Publications by authors named "Tiphaine Bouriez-Jones"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ezh2 and Runx1 Mutations Collaborate to Initiate Lympho-Myeloid Leukemia in Early Thymic Progenitors.

Cancer Cell 2018 02;33(2):274-291.e8

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK; MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK. Electronic address:

Lympho-myeloid restricted early thymic progenitors (ETPs) are postulated to be the cell of origin for ETP leukemias, a therapy-resistant leukemia associated with frequent co-occurrence of EZH2 and RUNX1 inactivating mutations, and constitutively activating signaling pathway mutations. In a mouse model, we demonstrate that Ezh2 and Runx1 inactivation targeted to early lymphoid progenitors causes a marked expansion of pre-leukemic ETPs, showing transcriptional signatures characteristic of ETP leukemia. Addition of a RAS-signaling pathway mutation (Flt3-ITD) results in an aggressive leukemia co-expressing myeloid and lymphoid genes, which can be established and propagated in vivo by the expanded ETPs. Both mouse and human ETP leukemias show sensitivity to BET inhibition in vitro and in vivo, which reverses aberrant gene expression induced by Ezh2 inactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2018.01.006DOI Listing
February 2018

Canonical Notch signaling is dispensable for adult steady-state and stress myelo-erythropoiesis.

Blood 2018 04 16;131(15):1712-1719. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Although an essential role for canonical Notch signaling in generation of hematopoietic stem cells in the embryo and in thymic T-cell development is well established, its role in adult bone marrow (BM) myelopoiesis remains unclear. Some studies, analyzing myeloid progenitors in adult mice with inhibited Notch signaling, implicated distinct roles of canonical Notch signaling in regulation of progenitors for the megakaryocyte, erythroid, and granulocyte-macrophage cell lineages. However, these studies might also have targeted other pathways. Therefore, we specifically deleted, in adult BM, the transcription factor recombination signal-binding protein J κ (Rbpj), through which canonical signaling from all Notch receptors converges. Notably, detailed progenitor staging established that canonical Notch signaling is fully dispensable for all investigated stages of megakaryocyte, erythroid, and myeloid progenitors in steady state unperturbed hematopoiesis, after competitive BM transplantation, and in stress-induced erythropoiesis. Moreover, expression of key regulators of these hematopoietic lineages and Notch target genes were unaffected by Rbpj deficiency in BM progenitor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-06-788505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5909886PMC
April 2018

Initial seeding of the embryonic thymus by immune-restricted lympho-myeloid progenitors.

Nat Immunol 2016 Dec 3;17(12):1424-1435. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom.

The final stages of restriction to the T cell lineage occur in the thymus after the entry of thymus-seeding progenitors (TSPs). The identity and lineage potential of TSPs remains unclear. Because the first embryonic TSPs enter a non-vascularized thymic rudiment, we were able to directly image and establish the functional and molecular properties of embryonic thymopoiesis-initiating progenitors (T-IPs) before their entry into the thymus and activation of Notch signaling. T-IPs did not include multipotent stem cells or molecular evidence of T cell-restricted progenitors. Instead, single-cell molecular and functional analysis demonstrated that most fetal T-IPs expressed genes of and had the potential to develop into lymphoid as well as myeloid components of the immune system. Moreover, studies of embryos deficient in the transcriptional regulator RBPJ demonstrated that canonical Notch signaling was not involved in pre-thymic restriction to the T cell lineage or the migration of T-IPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.3576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5172420PMC
December 2016

Next-generation sequencing to dissect hereditary nephrotic syndrome in mice identifies a hypomorphic mutation in Lamb2 and models Pierson's syndrome.

J Pathol 2014 May 6;233(1):18-26. Epub 2014 Feb 6.

Nuffield Department of Medicine and Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, UK.

The study of mutations causing the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children has greatly advanced our understanding of the kidney filtration barrier. In particular, these genetic variants have illuminated the roles of the podocyte, glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cell in glomerular filtration. However, in a significant number of familial and early onset cases, an underlying mutation cannot be identified, indicating that there are likely to be multiple unknown genes with roles in glomerular permeability. We now show how the combination of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing could be used to identify the range of mutations affecting these pathways. Using this approach, we isolated a novel mouse strain with a viable nephrotic phenotype and used whole-genome sequencing to isolate a causative hypomorphic mutation in Lamb2. This discovery generated a model for one part of the spectrum of human Pierson's syndrome and provides a powerful proof of principle for accelerating gene discovery and improving our understanding of inherited forms of renal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241031PMC
May 2014

Lymphomyeloid contribution of an immune-restricted progenitor emerging prior to definitive hematopoietic stem cells.

Cell Stem Cell 2013 Nov 19;13(5):535-48. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, 221 84 Lund, Sweden; Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy, Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.

In jawed vertebrates, development of an adaptive immune-system is essential for protection of the born organism against otherwise life-threatening pathogens. Myeloid cells of the innate immune system are formed early in development, whereas lymphopoiesis has been suggested to initiate much later, following emergence of definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Herein, we demonstrate that the embryonic lymphoid commitment process initiates earlier than previously appreciated, prior to emergence of definitive HSCs, through establishment of a previously unrecognized entirely immune-restricted and lymphoid-primed progenitor. Notably, this immune-restricted progenitor appears to first emerge in the yolk sac and contributes physiologically to the establishment of lymphoid and some myeloid components of the immune-system, establishing the lymphomyeloid lineage restriction process as an early and physiologically important lineage-commitment step in mammalian hematopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.08.012DOI Listing
November 2013

Platelet-biased stem cells reside at the apex of the haematopoietic stem-cell hierarchy.

Nature 2013 Oct 11;502(7470):232-6. Epub 2013 Aug 11.

Institute for Stem Cell Research and MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 16UU, UK.

The blood system is maintained by a small pool of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are required and sufficient for replenishing all human blood cell lineages at millions of cells per second throughout life. Megakaryocytes in the bone marrow are responsible for the continuous production of platelets in the blood, crucial for preventing bleeding--a common and life-threatening side effect of many cancer therapies--and major efforts are focused at identifying the most suitable cellular and molecular targets to enhance platelet production after bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy. Although it has become clear that distinct HSC subsets exist that are stably biased towards the generation of lymphoid or myeloid blood cells, we are yet to learn whether other types of lineage-biased HSC exist or understand their inter-relationships and how differently lineage-biased HSCs are generated and maintained. The functional relevance of notable phenotypic and molecular similarities between megakaryocytes and bone marrow cells with an HSC cell-surface phenotype remains unclear. Here we identify and prospectively isolate a molecularly and functionally distinct mouse HSC subset primed for platelet-specific gene expression, with enhanced propensity for short- and long-term reconstitution of platelets. Maintenance of platelet-biased HSCs crucially depends on thrombopoietin, the primary extrinsic regulator of platelet development. Platelet-primed HSCs also frequently have a long-term myeloid lineage bias, can self-renew and give rise to lymphoid-biased HSCs. These findings show that HSC subtypes can be organized into a cellular hierarchy, with platelet-primed HSCs at the apex. They also demonstrate that molecular and functional priming for platelet development initiates already in a distinct HSC population. The identification of a platelet-primed HSC population should enable the rational design of therapies enhancing platelet output.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12495DOI Listing
October 2013

Dicer is selectively important for the earliest stages of erythroid development.

Blood 2012 Sep 6;120(12):2412-6. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

MicroRNAs (miRs) are involved in many aspects of normal and malignant hematopoiesis, including hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. However, a role for miRs in the generation of the earliest stages of lineage committed progenitors from HSCs has not been identified. Using Dicer inactivation, we show that the miR complex is not only essential for HSC maintenance but is specifically required for their erythroid programming and subsequent generation of committed erythroid progenitors. In bipotent pre-MegEs, loss of Dicer up-regulated transcription factors preferentially expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors (Gata2 and Zfpm1) and decreased expression of the erythroid-specific Klf1 transcription factor. These results show a specific requirement for Dicer in acquisition of erythroid lineage programming and potential in HSCs and their subsequent erythroid lineage differentiation, and in particular indicate a role for the miR complex in achieving proper balance of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators necessary for HSC multilineage potential to be maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-10-383653DOI Listing
September 2012

The earliest thymic T cell progenitors sustain B cell and myeloid lineage potential.

Nat Immunol 2012 Feb 19;13(4):412-9. Epub 2012 Feb 19.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage-restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single-cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus had combined granulocyte-monocyte, T lymphocyte and B lymphocyte lineage potential but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of candidate thymus-seeding progenitors in the bone marrow, which were closely related at the molecular level. Our findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T cell lineage-commitment process transits from the bone marrow to the remote thymus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.2255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3378629PMC
February 2012

DOCK8 is essential for T-cell survival and the maintenance of CD8+ T-cell memory.

Eur J Immunol 2011 Dec 10;41(12):3423-35. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, Henry Wellcome Building of Molecular Physiology, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Deficiency in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) causes a human immunodeficiency syndrome associated with recurrent sinopulmonary and viral infections. We have recently identified a DOCK8-deficient mouse strain, carrying an ethylnitrosourea-induced splice-site mutation that shows a failure to mature a humoral immune response due to the loss of germinal centre B cells. In this study, we turned to T-cell immunity to investigate further the human immunodeficiency syndrome and its association with decreased peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Characterisation of the DOCK8-deficient mouse revealed T-cell lymphopenia, with increased T-cell turnover and decreased survival. Egress of mature CD4(+) thymocytes was reduced with increased migration of these cells to the chemokine CXCL12. However, despite the two-fold reduction in peripheral naïve T cells, the DOCK8-deficient mice generated a normal primary CD8(+) immune response and were able to survive acute influenza virus infection. The limiting effect of DOCK8 was in the normal survival of CD8(+) memory T cells after infection. These findings help to explain why DOCK8-deficient patients are susceptible to recurrent infections and provide new insights into how T-cell memory is sustained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201141759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3517112PMC
December 2011

GATA3 is redundant for maintenance and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells.

Blood 2011 Aug 13;118(5):1291-3. Epub 2011 Jun 13.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

GATA3 has been identified as a master regulator of T helper cells, as well as being important for early thymic progenitors and T-cell commitment. However, Gata3 expression initiates already at the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) level, implicating a potential role also in the regulation of HSCs. Herein we used a conditional Gata3 knockout strategy in which Gata3 expression was completely deleted from the earliest stage of embryonic hematopoietic development after emergence of HSCs from hemogenic endothelium. Through a detailed analysis of HSCs at the phenotypic and functional level, we demonstrate that steady-state levels of HSCs are normal in Gata3(fl/fl)Vav-Cre(tg/+) mice. Moreover, through long-term primary and secondary transplantation experiments, we also unequivocally demonstrate that Gata3 has a redundant role in post-transplantation HSC self-renewal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-02-338046DOI Listing
August 2011

FLT3 expression initiates in fully multipotent mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells.

Blood 2011 Aug 31;118(6):1544-8. Epub 2011 May 31.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors with down-regulated megakaryocyte-erythroid (MkE) potential are restricted to cells with high levels of cell-surface FLT3 expression, whereas HSCs and MkE progenitors lack detectable cell-surface FLT3. These findings are compatible with FLT3 cell-surface expression not being detectable in the fully multipotent stem/progenitor cell compartment in mice. If so, this process could be distinct from human hematopoiesis, in which FLT3 already is expressed in multipotent stem/progenitor cells. The expression pattern of Flt3 (mRNA) and FLT3 (protein) in multipotent progenitors is of considerable relevance for mouse models in which prognostically important Flt3 mutations are expressed under control of the endogenous mouse Flt3 promoter. Herein, we demonstrate that mouse Flt3 expression initiates in fully multipotent progenitors because in addition to lymphoid and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors, FLT3(-) Mk- and E-restricted downstream progenitors are also highly labeled when Flt3-Cre fate mapping is applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-10-316232DOI Listing
August 2011

Cited2 is an essential regulator of adult hematopoietic stem cells.

Cell Stem Cell 2009 Dec;5(6):659-65

Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK.

The regulatory pathways necessary for the maintenance of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remain poorly defined. By using loss-of-function approaches, we report a selective and cell-autonomous requirement for the p300/CBP-binding transcriptional coactivator Cited2 in adult HSC maintenance. Conditional deletion of Cited2 in the adult mouse results in loss of HSCs causing multilineage bone marrow failure and increased lethality. In contrast, conditional ablation of Cited2 after lineage specification in lymphoid and myeloid lineages has no impact on the maintenance of these lineages. Additional deletion of Ink4a/Arf (encoding p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf)) or Trp53 (encoding p53, a downstream target of p19(Arf)) in a Cited2-deficient background restores HSC functionality and rescues mice from bone marrow failure. Furthermore, we show that the critical role of Cited2 in primitive hematopoietic cells is conserved in humans. Taken together, our studies provide genetic evidence that Cited2 selectively maintains adult HSC functions, at least in part, via Ink4a/Arf and Trp53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2009.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2828538PMC
December 2009

Dock8 mutations cripple B cell immunological synapses, germinal centers and long-lived antibody production.

Nat Immunol 2009 Dec 8;10(12):1283-91. Epub 2009 Nov 8.

John Curtin School of Medical Research and Australian Phenomics Facility, Australian National University, Australia.

To identify genes and mechanisms involved in humoral immunity, we did a mouse genetic screen for mutations that do not affect the first wave of antibody to immunization but disrupt response maturation and persistence. The first two mutants identified had loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding a previously obscure member of a family of Rho-Rac GTP-exchange factors, DOCK8. DOCK8-mutant B cells were unable to form marginal zone B cells or to persist in germinal centers and undergo affinity maturation. Dock8 mutations disrupted accumulation of the integrin ligand ICAM-1 in the B cell immunological synapse but did not alter other aspects of B cell antigen receptor signaling. Humoral immunodeficiency due to Dock8 mutation provides evidence that organization of the immunological synapse is critical for signaling the survival of B cell subsets required for long-lasting immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.1820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3437189PMC
December 2009

Identification of a Steap3 endosomal targeting motif essential for normal iron metabolism.

Blood 2009 Feb 27;113(8):1805-8. Epub 2008 Oct 27.

Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hereditary forms of iron-deficiency anemia, including animal models, have taught us much about the normal physiologic control of iron metabolism. However, the discovery of new informative mutants is limited by the natural mutation frequency. To address this limitation, we have developed a screen for heritable abnormalities of red blood cell morphology in mice with single-nucleotide changes induced by the chemical mutagen ethylnitrosourea (ENU). We now describe the first strain, fragile-red, with hypochromic microcytic anemia resulting from a Y228H substitution in the ferrireductase Steap3 (Steap3(Y288H)). Analysis of the Steap3(Y288H) mutant identifies a conserved motif required for targeting Steap3 to internal compartments and highlights how phenotypic screens linked to mutagenesis can identify new functional variants in erythropoiesis and ascribe function to previously unidentified motifs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-11-120402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947353PMC
February 2009

MyD88-dependent autoimmune disease in Lyn-deficient mice.

Eur J Immunol 2007 Oct;37(10):2734-43

Henry Wellcome Building of Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Recent evidence suggests that systemic autoimmune disease depends on signals from TLR ligands, but little is known about how TLR-dependent pathways lead to the loss of self tolerance in vivo. To address this, we have examined the role of TLR signaling in Lyn-deficient mice, which develop an autoimmune disease similar to SLE. We found that absence of the TLR signaling adaptor molecule MyD88 suppresses plasma cell differentiation of switched and unswitched B cells, and prevents the generation of antinuclear IgG antibodies and glomerulonephritis. In mixed chimeras the increased IgM and IgG antibody secretion in Lyn-deficient mice is at least partially due to B cell-independent effects of Lyn. We now show that MyD88 deficiency blocks the expansion and activation of DC in which Lyn is also normally expressed, and prevents the hypersecretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 by Lyn-deficient DC. These findings further highlight the important role of TLR-dependent signals in both lymphocyte activation and autoimmune pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200737293DOI Listing
October 2007

Limited peripheral T cell anergy predisposes to retinal autoimmunity.

J Immunol 2007 Apr;178(7):4276-83

Henry Wellcome Building of Molecular Physiology, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK.

Autoimmune uveoretinitis accounts for at least 10% of worldwide blindness, yet it is unclear why tolerance to retinal Ags is so fragile and, particularly, to what extent this might be due to defects in peripheral tolerance. To address this issue, we generated double-transgenic mice expressing hen egg lysozyme, under the retinal interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding promoter, and a hen egg lysozyme-specific CD4(+) TCR transgene. In this manner, we have tracked autoreactive CD4(+) T cells from their development in the thymus to their involvement in uveoretinitis and compared tolerogenic mechanisms induced in a variety of organs to the same self-Ag. Our findings show that central tolerance to retinal and pancreatic Ags is qualitatively similar and equally dependent on the transcriptional regulator protein AIRE. However, the lack of Ag presentation in the eye-draining lymph nodes results in a failure to induce high levels of T cell anergy. Under these circumstances, despite considerable central deletion, low levels of retinal-specific autoreactive CD4(+) T cells can induce severe autoimmune disease. The relative lack of anergy induction by retinal Ags, in contrast to the same Ag in other organs, helps to explain the unique susceptibility of the eye to spontaneous and experimentally induced autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.7.4276DOI Listing
April 2007

Spontaneous class switching and B cell hyperactivity increase autoimmunity against intracellular self antigen in Lyn-deficient mice.

Eur J Immunol 2006 Nov;36(11):2920-7

Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

IgG autoantibodies cause pathology due to their ability to bind self antigens. However, the extent to which the initial B cell activation and isotype switching is antigen-driven is unclear and it has been widely proposed that intrinsic B cell hyperactivity may be a contributing factor. To explore this issue we generated mice with B cell hyperactivity secondary to deficiency in the src kinase Lyn that also expressed a gene-targeted anti-hen egg lysozyme Ig construct (VDJkappa) capable of class switching to all isotypes. The B cell hyperactivity caused spontaneous hypersecretion of antibodies and class switching to IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes in the absence of self antigen, and this persisted as an autoimmune phenomenon in the presence of intracellularly expressed hen egg lysozyme. Exaggerated class switching was also unaffected by antigen in vitro. These findings show that systemic high-avidity intracellular self antigens do not induce self tolerance in the face of B cell hyperactivity. Under these circumstances, spontaneous activation of hyperactive B cells leads to isotype switching and the development of high titres of IgG autoantibodies against intracellular proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200636462DOI Listing
November 2006

CD4 T cell-dependent autoimmunity against a melanocyte neoantigen induces spontaneous vitiligo and depends upon Fas-Fas ligand interactions.

J Immunol 2006 Sep;177(5):3055-62

Henry Wellcome Building of Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Better understanding of tolerance and autoimmunity toward melanocyte-specific Ags is needed to develop effective treatment for vitiligo and malignant melanoma; yet, a systematic assessment of these mechanisms has been hampered by the difficulty in tracking autoreactive T cells. To address this issue, we have generated transgenic mice that express hen egg lysozyme as a melanocyte-specific neoantigen. By crossing these animals to a hen egg lysozyme-specific CD4 TCR transgenic line we have been able to track autoreactive CD4+ T cells from their development in the thymus to their involvement in spontaneous autoimmune disease with striking similarity to human vitiligo vulgaris and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Our findings show that CD4-dependent destruction of melanocytes is partially inhibited by blocking Fas-Fas ligand interactions and also highlights the importance of local control of autoimmunity, as vitiligo remains patchy and never proceeds to confluence even when Ag and autoreactive CD4+ T cells are abundant. Immune therapy to enhance or suppress melanocyte-specific T cells can be directed at a series of semiredundant pathways involving tolerance and cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.5.3055DOI Listing
September 2006