Publications by authors named "Ting Yong"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Breast cancer proliferation and deterioration-associated metabolic heterogeneity changes induced by exposure of bisphenol S, a widespread replacement of bisphenol A.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 19;414:125391. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is considered to be associated with the increased incidence of breast cancer. As a widespread replacement of BPA, the effect of bisphenol S (BPS) on breast tumor programming has not been studied. We reported that BPS exposure significantly promoted proliferation and deterioration of breast tumor by nonmonotonic dose response. The mechanisms were investigated by molecular biology and mass spectrometry-based lipidomics, proteomics and imaging. BPS exposure induced the spatially intratumor heterogeneity of morphology-driven lipids and proteins. The more significant proliferation resulted from BPS-10 (10 μg/kg body weight /day) exposure was evidenced by the variations of spatial distribution of lipids related to ceramide-sphingomyelin signaling pathway, proteins related to chromosomal stability and cell proliferation in central necrotic regions of breast tumor. In contrast, the BPS-100 exposure obviously accelerated deterioration of breast tumor by the variations of spatial distribution of proteins that were associated with the stability of nucleic acid structure in peripheral neoplastic regions. Accordingly, dysregulation of metabolism and protein function as well as DNA methylation and hypoxic tumor microenvironment could be applied to predict the possibility of tumorigenesis, proliferation and metastasis that might be caused by other bisphenol analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125391DOI Listing
February 2021

Corrigendum to 'Effects of PM exposure in utero on heart injury, histone acetylation and GATA4 expression in offspring mice'[Chemosphere, 2020, volume 256, 127133].

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 24;262:128679. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128679DOI Listing
January 2021

Anticoccidial effect of extract against .

Pharm Biol 2020 Dec;58(1):636-645

Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Context: extracts (FMTE) have a good therapeutic effect on coccidiosis, but there is no relevant research on its prophylactic effect on coccidiosis.

Objective: This study comprehensively evaluates the anticoccidial effect of FMTE.

Materials And Methods: , the unsporulated oocysts were treated with serial dilutions of FMTE and incubated for 7 d, and the sporulated oocysts were counted for calculating the median lethal concentration (LC) of FMTE. , 180 10-day-old broiler chickens free of coccidiosis were weighted and randomly distributed into six groups: normal group, untreated group, 4 protective groups (positive group and three FMTE groups). From day 10 to day 21, chickens in the three FMTE groups were pre-treated with FMTE at the dosage of 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg/d, respectively, and chickens in the positive group were pre-treated with qiuliling (10 g/kg/d). On day 14, chickens in all groups except the normal group were orally infected with 1.5 × 10 sporulated oocysts. The clinical symptoms were observed from day 10 to day 21, the anticoccidial index (ACI), tissue lesions, and intestinal microflora were determined on day 21.

Results: FMTE showed anti-sporulation effect against and the LC value was 245.83 µg/mL . , FMTE at the dosage of 10 g/kg/d was effective against infection, and its ACI value was 162.56, which was higher than the value of positive drug qiuliling (128.81). FMTE have potent anticoccidial effects, and it presents an alternative anticoccidial agent for avian coccidiosis control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2020.1784234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470156PMC
December 2020

Effects of PM exposure in utero on heart injury, histone acetylation and GATA4 expression in offspring mice.

Chemosphere 2020 Oct 19;256:127133. Epub 2020 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Atmospheric fine particulate matter exposure (PM) can increase the incidence and mortality of heart disease, and raise the risk of fetal congenital heart defect, which have recently drawn much attention. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to PM (approximately equivalent to 174 μg/m) by intratracheal instillation during the gestation. After birth, 10 weeks old offspring mice were divided into four groups: male exposed group (ME), female exposed group (FE), male control group (MC), female control group (FC). The pathological injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, histone acetylation levels, and expressions of GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4) and downstream genes were investigated. The results showed that exposure to PM in utero increased pathological damage and TNF-α and IL-6 levels in hearts of offspring mice, and effects in ME were more serious than FE. Notably, GATA4 protein levels in hearts in ME were significantly lower than that of MC, accompanied by down-regulation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-p300 and up-regulation of histone deacetylase-SIRT3. As GATA4 downstream genes, ratios of β-MHC gene expression to α-MHC significantly raised in ME relative to the MC. Results of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR assay found that binding levels of acetylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in GATA4 promoter region in the hearts of ME or FE were markedly decreased compared with their corresponding control groups. It suggested that maternal exposure to PM may cause cardiac injury in the offspring, heart damage of male mice was worse than female mice, in which process HAT-p300, H3K9ac, transcription factor GATA4 may play an important regulation role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127133DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of the splenic injury following exposure of mice to bisphenol S: A mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and imaging analysis.

Environ Int 2020 02 12;135:105378. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Background: The widespread use of bisphenol A (BPA) substitutes has aroused great attention towards their toxicological evaluation in vivo and in vitro. Considering the intimate correlation between BPA and metabolic diseases, we explored whether bisphenol S (BPS), a major substitute to BPA, could cause the splenic toxicity by disturbing the lipid metabolism in mouse model.

Methods: We investigated the splenic injury by combing the mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics and imaging analysis, as well as molecular biological methods. Mice were divided into three groups (control-olive oil, 10 and 100 μg-BPS/kg body weight/day group) and treated by BPS in 56 days.

Results: Two of BPS-treated concentrations induced the splenic morphological alterations and inflammation, including the decreased numbers and cellularity in the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (T cell zone) and paucicellular primary lymphoid follicles (B cell zone) in splenic white pulp. Lipidome profiling of spleen after BPS treatment was also changed with up-regulated sphingosine [So], neutral glycosphingolipids [CerG], cholesteryl ester [ChE], diacylglycerols [DAG], lysophosphatidylcholine [LPC], lysophosphatidylethanolamine [LPE], phosphatidylglycerols [PG], phosphatidylinositols [PI] and phosphatidylserine [PS] as well as down-regulated ceramide [Cer], phosphatidylethanolamines [PE] and sphingomyelin [SM] compared to the control group. More importantly, significant different lipids in abundance and spatial distribution also implicated that white pulp were more sensitive to BPS treatment than other splenic sub-structures. Signaling lipids such as So (d18:0), Cer (d18:1/24:0), Cer (d18:1/22:0), SM (d18:1/22:1) and SM (d18:1/24:2) associated with inflammation were remarkable changed and co-localized in the splenic white pulp.

Conclusions: Our finding indicated that BPS exposure promoted the splenomegaly, pro-inflammatory activation and morphological alterations, as well as induced the lipidome perturbation in the immune cells of white pulp, which might be expected to contribute a new perspective of bisphenol-induced organ injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105378DOI Listing
February 2020

The Longitudinal Impact of Excessive Daytime Somnolence on Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease in a Southeast Asian Cohort.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2020 11 13;33(6):363-369. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology, 54738National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore.

Objective: Sleep-wake disturbances, such as excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), are nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and significantly affect the quality of life. This study aimed to examine the relationship between EDS and motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD.

Methods: Eighty-two patients with idiopathic mild PD were followed up twice a year for 2 years and assessed on sleep, mood, anxiety, cognition, function, and disease severity. Data were analyzed retrospectively, comparing motor and nonmotor outcomes between those with EDS and those without.

Results: At baseline, 27.9% had EDS and were similar in demographic and clinical characteristics to those without; 10% had persistent EDS during the first year of follow-up. Excessive daytime somnolence had a significant main effect on mood and anxiety as shown by consistently higher scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale ( = .022) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale scores ( = .011) throughout duration of follow-up. The group with persistent EDS showed greater rate of worsening Frontal Assessment Battery scores by the end of first-year follow-up ( = .025) and greater rate of worsening Apathy Scale scores by the end of 2-year follow-up ( = .002). No significant effects of EDS on motor symptoms and disease severity were found.

Conclusions: In a Southeast Asian cohort of patients with PD, EDS had a negative longitudinal impact on mood, anxiety, apathy, and cognitive function but no impact on motor symptoms and disease severity. Excessive daytime somnolence is thus a potential therapeutic target to improve nonmotor outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988719892326DOI Listing
November 2020

Attitudes toward artificial intelligence in radiology with learner needs assessment within radiology residency programmes: a national multi-programme survey.

Singapore Med J 2019 Nov 4. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Introduction: We aimed to assess the attitudes and learner needs of radiology residents and faculty radiologists regarding artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in radiology.

Methods: A web-based questionnaire, designed using SurveyMonkey, was sent out to residents and faculty radiologists in all three radiology residency programmes in Singapore. The questionnaire comprised four sections and aimed to evaluate respondents' current experience, attempts at self-learning, perceptions of career prospects and expectations of AI/ML curriculum in their residency programme. Respondents' anonymity was ensured.

Results: A total of 125 respondents (86 male, 39 female; 70 residents, 55 faculty radiologists) completed the questionnaire. The majority agreed that AI/ML will drastically change radiology practice (88.8%) and makes radiology more exciting (76.0%), and most would still choose to specialise in radiology if given a choice (80.0%). 64.8% viewed themselves as novices in their understanding of AI/ML, 76.0% planned to further advance their AI/ML knowledge and 67.2% were keen to get involved in an AI/ML research project. An overwhelming majority (84.8%) believed that AI/ML knowledge should be taught during residency, and most opined that this was as important as imaging physics and clinical skills/knowledge curricula (80.0% and 72.8%, respectively). More than half thought that their residency programme has not adequately implemented AI/ML teaching (59.2%). In subgroup analyses, male and tech-savvy respondents were more involved in AI/ML activities, leading to better technical understanding.

Conclusion: A growing optimism of radiology undergoing technological transformation and AI/ML implementation has led to a strong demand for AI/ML curriculum in residency education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027147PMC
November 2019

Medial Temporal Atrophy in Amyloid-Negative Amnestic Type Dementia Is Associated with High Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensity.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;70(1):99-106

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Non-amyloid mechanisms behind neurodegeneration and cognition impairment are unclear. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) may play an important role in suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (SNAP), especially in Asia.

Objective: To examine the association between CVD and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in amyloid-β negative patients with mild amnestic type dementia.

Methods: Thirty-six mild dementia patients with complete neuropsychological, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker, and neuroimaging information were included. Only patients with clinically significant MTA were recruited. Patients were categorized based on their CSF Aβ levels. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological variables were analyzed.

Results: Despite comparable MTA between Aβ positive and negative patients, Aβ-negative patients had significantly greater white matter hyperintensities (WMH; Total Fazekas Rating) than their Aβ-positive counterparts (6.42 versus 4.19, p = 0.03). A larger proportion of Aβ-negative patients also had severe and confluent WMH. Regression analyses controlling for baseline characteristics yielded consistent results.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA is associated with greater CVD burden among Aβ-negative patients with amnestic type dementia. CVD may be an important mechanism behind hippocampal atrophy. This has implications on clinical management strategies, where measures to reduce CVD may slow neurodegeneration and disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-181261DOI Listing
September 2020

Hippocampal subfield atrophy of CA1 and subicular structures predict progression to dementia in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 06 25;90(6):681-687. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore

Background: Global hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's dementia and has been similarly reported in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). However, there is limited literature on the differential involvement of hippocampal subfields in predicting conversion to PDD. This study is an extension of previous findings on progression to mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods: This cohort study recruited 73 non-demented participants with idiopathic PD (age 65.80±8.17, 75.3% male) from an outpatient neurology clinic. All participants underwent clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing and 3T MRI scans at baseline and 18 months while on prescribed dopaminergic medication. Hippocampal subfield volumes were obtained using automatic segmentation in FreeSurfer V.6.0. Participants who progressed to PDD and those who did not were compared on hippocampal subfield atrophy and cognitive change (episodic memory, attention, executive functions, language, visuospatial abilities). Subfields were further examined for their abilities to predict PDD conversion and distinguish PDD from non-demented PD using receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Results: Smaller baseline global hippocampal volume, cornu ammonis (CA) subfield CA1, subiculum and presubiculum volumes were observed in participants who went on to develop dementia, and predicted PDD conversion. Those who progressed to PDD saw greater decline in global hippocampal volume, granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, presubiculum, parasubiculum and fimbria. Decline in subiculum and fimbria volume corresponded to cognitive decline in attention and executive functions, respectively.

Conclusions: Early atrophy of CA1, subiculum and presubiculum preceded, and predicted, PDD conversion. Differential patterns of subfield atrophy were also observed among those who progressed to PDD and were associated with impaired executive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2018-319592DOI Listing
June 2019

Prenatal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter induces dysregulations of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue in male offspring.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 3;657:1389-1397. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR, China; HKBU Institute for Research and Continuing Education, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Prenatal exposure to ambient fine particles (diameter < 0.25 μm, PM) has been found to be associated with abnormal growth and development in offspring. However, the effects of PM on the lipid metabolism of adipose tissue in offspring are unclear. In the present study, we established a mouse model of prenatal exposure to PM by intratracheal instillation to pregnant C57BL/6 female mice with PM suspension or normal saline. We found that prenatal exposure to PM of a mouse model reduced body weight in adult male offspring after 6 weeks old. Histological analysis showed that the adipocyte size was significantly reduced in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) in male offspring, but not in brown adipose tissue. The expression levels of genes related to fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, ACSL1) and oxidation (PPARα) in eWAT were also significantly decreased. In addition, downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) was also observed. Lipidomics analysis of eWAT demonstrated that prenatal exposure of PM reduced lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), sphingomyelins (SM), and ceramides (Cer), indicating that metabolic pathways, including SM-Cer signaling and glycerophospholipids remodeling, were disrupted. In summary, prenatal exposure to PM was associated with the dysregulations in lipid metabolism of eWAT and pro-inflammatory response in male offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.007DOI Listing
March 2019

Regional White Matter Hyperintensity Influences Grey Matter Atrophy in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;66(2):533-549

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

The association between cerebrovascular disease pathology (measured by white matter hyperintensities, WMH) and brain atrophy in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain to be elucidated. Thus, we investigated how WMH influence neurodegeneration and cognition in prodromal and clinical AD. We examined 51 healthy controls, 35 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 30 AD patients. We tested how total and regional WMH is related to specific grey matter volume (GMV) reductions in MCI and AD compared to controls. Stepwise regression analysis was further performed to investigate the association of GMV and regional WMH volume with global cognition. We found that total WMH volume was highest in AD but showed the strongest association with lower GMV in MCI. Frontal and parietal WMH had the most extensive influence on GMV loss in MCI. Additionally, parietal lobe WMH volume (but not hippocampal atrophy) was significantly associated with global cognition in MCI while smaller hippocampal volume (but not WMH volume) was associated with lower global cognition in AD. Thus, although WMH volume was highest in AD subjects, it had a more pervasive influence on brain structure and cognitive impairment in MCI. Our study thus highlights the importance of early detection of cerebrovascular disease, as its intervention at the MCI stage might potentially slow down neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180280DOI Listing
October 2019

MALDI-MS Imaging Reveals Asymmetric Spatial Distribution of Lipid Metabolites from Bisphenol S-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

Anal Chem 2018 03 16;90(5):3196-3204. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry , Hong Kong Baptist University , Hong Kong SAR , P. R. China.

With the continuous exposure of environmental pollutants in organisms, determination of abundance variation and spatial distribution of lipids might expand our understanding of toxicological mechanisms occurring in the kidney. Herein, an integrated method involving mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-MS imaging (MALDI-MSI) was developed for the study of nephrotoxicity in mice exposed to 10 and 100 μg bisphenol S (BPS)/kg body weight/day. The BPS exposure remarkable perturbed abundances of 91 potential markers that mainly involved in five metabolic pathways. We elucidated the lipids spatial heterogeneity by using morphological analysis, probabilistic latent semantic analysis, and coregistered multimodal three-dimensional (3D)-MSI. In morphological analysis, both 10 and 100 μg BPS induced significant nephrotoxicity to mice, including glomerular necrosis in renal cortex, cloudy swelling in renal medulla, and interstitial collapsing in renal pelvis. Significant differential signaling lipids such as sphingomyelin (SM) (d22:0/20:4), ceramide (Cer) (d18:2/24:1), and sphingosine (d18:0) related to inflammation were found to be up-regulated and colocalized in the renal cortex, medulla, and pelvis, respectively. Also, seven significant differential lipids, which are considered to be involved in membrane homeostasis and cellular function, were found to be colocalized in the renal cortex. The observed significant variations of morphology, lipid accumulation, and metabolism in the renal cortex implicated that lipids in the renal cortex were more sensitive to BPS exposure than those in the renal medulla and pelvis. Moreover, we reconstructed a 3D-MSI model of kidney and identified two heterogeneous-related substructures in the renal cortex and pelvis upon 100 μg BPS exposure. It might be used in novel specificity evaluation and early diagnosis for environmental pollutant-induced kidney diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04540DOI Listing
March 2018

Interaction between APOE-ɛ4 and HMGB1 is associated with widespread cortical thinning in mild cognitive impairment.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 02 28;89(2):225-226. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2017-315869DOI Listing
February 2018

The Pearl of FDG PET/CT in Preoperative Assessment of Patients with Potentially Operable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and its Clinical Impact.

World J Nucl Med 2017 Jan-Mar;16(1):21-25

Nuclear Medicine and Hospital Authority Clinical PET/CT Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the clinical impact and efficacy of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) on management decisions for patients suffering from clinically operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A retrospective review of 186 potentially operable NSCLC patients who underwent whole-body PET/CT examination in 2012 was performed. The patients were further analyzed via the electronic patient record (ePR) system for relevant findings. Overall change in management was assigned if a patient avoided unnecessary surgery due to disease upstaging or if a patient underwent further neoadjuvant treatment or investigation before the curative surgery. Of all 186 subjects, 65 (34.9%) became inoperable after PET/CT due to disease upstaging. The remaining 121 (65.1%) of patients remained operable after PET/CT examination. Nineteen out of 121 potentially operable patients did not receive curative surgery eventually, as 11 patients had poor clinical condition and 8 patients refused surgery. One hundred two out of 186 (54.8%) patients received curative operation following PET/CT. Among these 102 individuals, 97 patients (95%) proceeded to surgery without further neoadjuvant treatment or other investigatory procedures. Of the remaining 5 patients, 4 (3.9%) received neoadjuvant treatment and 1 (1.0%) had further investigation after PET/CT. Seventy of the 186 (37.6%) patients underwent changes in management plans after PET/CT study. Out of the 186 individuals, a subgroup of 141 (75.8%) patients underwent dedicated CT thorax before PET/CT examination. Forty-seven (33.3%) patients had avoided futile surgery due to disease upstaging. Fifty-one of the 141 (36.2%) patients underwent changes in management plans after PET/CT. PET/CT had great clinical impact, with significant reduction of futile curative surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1450-1147.176882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5314658PMC
February 2017

Progression of small vessel disease correlates with cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2016 10 30;31:34-40. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore; Duke-NUS, Graduate Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:

Objective: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is a risk factor for dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD), however the pathophysiological role of SVD in PD-dementia is unclear. We investigated the impact of baseline and progression of SVD on cortical thickness and the correlation to cognition.

Methods: Seventy-three mild PD patients with baseline and follow-up structural MRI scans, serial clinical and neuropsychological assessments were studied. SVD included the load of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes and perivascular spaces (PVS). WMH progression was assessed using the modified Rotterdam Progression scale, while for lacunes and PVS, development of new lesions was considered as lesion progression. Patients were classified as having SVD-progression and SVD-no-progression based on the longitudinal changes in their SVD measures. Freesurfer was used to measure baseline and follow-up regional cortical thickness and subcortical volumes and correlated to cognitive performance.

Results: Fourteen patients were classified as SVD-progression and 59 as SVD-no-progression. Over 18 months, PD SVD-progression demonstrated significant cortical thinning in the left frontal and bilateral parietal regions with associated decline in memory, executive function, and motor functions. PD SVD-progression also had reduced volumes in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala at baseline and greater atrophy in the caudate nucleus over 18 months.

Discussion: The extent and progression of SVD is associated with focal cerebral atrophy and domain-specific cognitive dysfunction. Measures to retard SVD may be potentially useful in preventing dementia in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2016.06.019DOI Listing
October 2016

Horizontal liver cleft: a rare anatomic variant.

Am J Case Rep 2014 Sep 20;15:401-3. Epub 2014 Sep 20.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Improvements in hepatobiliary surgical techniques, with increased usage of segmental and subsegmental resection, make accurate preoperative radiological assessment delineation of the liver segments ever more crucial. Conventionally, this is done by drawing imaginary straight planes along the portal and hepatic veins. We herein report a rare case of a horizontal cleft between the superior and inferior liver segments seen on CT.

Case Report: A 74-year-old female patient with a known medical history of ovarian cancer with peritoneal metastasis and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy was referred to our department for CT to assess disease response after treatment. On contrast-enhanced CT, apart from the ovarian cancer, the liver had a smooth, well-defined horizontally orientated cleft that broadly divided the organ into 2 halves. The cleft contained the right and left main portal veins, and consequently had a curved down-sloping configuration accommodating the curved course of these veins. This liver cleft was present from an earlier CT study performed 3 years ago, and there was no history of preceding liver surgery.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the anomaly of a horizontal liver cleft, which may be attributed to early cessation of the embryological formation of the liver. This liver cleft also illustrates the difficulties in liver segmentation using Couinaud's classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.892274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4179549PMC
September 2014