Publications by authors named "Tingting Chen"

507 Publications

Photocuring Three-Dimensional Printing of Thermoplastic Polymers Enabled by Hydrogen Bonds.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Transportation and Civil Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350108, P. R. China.

The advent of 3D printing has led to a new era of highly customized products. Printing reprocessable thermoplastic polymers is limited to slow printing techniques such as fused deposition modeling. Photocuring 3D printing is a high-speed 3D printing technique suitable for photocurable thermosetting resins because the cross-linked 3D network could achieve rapid solid-liquid separation during printing. However, thermoplastics usually cannot be printed via photocuring 3D printers because rapid solid-liquid separation is hard to be achieved due to the diffusion/dissolution of linear molecular chains in their liquid precursor. Herein, we hypothesize that hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) between monomers may accelerate polymerization and reduce solubility of the polymer in liquid precursors to achieve rapid solid-liquid separation. Using this strategy, a series of UV-curable methacrylic and acrylic monomers was selected as inks to demonstrate the role of H-bonds in photocuring 3D printing. The hypothesis was further verified by using blended inks of -vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) and acrylic acid (AA) via experimental and molecular dynamic simulation. Oil palm occupies the top position of plantation species in southeastern Asian forests. Palm oil (PO) has the lowest price compared with other plant oils. Thus, a PO-based vinyl monomer was selected as the raw material for 3D printing thermoplastic polymers. Various biobased thermoplastics were successfully printed from the PO-based monomer and commercial monomers. The amide structure in the PO monomer formed H-bonds with polar monomers, including NVP and AA, resulting in printed 3D objects with surprising functionalities such as high stretchability and self-healing ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02513DOI Listing
May 2021

The Critical Role of NLRP6 Inflammasome in Infection In Vitro and In Vivo.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 8;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Animal Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

() causes severe pulmonary diseases, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has been reported that inflammasomes such as NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) play an important role in the host defense against infection. However, the role of NLRP6 in vivo and in vitro against remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of NLRP6 in regulating the -induced inflammatory signaling pathway in vitro and the role of NLRP6 in the host defense against in vivo by using NLRP6 mice. The results showed that the NLRP6 inflammasome regulated the maturation and secretion of IL-1β, but it did not affect the induction of IL-1β transcription in -infected macrophages. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-1, caspase-11, and gasdermin D (GSDMD) as well as the oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) were also mediated by NLRP6 in -infected macrophages. However, the activation of NLRP6 reduced the expression of NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways in -infected macrophages. In vivo study showed that NLRP6 mice had a higher survival rate, lower number of bacteria, and milder inflammatory response in the lung compared with wild-type (WT) mice during infection, indicating that NLRP6 plays a negative role in the host defense against . Furthermore, increased bacterial clearance in NLRP6 deficient mice was modulated by the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils. Our study provides a new insight on -induced activation of NLRP6 and suggests that blocking NLRP6 could be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069100PMC
April 2021

Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and cervical lesion risk factors: A population-based study in Zhejiang, China 2010-2019.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

This study investigates the epidemiological characteristics of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and analyzes the risk of cervical lesions among women in Zhejiang province, China. HPV data were collected retrospectively from a cohort of 67 742 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening from 2010 to 2019. Precancerous and cervical cancer cases (n = 980) were histologically diagnosed as a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; n = 341) or a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; n = 499) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) (n = 140) groups. Disordered logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between different degrees of cervical lesions, HPV16/18 infection status, positive rate of p16 (p16), Ki-67 expression, and patient's age in SIL and ICC (270/980 cases) patients. HPV52 (4.7%) was the most prevalent HPV type, followed by HPV16 (3.3%) and HPV58 (2.6%). HPV16 was the most common HPV in SIL, peaking at the age of 30-39. The HPV16 infection rate was significantly higher in HSIL than in LSIL patients; moreover, HPV16, HPV18, and HPV51 infection rates were significantly higher in ICC patients than in HSIL (Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.0167). The presence of HPV16/18 was also associated with a higher risk of developing HSIL from LSIL (odds ratio [OR] = 9.198, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.76-127.49). The increased p16 expression and HPV16/18 were associated with the increased risk of cancer progression (OR = 1.092, 95% CI: 1.03-1.36; OR = 1.495, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19, respectively). The identified hrHPV genotypes in cervical lesions can serve as a baseline indicator for future vaccine assessment in Zhejiang, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27034DOI Listing
April 2021

A Photolabile Carboxyl Protecting Group for Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis.

ChemistryOpen 2021 Apr;10(4):497-502

Faculty of Environment & Life, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

A new kind of photolabile protecting group (PLPG) for carboxyl moieties was designed and synthesized as the linker between resin and peptide. This group can be used for the protection of amino acid carboxyl groups. The peptide was synthesized on Nph (2-hydroxy-3-(2-nitrophenyl)-heptanoic acid)-derivatized resins and could be cleaved under UV exposure, thus avoiding the necessity for harsh acid-mediated resin cleavage. The PLPG has been successfully used for solid-phase synthesis of peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/open.202000324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080293PMC
April 2021

Prevalence and carcinogenic risk of high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes in different cervical cytology: a study of 124,251 cases from the largest academic center in China.

J Am Soc Cytopathol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Introduction: We investigated the prevalence and carcinogenic risks of individual high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in all types of cervical cytology specimens in the Shanghai population.

Methods: A total of 124,251 cases with cotesting of cytology and HPV genotyping between October 2017 and February 2020 were included.

Results: The overall HPV positive rate was 24.3%, with 22.9% for HR-HPV and 6.1% for low-risk HPV. The top five most common HR-HPV subtypes were HPV 52/16/58/53/39 in the entire studied population, and HPV 16/53/56/51/39 in women with abnormal cytology. The most prevalent subtypes in negative/LSIL, HSIL, and glandular lesions were HPV 52, 16, and 18, respectively. HPV 16, 33, 26, 18, 58, and 82 were the most common subtypes significantly associated with an increased risk for HSIL + cytology. HPV 16/18 were present in 53.6% and 66.7%, and HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were identified in 90.3% and 80.1% of HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma cytology, respectively. HPV 16/18 and HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were detected in 37.0% and 44.4% of women with cytologic interpretation of in situ and invasive adenocarcinoma.

Conclusions: This large-scale study identified the most common HPV subtypes in each cytology category, and the carcinogenic risks of individual HR-HPV in the studied Shanghai population. The results would provide valuable information for the development of next-generation HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programs for the Chinese population, and, more specifically, the Shanghai metropolitan population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasc.2021.03.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Biomimetic Molecular Clamp Nanopores for Simultaneous Quantifications of NAD and NADH.

Anal Chem 2021 May 27;93(18):7118-7124. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecular Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, P. R. China.

NADH/NAD is pivotal to fundamental biochemistry research and molecular diagnosis, but recognition and detection for them are a big challenge at the single-molecule level. Inspired by the biological system, here, we designed and synthesized a biomimetic NAD/NADH molecular clamp (MC), octakis-(6-amino-6-deoxy)-γ-cyclomaltooctaose, and harbored in the engineered α-HL(M113R) nanopore, forming a novel single-molecule biosensor. The single-molecule measurement possesses high selectivity and a high signal-to-noise ratio, allowing to simultaneously recognize and detect for sensing NADH/NAD and their transformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00986DOI Listing
May 2021

Integrated transcriptome and metabolome analyses of biochar-induced pathways in response to Fusarium wilt infestation in pepper.

Genomics 2021 Apr 22;113(4):2085-2095. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000, China; Integrated Plant Protection Center, Lishui Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, 827 Liyang Stress, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000, China. Electronic address:

The present study used soils contaminated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici (CCS) and CCS amended with bamboo biochar (CCS + BC) to grow the pepper variety Qujiao No.1. The physiological performance, and transcriptome and metabolome profiling in leaf (L) and fruit (F) of Qujiao No.1 were conducted. Application of biochar improved soil properties, pepper plant nutrition and increased activities of enzymes related to pest/disease resistance, leading to superior physiological performance and lesser F. wilt disease incidence than plants from CCS. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum (fruit), plant pathogen interaction (fruit), photosynthesis (leaf), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (both tissues) and metabolic pathways (both tissues). Biochar improved plant photosynthesis, enhanced the immune system, energy production and increased stress signaling pathways. Overall, our results provide evidence of a number of pathways induced by biochar in pepper regulating its response to F. wilt disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.04.031DOI Listing
April 2021

Characterization of Genes From : Searching for the Most Virulent Ones.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:632047. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Grapevine downy mildew is an insurmountable disease that endangers grapevine production and the wine industry worldwide. The causal agent of the disease is the obligate biotrophic oomycete , for which the pathogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Crinkling and necrosis proteins (CRN) are an ancient class of effectors utilized by pathogens, including oomycetes, that interfere with host plant defense reactions. In this study, 27 genes were cloned from the isolate YL genome, hereafter referred to as genes, and characterized and genes in 'YL' share high sequence identities with their ortholog genes in the other three previously sequenced isolates. Sequence divergence among the genes in the family indicates that different genes have different roles. Phylogenetic analysis of the PvCRN and the CRN proteins encoded by genes in the genome suggests that various functions might have been acquired by the superfamily through independent evolution of species. When transiently expressed in plant cells, the PvCRN protein family shows multiple subcellular localizations. None of the cloned PvCRN proteins induced hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death on the downy mildew-resistant grapevine . This was in accordance with the result that most PvCRN proteins, except PvCRN11, failed to induce necrosis in . Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) induced by INF1 was hampered by several PvCRN proteins. In addition, 15 PvCRN proteins prevented Bax-induced plant programmed cell death. Among the cell death-suppressing members, PvCRN17, PvCRN20, and PvCRN23 were found to promote the susceptibility of to , which is a semi-biotrophic oomycete. Moreover, the nucleus-targeting member, PvCRN19, promoted the susceptibility of to . Therefore, these PvCRN proteins were estimated to be virulent effectors involved in the pathogenicity of YL. Collectively, this study provides comprehensive insight into the CRN effector repertoire of YL, which will help further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of grapevine downy mildew.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.632047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044898PMC
March 2021

Corrigendum to "Myricetin inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells via the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway" [Pulm. Pharmacol. Therapeut. 65 (2020) 102000].

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 13:102031. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 524001, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102031DOI Listing
April 2021

Systematic review and cost-effectiveness of bosentan and sildenafil as therapeutic drugs for pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease in children, with significant mortality. Because of the limited research on pediatric PAH, first, systematic review of related drugs is conducted, and then economic evaluation of PAH drug treatment programs is conducted, which to provide a reference for the choice of more cost-effective treatment options.

Methods: The search includes electronic databases such as Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Embase. Through inclusion and exclusion criteria, screen high-quality randomized controlled trials. We used TreeAge Pro 2011 software to construct the markov model, that to simulate the total medical cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Sensitivity analysis of transfer probability, utility, and cost was carried out.

Results: Incorporate two studies that meet the criteria, one compared the therapeutic effects of bosentan and placebo on pediatric PAH, the other compared therapeutic effects of sildenafil and placebo on pediatric PAH, both articles were of good quality. Compared with the sildenafil group (3.38QALYs and $161,120.14), the QALY of the bosentan treatment group (3.33QALYs and $257,411.29) was reduced by 0.05, and the cost increased by $96,291.15. The estimated improvement to quality of life and reduced costs result in an estimate of economic dominance for sildenafil over bosentan. This dominant result persisted probabilistic analyses.

Conclusions: Based on this model, a more cost-effective treatment drug for PAH in children is sildenafil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25427DOI Listing
April 2021

Predictive value of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation on coronary artery abnormality in acute stage of Kawasaki disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8162. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, China.

Coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) are a severe complication of Kawasaki disease (KD) that may lead to cardiovascular events. Given the evidence that brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) decreases in children after the onset of KD, we hypothesized that it could be an early marker of CAA development in the acute stage and investigated its relationship with variation in the coronary artery diameter. A total of 326 sex- and age-matched children were enrolled, including 120 with KD, 109 febrile children and 97 healthy controls. In this study, FMD was significantly decreased in the KD group compared with the febrile and healthy groups. FMD was lower in the CAA group than in the no coronary artery abnormality group. The comparison of FMD showed an obvious difference among the CAA subgroups. The FMD in the coronary aneurysm (CA) group showed a strong negative correlation with the pretreatment maximum coronary artery Z-score (preZmax). While preZmax was 2.5, the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated an optimal cutoff point of 3.44% for FMD. FMD ≤ 3.44% could be considered as a signal of coronary lesions in acute stage of KD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87704-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046814PMC
April 2021

Fabrication of Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Whey Protein Isolate-Puerarin Composites: Environmental Stability and Interfacial Behavior.

Foods 2021 Mar 26;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, 235 East Nanjing Road, Nanchang 330047, China.

Protein-polyphenol interactions influence emulsifying properties in both directions. Puerarin (PUE) is an isoflavone that can promote the formation of heat-set gels with whey protein isolate (WPI) through hydrogen bonding. We examined whether PUE improves the emulsifying properties of WPI and the stabilities of the emulsions. We found that forming composites with PUE improves the emulsifying properties of WPI in a concentration-dependent manner. The optimal concentration is 0.5%, which is the highest PUE concentration that can be solubilized in water. The PUE not only decreased the droplet size of the emulsions, but also increased the surface charge by forming composites with the WPI. A 21 day storage test also showed that the maximum PUE concentration improved the emulsion stability the most. A PUE concentration of 0.5% improved the stability of the WPI emulsions against environmental stress, especially thermal treatment. Surface protein loads indicated more protein was adsorbed to the oil droplets, resulting in less interfacial WPI concentration due to an increase in specific surface areas. The use of PUE also decreased the interfacial tension of WPI at the oil-water interface. To conclude, PUE improves the emulsifying activity, storage, and environmental stability of WPI emulsions. This result might be related to the decreased interfacial tension of WPI-PUE composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065705PMC
March 2021

GABr Post-Treatment for High-Performance MAPbI Solar Cells on Rigid Glass and Flexible Substrate.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Perovskite solar cells have exhibited astonishing photoelectric conversion efficiency and have shown a promising future owing to the tunable content and outstanding optoelectrical property of hybrid perovskite. However, the devices with planar architecture still suffer from huge loss and severe hysteresis effect. In this research, Guanidine hydrobromide (GABr) post-treatment is carried out to enhance the performance of MAPbI n-i-p planar perovskite solar cells. The detailed characterization of perovskite suggests that GABr post-treatment results in a smoother absorber layer, an obvious reduction of trap states and optimized energy level alignment. By utilizing GABr post-treatment, the loss is reduced, and the hysteresis effect is alleviated effectively in MAPbI solar cells. As a result, solar cells based on glass substrate with efficiency exceeding 20%, of 1.13 V and significantly mitigated hysteresis are fabricated successfully. Significantly, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of GABr post-treatment in flexible device, whose efficiency is enhanced from 15.77% to 17.57% mainly due to the elimination of loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002339PMC
March 2021

Synergistic Effects of Graphene and Ammonium Polyphosphate Modified with Vinyltrimethoxysilane on the Properties of High-Impact Polystyrene Composites.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

College of Safety Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.

Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was modified with a silane coupling agent (vinyltrimethoxysilane, Si-171), and then the synergistic flame retarding effect of graphene and surface-modified APP (APP@Si-171) on high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) was investigated. Surface modification and thermal stability characterization of APP were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that surface-modified APP (APP@Si-171) exhibited significantly better dispersion and less agglomeration tendencies compared with pure APP. A series of target HIPS composites containing different mass fractions of the two flame retardants were prepared by melt blending. TGA and cone calorimeter tests (CCT) were conducted to quantitatively investigate the thermal and flammability properties of the composites, respectively. Results from TGA and CCT demonstrated that the addition of the flame retardants delayed the onset and peak temperatures in differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curves and weakened the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR). Moreover, the synergistic effect index (SE) was employed to quantify the synergistic behavior between the two fillers, and the results showed that APP@Si-171 and graphene had a synergistic effect on improving the thermal stability and flame retardancy of HIPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13060881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001055PMC
March 2021

Transcriptome and proteome analysis suggest enhanced photosynthesis in tetraploid Liriodendron sino-americanum.

Tree Physiol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics & Biotechnology of Ministry of Education of China, Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Polyploidy generally provides an advantage in phenotypic variation and growth vigor. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The tetraploid L. sino-americanum exhibits altered morphology compared to its diploid counterpart, including larger, thicker and deeper green leaves, bigger stomata, thicker stems and increased tree height. Such characteristics can be useful in ornamental and industrial applications. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind this variation, we performed a comparative transcriptome and proteome analysis. Our transcriptome data indicated that some photosynthesis genes and pathways were differentially altered and enriched in tetraploid L. sino-americanum, mainly related to F-type ATPase, the cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport, the light harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes, photosystem I and II. Most of the differentially expressed proteins we could identify are also involved in photosynthesis. Our physiological results showed that tetraploids have an enhanced photosynthetic capacity, concomitant with great levels of sugar and starch in leaves. This suggests that tetraploid L. sino-americanum might experience comprehensive transcriptome reprogramming of genes related to photosynthesis. This study has especially emphasized molecular changes involved in photosynthesis that accompany polyploidy, and provides a possible explanation for the altered phenotype of polyploidy plants in comparison to their diploid form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpab039DOI Listing
March 2021

A Plasmopara viticola RXLR effector targets a chloroplast protein PsbP to inhibit ROS production in grapevine.

Plant J 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas (Northwest A&F University), Yangling, Shaanxi, P.R. China.

Pathogens secrete a large number of effectors that manipulate host processes to create an environment conducive to pathogen colonization. However, the underlying mechanisms by which Plasmopara viticola effectors manipulate host plant cells remain largely unclear. In this study, we reported that RXLR31154, a P. viticola RXLR effector, was highly expressed during the early stages of P. viticola infection. In our study, stable expression of RXLR31154 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and Nicotiana benthamiana promoted leaf colonization by P. viticola and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. By yeast two-hybrid screening, the 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer 2 (VpOEE2 or VpPsbP), encoded by the PsbP gene, in Vitis piasezkii accession Liuba-8 was identified as a host target of RXLR31154. Overexpression of VpPsbP enhanced susceptibility to P. viticola in grapevine and P. capsici in N. benthamiana, and silencing of NbPsbPs, the homologs of PsbP in N. benthamiana, reduced P. capcisi colonization, indicating that PsbP is a susceptibility factor. RXLR31154 and VpPsbP protein were co-localized in the chloroplast. Moreover, VpPsbP reduced H O accumulation and activated the O signaling pathway in grapevine. RXLR31154 could stabilize PsbP. Together, our data revealed that RXLR31154 reduces H O accumulation and activates the O signaling pathway through stabilizing PsbP, thereby promoting disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15252DOI Listing
March 2021

A delayed diagnosis of atypical immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25174

Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital.

Introduction: Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare monogenic autoimmune disease, which is caused by mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 gene, can affect various systems. The typical clinical manifestations of IPEX are enteropathy, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and skin diseases. However, some atypical phenotypes can easily be misdiagnosed clinically.

Patient Concerns: A 9-year-and-7-month old patient suffered from recurrent wheezing, hematochezia, and eczematous dermatitis at the age of six months, but did not have any manifestations of autoimmune endocrinopathy. The patient was treated with glucocorticoids for more than six years, and he developed bronchiectasis.

Diagnosis: Whole exome sequencing revealed a hemizygous pathogenic mutation c.1010G>A, p. (Arg337Gln) in Forkhead box protein 3 gene (NM_014009.3).

Interventions: The patient was treated with oral mycophenolate mofetil combined with inhaled budesonide formoterol for six months after diagnosis.

Outcomes: The respiratory symptoms of the patient seemed to be controlled but eczematous dermatitis progressed, which led the patient to give up the treatment.

Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment of IPEX are crucial. Lung injury may be a major problem in the later stages of atypical IPEX, and mycophenolate mofetil seems to control the respiratory symptoms, but could induce significant skin side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025174DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification of an intraocular microbiota.

Cell Discov 2021 Mar 9;7(1):13. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060, China.

The current dogma in ophthalmology and vision research presumes the intraocular environment to be sterile. However, recent evidence of intestinal bacterial translocation into the bloodstream and many other internal organs including the eyes, found in healthy and diseased animal models, suggests that the intraocular cavity may also be inhabited by a microbial community. Here, we tested intraocular samples from over 1000 human eyes. Using quantitative PCR, negative staining transmission electron microscopy, direct culture, and high-throughput sequencing technologies, we demonstrated the presence of intraocular bacteria. The possibility that the microbiome from these low-biomass communities could be a contamination from other tissues and reagents was carefully evaluated and excluded. We also provide preliminary evidence that a disease-specific microbial signature characterized the intraocular environment of patients with age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, suggesting that either spontaneous or pathogenic bacterial translocation may be associated with these common sight-threatening conditions. Furthermore, we revealed the presence of an intraocular microbiome in normal eyes from non-human mammals and demonstrated that this varied across species (rat, rabbit, pig, and macaque) and was established after birth. These findings represent the first-ever evidence of intraocular microbiota in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00245-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943566PMC
March 2021

Recent advances in pharmacological interventions of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211198. China.

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III is related to irritative void-ing, sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syn-drome weakens the quality of life and poses adverse psychological effects on the pa-tients. A wide range of treatments, including botulinum neurotoxins, anti-inflammatories, alpha-blockers, phytotherapy, 5α-reductase inhibitors, phos-phodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, monoclonal anti-body, anticholinergics, gabapentin, pregabalin are used clinically. These therapies em-phasise on easing the symptoms in specific areas without curing the fundamental cause where the outcome of the treatment is not completely satisfactory. This review article explains the recent pharmacological treatments of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in detail and offers a future perspective to treat this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612827666210322125054DOI Listing
March 2021

Imaging analysis of 13 rare cases of renal collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma in northern China: a case series and literature review.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Mar 6;21(1):42. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Postal street No.23, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma (CDC) is a highly malignant and rare kidney tumor. We report our 12-year experience with CDC and the results of a retrospective analysis of patients and tumor characteristics, clinical manifestations, and imaging features by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT.

Methods: Retrospective examination of tumors between January 2007 and December 2019 identified 13 cases of CDC from three medical centers in northern China. All 13 patients underwent CT scan, among which eight underwent dynamic enhanced CT scan, two underwent PET/CT scan, and one underwent magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) examination. The lesions were divided into nephritis type and mass type according to the morphology of the tumors.

Results: The study group included ten men and three women with an average age of 64.23 ± 10.74 years. The clinical manifestations were gross hematuria, flank pain, and waist discomfort. The mean tumor size was 8.48 ± 2.48 cm. Of the 13 cases, six (46.2%) were cortical-medullary involved type and seven (53.8%) were cortex-medullary-pelvis involved type. Eleven (84.6%) cases were nephritis type and two (15.4%) were mass type. The lesions appeared solid or complex solid and cystic on CT and MRI. The parenchymal area of the tumors showed isodensity or slightly higher density on unenhanced CT scan in the 13 cases. PET/CT in two cases showed increased radioactivity intake. Evidence of intra-abdominal metastatic disease was present on CT in nine (69.2%) cases.

Conclusions: The imaging characteristics of CDC differ from those of other renal cell carcinomas. In renal tumors located in the junction zone of the renal cortex and medulla that show unclear borders, slight enhancement, and metastases in the early stage, a diagnosis of CDC needs to be considered. PET/CT provides crucial information for the diagnosis of CDC, as well as for designing treatment strategies including surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00574-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937320PMC
March 2021

Importin-αs are required for the nuclear localization and function of the Plasmopara viticola effector PvAVH53.

Hortic Res 2021 Mar 1;8(1):46. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas (Northwest A&F University), Yangling, Shaanxi, P.R. China.

Plant pathogenic oomycetes deliver a troop of effector proteins into the nucleus of host cells to manipulate plant cellular immunity and promote colonization. Recently, researchers have focused on identifying how effectors are transferred into the host cell nucleus, as well as the identity of the nuclear targets. In this study, we found that the RxLR effector PvAVH53 from the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola physically interacts with grapevine nuclear import factor importin alphas (VvImpα and VvImpα4), localizes to the nucleus and triggers cell death when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Deletion of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence from PvAVH53 or addition of a nuclear export signal (NES) sequence disrupted the nuclear localization of PvAVH53 and attenuated its ability to trigger cell death. Suppression of two tobacco importin-α genes, namely, NbImp-α1 and NbImp-α2, by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) also disrupted the nuclear localization and ability of PvAVH53 to induce cell death. Likewise, we transiently silenced the expression of VvImpα/α4 in grape through CRISPR/Cas13a, which has been reported to target RNA in vivo. Finally, we found that attenuating the expression of the Importin-αs genes resulted in increased susceptibility to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici in N. benthamiana and P. viticola in V. vinifera. Our results demonstrate that importin-αs are required for the nuclear localization and function of PvAVH53 and are essential for host innate immunity. The findings provide insight into the functions of importin-αs in grapevine against downy mildew.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00482-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917100PMC
March 2021

Nobiletin downregulates the SKP2-p21/p27-CDK2 axis to inhibit tumor progression and shows synergistic effects with palbociclib on renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Feb;18(1):227-244

Department of Urology, Xinqiao Hospital of Army Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China.

Objective: Natural extracts, including nobiletin, have been reported to enhance the efficacy and sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, whether and how nobiletin affects tumor growth and progression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are still unclear.

Methods: Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis analyses, colony-formation assays, immunoblotting analysis, and qRT-PCR analysis were performed to investigate how nobiletin affected RCC cell proliferation . The nude mouse model was used to test the efficacy of nobiletin alone or in combination with palbociclib.

Results: Nobiletin inhibited cell proliferation by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in RCC cells. Mechanistically, nobiletin decreased SKP2 protein expression by reducing its transcriptional level. The downregulated SKP2 caused accumulation of its substrates, p27 and p21, which further inhibited the activity of the G1 phase-related protein, CDK2, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor formation. A higher SKP2 protein level indicated less sensitivity to the CDK4/6 inhibitor, palbociclib. A combination of nobiletin and palbociclib showed a synergistic tumor inhibition and in an model.

Conclusions: Nobiletin downregulated the SKP2-p21/p27-CDK2 axis to inhibit tumor progression and showed synergistic tumor inhibition effects with the CDK4/6 inhibitor, palbociclib, on RCC, which indicates a potential new therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877181PMC
February 2021

Myricetin inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells via the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2020 12 16;65:102000. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 524001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although myricetin exerts anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidation effects, the relationship between myricetin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) -stimulated inflammation in A549 cells remains unclear. This study sought to assess whether myricetin has an anti-inflammatory effect on TNF-α-induced A549 cells and clarify the potential mechanisms.

Methods: Cell viability was examined with a Cell Counting Kit-8, and cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Potential mechanisms were further explored by western blotting, immunofluorescence, and SIRT1 activity assays.

Results: In A549 cells, TNF-α stimulation upregulated the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Moreover, TNF-α activated the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, as confirmed by IκB-α degradation, and phosphorylation and nuclear migration of NF-κB p65. However, pretreatment with myricetin significantly attenuated the observed responses triggered by TNF-α. Mechanistically, myricetin strongly increased the deacetylase activity through decreasing phosphorylation, but not expression, of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in TNF-α-stimulated A549 cells. Myricetin-mediated SIRT1 activation was further evidenced by the decreased acetylation of NF-κB p65 and p53. Subsequently, all of these concurrent changes were reversed by the addition of salermide (SIRT1 inhibitor), illustrating the critical role of SIRT1 in mediation of anti-inflammatory processes by myricetin.

Conclusions: Myricetin, an enhancer of SIRT1, inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in A549 cells, therefore, reducing their inflammatory response. Our findings provide insight for novel therapies for inflammation-related diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102000DOI Listing
December 2020

Neuroprotective effect of apigenin against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats activation of the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Mar;12(5):2270-2281

Department of Neonatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 109 Xue Yuan Xi Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, China.

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury can lead to mortality and severe long-term disabilities including cerebral palsy and brain injury. However, the treatment options for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury are limited. Apigenin is abundantly present in vegetables, celery, and chamomile tea with diverse biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. However, it has not yet been reported whether apigenin exerts a neuroprotective effect against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. In this study, we investigated whether apigenin could ameliorate HI brain injury and explored the associated mechanism using in vivo experiments. We found that apigenin remarkably reduced the infarct volume and ameliorated cerebral edema, decreased inflammatory response, inhibited apoptosis, promoted the recovery of tissue structure, and improved prognosis following HI brain injury. Mechanistically, we found that apigenin exerted a neuroprotective effect against HI brain injury by activating the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway. In summary, all these results demonstrate that apigenin could be a potential therapeutic approach for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02555kDOI Listing
March 2021

Enhanced Power Factor and Figure of Merit of CuZnSnSe-Based Thermoelectric Composites by Ag Alloying.

Inorg Chem 2021 Mar 16;60(5):3452-3459. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, No. 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, People's Republic of China.

The quaternary chalcogenide composites CuZnSnAgSe (0 ≤ ≤ 0.075) have been successfully synthesized by high-temperature melting and annealing followed by hot-pressing. The phase structure of the bulk sample has been analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement combined with Raman spectroscopy to confirm CuZnSnSe as the main phase with ZnSe and CuZn secondary phases. The thermoelectric properties of all specimens have been investigated in the temperature range of 300-700 K. The replacement of Sn by Ag significantly enhances the electrical transport properties by providing extra charge carriers. The tremendous reduction in electrical resistivity enhances the power factor, and a maximum power factor of 804 μW K m is achieved at 673 K for the specimen with 5% Ag content. Furthermore, increased point defects increase phonon scattering, resulting in reduced thermal conductivity. The combined effect of improved power factor and suppressed thermal conductivity provides a good boost to the dimensionless figure of merit. The maximum figure of merit of = 0.25 has been achieved at 673 K for CuZnSnAgSe, which is 2.5 times the value of the parent sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00079DOI Listing
March 2021

Symmetry Analysis of Oriental Polygonal Pagodas Using 3D Point Clouds for Cultural Heritage.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Ancient pagodas are usually parts of hot tourist spots in many oriental countries due to their unique historical backgrounds. They are usually polygonal structures comprised by multiple floors, which are separated by eaves. In this paper, we propose a new method to investigate both the rotational and reflectional symmetry of such polygonal pagodas through developing novel geometric models to fit to the 3D point clouds obtained from photogrammetric reconstruction. The geometric model consists of multiple polygonal pyramid/prism models but has a common central axis. The method was verified by four datasets collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a hand-held digital camera. The results indicate that the models fit accurately to the pagodas' point clouds. The symmetry was realized by rotating and reflecting the pagodas' point clouds after a complete leveling of the point cloud was achieved using the estimated central axes. The results show that there are RMSEs of 5.04 cm and 5.20 cm deviated from the perfect (theoretical) rotational and reflectional symmetries, respectively. This concludes that the examined pagodas are highly symmetric, both rotationally and reflectionally. The concept presented in the paper not only work for polygonal pagodas, but it can also be readily transformed and implemented for other applications for other pagoda-like objects such as transmission towers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916231PMC
February 2021

mRNA-Activated Multifunctional DNAzyme Nanotweezer for Intracellular mRNA Sensing and Gene Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 9;13(7):8015-8025. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

Deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) is regarded as a promising gene therapy drug. However, poor cellular uptake efficacy and low biological stability limit the utilization of DNAzyme in gene therapy. Here, we report a well-known programmable DNAzyme-based nanotweezer (DZNT) that provides a new strategy for the detection of TK1 mRNA and survivin mRNA-targeted gene silencing therapy. At the end of the DZNT arm, there are two functionalized single-stranded DNA and each consists of two parts: the segment complementary to TK1 mRNA and the split-DNAzyme segment. The hybridization with intracellular TK1 mRNA enables the imaging of TK1 mRNA. Meanwhile, the hybridization draws the split-DNAzyme close to each other and activates DNAzyme to cleave the survivin mRNA to realize gene silencing therapy. The results demonstrate that the DZNT nanocarrier has excellent cell penetration, good biocompatibility, and noncytotoxicity. DZNT can image intracellular biomolecule TK1 mRNA with a high contrast. Furthermore, the split-DNAzyme can efficiently cleave the survivin mRNA with the aid of TK1 mRNA commonly present in cancer cells, accordingly can selectively kill cancer cells, and has no harm to normal cells. Taken together, the multifunctional programmable DZNT provides a promising platform for the early diagnosis of tumors and gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c21601DOI Listing
February 2021

High arabinoxylan fine structure specificity to gut bacteria driven by corn genotypes but not environment.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 16;257:117667. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research and Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA. Electronic address:

While gut bacteria have different abilities to utilize dietary fibers, the degree of fiber structural alignment to bacteria species is not well understood. Corn bran arabinoxylan (CAX) was used to investigate how minor polymer fine structural differences at the genotype × environment level influences the human gut microbiota. CAXs were extracted from 4 corn genotypes × 3 growing years and used in in vitro fecal fermentations. CAXs from different genotypes had varied contents of arabinose/xylose ratio (0.46-0.54), galactose (58-101 mg/g), glucuronic acid (18-32 mg/g). There was genotype- but not environment-specific differences in fine structures. After 24 h fermentation, CAX showed different acetate (71-86 mM), propionate (35-44 mM), butyrate (7-10 mM), and total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) (117-137 mM) production. SCFA profiles and gut microbiota both shifted in a genotype-specific way. In conclusion, the study reveals a very high specificity of fiber structure to gut bacteria use and SCFA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117667DOI Listing
April 2021

Multimodal Treatment of Children With Sacrococcygeal Yolk Sac Tumor: Retrospective Analysis of Clinicopathology Characteristics and Relapse-free Survival.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine Department of Pediatric Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhongshan Er Lu, Guangzhou, China.

The aim of the study was to explore the clinicopathologic characteristics of sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor (SYST) associated with relapse and the role of sensitivity to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in predicting outcome. The authors investigated prognostic factors of age, stage, initial tumor size, pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and alfa fetoprotein. A total of 26 patients with SYST were enrolled. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 20 cases. Six patients underwent resection as initial therapy. Recurrence occurred in 12 patients. Nine patients with specimens exhibiting no malignant component after chemotherapy did not experience recurrence. By contrast, relapses occurred in 7 out of 11 patients with viable residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All relapsed patients still achieved partial remission or complete remission after salvage therapy. Five-year relapse-free survival and overall survival rates were 55.2% and 100%, respectively (median follow-up, 59.5 mo; range, 16 to 155). Patients with complete necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a better outcome compared with children with viable residual tumor. Relapse-free survival of pediatric SYSTs in this cohort were still low and warrants the multidisciplinary effort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000002068DOI Listing
January 2021

Development and validation of a novel index for the differential diagnosis of corticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome.

Pituitary 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154, Anshan, Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.

Purpose: To develop an index for the differential diagnosis of corticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome (CS).

Methods: The development cohort included 112 consecutive patients with clinicopathologically confirmed corticotropin-dependent CS at the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, from December 2004 to May 2020, and data of 126 patients from studies published from 2016 to August 2020, identified through search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library, was extracted for external validation. The index was calculated as the product of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, pmol/L) and urinary free cortisol (UFC, nmol/24 h) divided by 10,000. The discriminative ability was tested using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: In development cohort, area under curve of ROC analysis of the ACTH-UFC index in identifying Cushing disease (CD) was 0.977. The diagnostic accuracy of ACTH-UFC index ≤ 11 was comparable to that of 48 h 8 mg/d high-dose dexamethasone test (HDDST) in identifying CD, with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of 96.6%, 87.5%, 7.73, and 0.04, respectively. The sensitivity of ACTH-UFC index ≤ 11 in parallel combination with pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 100% for identifying CD. The performance of the ACTH-UFC index in parallel or serial combination with pituitary MRI was similar in the validation cohort.

Conclusions: ACTH-UFC index provides a rapid, convenient and non-invasive adjunctive approach for the differential diagnosis of corticotropin-dependent CS, with no risk of aggravating metabolic disturbances. Investigations for ectopic causes of corticotropin-dependent CS should be performed with ACTH-UFC index > 11 and negative contrasted pituitary MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11102-021-01126-7DOI Listing
January 2021