52.4 vs. 18.2%), whereas MRD-negative status before SCT was associated with an improved GRFS (38.9 vs. 16.7%). We conclude that the outcome of patients <50 years of age with BCR-ABL1-positive AML receiving allogeneic SCT in CR is relatively favorable, possibly reflecting the beneficial effect of the use of TKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24928DOI Listing
January 2018

Single cell immune profiling by mass cytometry of newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia treated with nilotinib.

Haematologica 2017 08 18;102(8):1361-1367. Epub 2017 May 18.

Centre of Cancer Biomarkers CCBIO, Department of Clinical Science, Precision Oncology Research Group, University of Bergen, Norway

Monitoring of single cell signal transduction in leukemic cellular subsets has been proposed to provide deeper understanding of disease biology and prognosis, but has so far not been tested in a clinical trial of targeted therapy. We developed a complete mass cytometry analysis pipeline for characterization of intracellular signal transduction patterns in the major leukocyte subsets of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Changes in phosphorylated Bcr-Abl1 and the signaling pathways involved were readily identifiable in peripheral blood single cells already within three hours of the patient receiving oral nilotinib. The signal transduction profiles of healthy donors were clearly distinct from those of the patients at diagnosis. Furthermore, using principal component analysis, we could show that phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 (Y705) and CREB (S133) within seven days reflected BCR-ABL1 at three and six months. Analyses of peripheral blood cells longitudinally collected from patients in the ENEST1st clinical trial showed that single cell mass cytometry appears to be highly suitable for future investigations addressing tyrosine kinase inhibitor dosing and effect. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.167080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5541871PMC
August 2017

Long term impact of hyperleukocytosis in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation: An analysis from the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

Am J Hematol 2017 Jul 26;92(7):653-659. Epub 2017 May 26.

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Up to 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients present initially with hyperleukocytosis, placing them at increased risk for early mortality during induction. Yet, it is unknown whether hyperleukocytosis still retains prognostic value for AML patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Furthermore, it is unknown whether hyperleukocytosis holds prognostic significance when modern molecular markers such as FLT3-ITD and NPM1 are accounted for. To determine whether hyperleukocytosis is an independent prognostic factor influencing outcome in transplanted AML patients we performed a retrospective analysis using the registry of the acute leukemia working party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. A cohort of 357 patients with hyperleukocytosis (159 patients with white blood count [WBC] 50 K-100 K, 198 patients with WBC ≥ 100 K) was compared to 918 patients without hyperleukocytosis. Patients with hyperleukocytosis were younger, had an increased rate of favorable risk cytogenetics, and more likely to be FLT3 and NPM1 mutated. In multivariate analysis, hyperleukocytosis was independently associated with increased relapse incidence (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.12; P = .004), decreased leukemia-free survival (HR of 1.38, 95% CI, 1.07-1.78; P = .013), and inferior overall survival (HR of 1.4, 95% CI, 1.07-1.84; P = .013). Hyperleukocytosis retains a significant prognostic role for AML patients undergoing HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24737DOI Listing
July 2017

Impact of FAB classification on predicting outcome in acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified, patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in CR1: An analysis of 1690 patients from the acute leukemia working party of EBMT.

Am J Hematol 2017 Apr 7;92(4):344-350. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

The French, American, and British (FAB) classification system for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is extensively used and is incorporated into the AML, not otherwise specified (NOS) category in the 2016 WHO edition of myeloid neoplasm classification. While recent data proposes that FAB classification does not provide additional prognostic information for patients for whom NPM1 status is available, it is unknown whether FAB still retains a current prognostic role in predicting outcome of AML patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Using the European Society of Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation registry we analyzed outcome of 1690 patients transplanted in CR1 to determine if FAB classification provides additional prognostic value. Multivariate analysis revealed that M6/M7 patients had decreased leukemia free survival (hazard ratio (HR) of 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.99; P = .046) in addition to increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.06-3.01; P = .028) compared with other FAB types. In the NPM1 AML, NOS cohort, FAB M6/M7 was also associated with increased NRM (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.14-4.16; P = .019). Finally, in FLT3-ITD patients, multivariate analyses revealed that specific FAB types were tightly associated with adverse outcome. In conclusion, FAB classification may predict outcome following transplantation in AML, NOS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24640DOI Listing
April 2017

Pretransplant Levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines; Effects on Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Nov 1;17(11). Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Section for Hematology, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway.

Several pretransplant factors, including CRP (C-reactive protein) levels, reflect the risk of complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. All patients had related donors, none had active infections and 99 patients were in complete remission before conditioning. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) requiring treatment was 40%, survival at Day +100 82%, and overall survival 48%. Despite a significant correlation between pretransplant CRP and IL-6 levels, only CRP levels significantly influenced transplant-related mortality (TRM). However, CRP did not influence overall survival (OS). Pretransplant IL-31 influenced late TRM. Finally, there was a significant association between pretransplant IL-6 and early postconditioning weight gain (i.e., fluid retention), and this fluid retention was a risk factor for aGVHD, TRM and OS. To conclude, pretransplant CRP, IL-31 and early posttransplant fluid retention were independent risk factors for TRM and survival after allotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133824PMC
November 2016
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