Publications by authors named "Tine Dalby"

34 Publications

Pertussis seroprevalence among adults of reproductive age (20-39 years) in fourteen European countries.

APMIS 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The Public Health Agency of Sweden, SE-171 82, Solna, Sweden.

The reported incidence of pertussis in European countries varies considerably. We aimed to study specific Bordetella pertussis seroprevalence in Europe by measuring serum IgG antibody levels to pertussis toxin (anti-PT IgG). Fourteen national laboratories participated in this study including Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden. Each country collected approximately 250 samples (N = 7903) from the age groups 20-29 years (N = 3976) and 30-39 years (N = 3927) during 2010-2013. Samples were anonymous residual sera from diagnostic laboratories and were analyzed at the national laboratories by a Swedish reference method, a commercial ELISA kit or were sent to Sweden for analysis. The median anti-PT IgG concentrations ranged from 4 IU/mL to 13.6 IU/mL. The proportion of samples with anti-PT IgG ≥100 IU/mL, indicating a recent infection ranged from 0.2% (Hungary) to 5.7% (Portugal). The highest proportion of sera with anti-PT IgG levels between 50 IU/mL and <100 IU/mL, indicating an infection within the last few years, was found in Portugal (12.3%) and Italy (13.9%). This study shows that the circulation of B. pertussis is quite extensive in adults, aged 20-39 years, despite well-established vaccination programs in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.13165DOI Listing
June 2021

Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 06;3(6):e360-e370

Irish Meningitis and Sepsis Reference Laboratory, Children's Health Ireland at Temple Street, Dublin, Ireland; Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed.

Findings: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded.

Interpretation: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide.

Funding: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00077-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166576PMC
June 2021

Circulation of pertussis and poor protection against diphtheria among middle-aged adults in 18 European countries.

Nat Commun 2021 05 17;12(1):2871. Epub 2021 May 17.

University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Reported incidence of pertussis in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA) varies and may not reflect the real situation, while vaccine-induced protection against diphtheria and tetanus seems sufficient. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of DTP antibodies in EU/EEA countries within the age groups of 40-49 and 50-59 years. Eighteen countries collected around 500 samples between 2015 and 2018 (N = 10,302) which were analysed for IgG-DTP specific antibodies. The proportion of sera with pertussis toxin antibody levels ≥100 IU/mL, indicative of recent exposure to pertussis was comparable for 13/18 countries, ranging between 2.7-5.8%. For diphtheria the proportion of sera lacking the protective level (<0.1 IU/mL) varied between 22.8-82.0%. For tetanus the protection was sufficient. Here, we report that the seroprevalence of pertussis in these age groups indicates circulation of B. pertussis across EU/EEA while the lack of vaccine-induced seroprotection against diphtheria is of concern and deserves further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23114-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128873PMC
May 2021

Molecular characterization and epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 8 in Denmark.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 5;21(1):421. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300, Copenhagen S, Denmark.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 8 incidence has increased in Denmark after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV). The mechanism behind the serotype 8 replacement is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to present epidemiological data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and molecular characterization of 96 serotype 8 clinical isolates.

Methods: IPD data from 1999 to 2019 were used to calculate the incidence and age distribution. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis was performed on 96 isolates (6.8% of the total serotype 8 IPD isolates in the period) to characterize the isolates with respect to pneumococcal lineage traits, a range of genes with potential species discrimination, presence of colonization and virulence factors, and molecular resistance pattern.

Results: The serotype 8 IPD incidence increased significantly (P < 0.05) for the age groups above 15 years after the introduction of PCV13, primarily affecting the elderly (65+). All isolates were phenotypically susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Molecular characterization revealed seven different MLST profiles with ST53 as the most prevalent lineage (87.5%) among the analyzed serotype 8 isolates. The genes covering the cell-surface proteins: lytA, rspB, pspA, psaA & Xisco and the pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin = ply were present in all isolates, while genes for the membrane transporter proteins: piaA/piaB/piaC; the capsular genes: cpsA (wzg) & psrP; the metallo-binding proteins zmpB & zmpC; and the neuroamidase proteins: nanA/nanB were variably present. Surprisingly, the putative transcriptional regulator gene SP2020 was not present in all isolates (98%). Susceptibility to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin was molecularly confirmed.

Conclusion: The observed serotype 8 replacement was not significantly reflected with a change in the MLST profile or changes in antibiotic resistance- or virulence determinants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06103-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097992PMC
May 2021

Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Serotype 1 Following Introduction of PCV10 and PCV13: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

Microorganisms 2021 03 27;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Children's Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Following PCV10/13 introduction, the incidence rate (IR) of ST1 IPD declined among all ages. After six years of PCV10/13 use, the all-site IRR was 0.05 (95% credibility interval 0.04-0.06) for all ages, 0.05 (0.04-0.05) for <5 years of age, 0.08 (0.06-0.09) for 5-17 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.08) for 18-49 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.07) for 50-64 years, and 0.05 (0.04-0.06) for ≥65 years. PCV10/13 use in infant immunization programs was followed by a 95% reduction in ST1 IPD in all ages after approximately 6 years. Limited data availability from the highest ST1 disease burden countries using a 3+0 schedule constrains generalizability and data from these settings are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066231PMC
March 2021

Preliminary report of an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in mink and mink farmers associated with community spread, Denmark, June to November 2020.

Euro Surveill 2021 02;26(5)

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.5.210009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863232PMC
February 2021

Differences in epitope-specific antibodies to pertussis toxin after infection and acellular vaccinations.

Clin Transl Immunology 2020 2;9(8):e1161. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Institute of Biomedicine University of Turku Turku Finland.

Objectives: Pertussis toxin (PT) is a component of all acellular pertussis vaccines. PT must be detoxified to be included in acellular vaccines, which results in conformational changes in the functional epitopes of PTs. Therefore, induced epitope-specific antibodies to PT may vary after vaccinations or natural infections, and this information could reveal biomarkers implicated for protection and successful immunisation.

Methods: Pertussis toxin epitope-specific antibodies in sera from 152 vaccinated children and 72 serologically confirmed patients were tested with a blocking ELISA, based on monoclonal antibodies that target protective PT epitopes.

Results: All study groups induced considerable antibody titres to subunit 1 (S1). Of interest, S3 7E10-specific antibodies were present in patients, but not after vaccinations ( < 0.001). The impact of glutaraldehyde treatment of PT was visible on epitope 1D7 (S1), whereas epitopes 1B7 (S1) and 10D (S1) were more preserved. Antibodies to these epitopes were higher after three primary vaccine doses than after a single booster dose.

Conclusion: The high amount of 7E10-specific antibodies in patients suggests this epitope might be functionally relevant in protection. The overall characteristics of epitope-specific antibodies are influenced by infection or vaccination background, by the used detoxification method of PT and by the amount of the toxin used in immunisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396262PMC
August 2020

Differences and Temporal Changes in Risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Adults with Hematological Malignancies: Results from a Nationwide 16-Year Cohort Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 02;72(3):463-471

Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are known to carry an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, temporal variations in IPD risks following a cancer diagnosis remain poorly characterized. To inform vaccine guidelines and patient management, we assessed the IPD incidence among patients with HM and other malignancies.

Methods: The study population included all individuals aged ≥15 years during 2000-2016 in Denmark. Variations in incidences of IPD over time and between different types of hematological malignancies and diagnoses were assessed by Poisson regression.

Results: During 85 002 224 person-years of observation, 13 332 episodes of a first IPD were observed, of which 765 (5.7%) occurred among individuals with HM. Among HM patients, the IPD incidence rate decreased continuously during the study period (rate ratio per year, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, .90-.92). The risk of IPD in patients with HM was up to 39 times higher when compared to the background population and was highest for multiple myeloma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Unlike other malignancies, the increased IPD risk did not wane with the time since HM diagnosis. We found a vaccination uptake of only ≤2% in patients with HM and ≤1% for those with other types of malignancies.

Conclusions: Adults with HM in general and patients with lymphoid malignancies in particular have an increased risk for IPD, compared with patients with other types of cancer and with individuals free of cancer. The pneumococcal vaccination uptake is extremely low in this at risk-population. Efforts to prevent IPD in HM patients are continuously warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850540PMC
February 2021

Antibody Specificity Following a Recent Infection in Adolescence Is Correlated With the Pertussis Vaccine Received in Childhood.

Front Immunol 2019 17;10:1364. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Statens Serum Institut, Infectious Disease Preparedness, Copenhagen, Denmark.

resurgence affects not only the unvaccinated, but also the vaccinated population. Different vaccines are available, however, it is currently unknown whether the type of childhood vaccination has an influence on antibody responses following a infection later in life. Therefore, the study aim was to profile serum antibody responses in young adults with suspected infections, immunized during childhood with either whole-cell (wPV) or monocomponent acellular pertussis (aPV) vaccines. Serum anti-pertussis toxin (PTx) IgG antibody levels served as an indicator for a recent infection. Leftover sera from a diagnostic laboratory from 36 Danish individuals were included and divided into four groups based on immunization background (aPV . wPV) and serum anti-PTx IgG levels (- . +). Pertussis-specific IgG/IgA antibody levels and antigen specificity were determined by using multiplex immunoassays (MIA), one- and two-dimensional immunoblotting (1 & 2DEWB), and mass spectrometry. Besides enhanced anti-PTx levels, wPV(+) and aPV(+) groups showed increased IgG and IgA levels against pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae 2/3, and pertussis outer membrane vesicles (OMV). In the wPV(-) and aPV(-) groups, only low levels of anti-OMV antibodies were detected. 1DEWB demonstrated that antibody patterns differed between groups but also between individuals with the same immunization background and anti-PTx levels. 2DWB analysis for serum IgG revealed 133 immunogenic antigens of which 40 were significantly different between groups allowing to differentiate wPV(+) and aPV(+) groups. Similarly, for serum IgA, 7 of 47 immunogenic protein spots were significantly different. This study demonstrated that infection-induced antibody responses were distinct on antigen level between individuals with either wPV or aPV immunization background. Importantly, only 2DEWB and not MIA could detect these differences indicating the potential of this method. Moreover, in individuals immunized with an aPV containing only PTx in childhood, the infection-induced antibody responses were not limited to PTx alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6592373PMC
October 2020

Pertactin-deficient isolates: evidence of increased circulation in Europe, 1998 to 2015.

Euro Surveill 2019 Feb;24(7)

Department of Medical Microbiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

IntroductionPertussis outbreaks have occurred in several industrialised countries using acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs) since the 1990s. High prevalence of pertactin (PRN)-deficient isolates has been found in these countries.AimsTo evaluate in Europe: (i) whether proportions of PRN-deficient strains increased in consecutive collections of clinical isolates; (ii) if the frequency of PRN-deficient strains in countries correlated with the time since ACV introduction; (iii) the presence of pertussis toxin (PT)-, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA)- or fimbriae (Fim)-deficient isolates.Methods clinical isolates were obtained from different European countries during four periods (EUpert I-IV studies): 1998 to 2001 (n = 102), 2004 to 2005 (n = 154), 2007 to 2009 (n = 140) and 2012 to 2015 (n = 265). The isolates' selection criteria remained unchanged in all periods. PRN, PT, FHA and Fim2 and Fim3 expression were assessed by ELISA.ResultsIn each period 1.0% (1/102), 1.9% (3/154), 6.4% (9/140) and 24.9% (66/265) of isolates were PRN-deficient. In EUpert IV, PRN-deficient isolates occurred in all countries sampled and in six countries their frequency was higher than in EUpert III (for Sweden and the United Kingdom, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0155, respectively). Sweden and Italy which used ACVs since the mid 1990s had the highest frequencies (69%; 20/29 and 55%; 11/20, respectively) while Finland, where primary immunisations with ACV containing PRN dated from 2009 had the lowest (3.6%). Throughout the study, no PT- or FHA-deficient isolate and one Fim2/3-deficient was detected.ConclusionResults suggest that the longer the period since the introduction of ACVs containing PRN, the higher the frequency of circulating PRN-deficient isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.7.1700832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381657PMC
February 2019

Differences in the Impact of Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement in Individuals With and Without Underlying Medical Conditions.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 06;69(1):100-106

Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have had a well-documented impact on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, declines in IPD due to vaccine-targeted serotypes have been partially offset by increases in IPD due to nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs). The goal of this study was to quantify serotype-specific changes in the incidence of IPD that occurred in different age groups, with or without certain comorbidities, following the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in the childhood vaccination program in Denmark.

Methods: We used nationwide surveillance data for IPD and a hierarchical Bayesian regression framework to estimate changes in the incidence of IPD associated with the introduction of PCV7 (2007) and PCV13 (2010) while controlling for serotype-specific epidemic cycles and unrelated secular trends.

Results: Following the introduction of PCV7 and PCV13 in children, the net impact of serotype replacement varied considerably by age group and comorbidities. Differences in the magnitude of serotype replacement were due to variations in the incidence of NVTs in the different risk groups before the introduction of PCVs. The relative increases in the incidence of IPD caused by specific NVTs did not differ appreciably between risk groups in the postvaccination period. Serotype replacement offset a greater proportion of the benefit of PCVs in strata in which the NVTs comprised a larger proportion of cases prior to the introduction of the vaccines.

Conclusions: These findings could help to predict the impact of next-generation PCVs in specific risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579958PMC
June 2019

Surveillance of Circulating Bordetella pertussis Strains in Europe during 1998 to 2015.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 05 25;56(5). Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

One reason for increased pertussis incidence is the adaptation of to vaccine-induced immunity by modulating its genomic structure. This study, EUpert IV, includes 265 isolates collected from nine European countries during 2012 to 2015 ( = 265) and compares the results to previous EUpert I to III studies (1998 to 2009). The analyses included genotyping, serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Genotyping results showed only small variations among the common virulence genes of The frequencies of serotypes Fim2 and Fim3 varied among the four collections. Genomic analyses showed that MLVA type 27 increased to 80% between the periods of 1998 to 2001 and 2012 to 2015. Two PFGE profiles, BpSR3 (29.4%) and BpSR10 (27.2%), constituted more than 50% of the circulating isolates in the present collection. Our study indicates that the European population is changing and became more homogenous after the introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01998-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5925733PMC
May 2018

External Quality Assurance for Laboratory Identification and Capsular Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Sci Rep 2017 10 16;7(1):13280. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of vaccine preventable diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

An external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for pneumococcal serotype identification has been performed over a period of 11 years, by a network of European pneumococcal reference laboratories. We report the results from the EQA, and present an assessment of the acceptability and utility of the EQA scheme. Reports from 22 EQA panels distributed in 2005-2016 were analysed. Each EQA panel consisted of seven isolates. A questionnaire including seven questions related to the acceptability and utility of the EQA scheme was distributed to all participating laboratories. Altogether, 154 pneumococcal isolates were tested. Of the 92 serologically distinct serotypes currently defined, 49 serotypes were included in the rounds. Discrepant results were observed in eight EQA rounds, involving 11 isolates (7.1%, 95% CI: 4% to 12%). All participating laboratories reported that the EQA scheme was useful for quality assurance purposes. Our results show that comparable serotyping data can be obtained in different laboratories. The EQA participation helps to keep the typing procedures at a high standard and provides data for accreditation purposes. The EQA is helpful when new technologies are introduced, and reveal limitations of both genotypic and phenotypic methods. Continuation of the presented EQA scheme is planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13605-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643306PMC
October 2017

Development of an LPS-based ELISA for diagnosis of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 infections in Danish patients: a follow-up study.

BMC Microbiol 2017 05 25;17(1):125. Epub 2017 May 25.

Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300, Copenhagen S, Denmark.

Background: The bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica causes gastroenteritis in humans. The study aimed to develop a diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS antibodies in sera from Danish patients with suspected Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 gastrointestinal infection. As a part of this, antibody decay profiles after culture confirmed Yersinia enteritis were studied.

Results: An ELISA using Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS as the coating antigen was developed for measuring IgA, IgG and IgM specific antibodies. A longitudinal collection of 220 sera drawn between 20 and 1053 days after onset of symptoms from 85 adult Danish patients with verified Yersinia enteritis were examined. A control group of 100 sera from healthy Danish blood-donors were analysed in order to determine the cut-off for interpretation of results. Serum samples from 62 out of 81 patients who delivered either the first or the second sample were found positive for specific antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS (77%). For samples collected within 60 days after onset of symptoms (n = 48) sensitivities of 58%, 42% and 79% for IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies were found. A sensitivity of 81% was found for these samples when using the definition of a positive result in either IgA, IgG or IgM as a combined positive. All samples received up to 36 days after onset of symptoms (n = 10) were found to be positive using this definition. For the period 61 to 90 days after onset of symptoms (n = 32), a combined sensitivity of 63% was found. The antibody levels as well as decay profiles for the three different immunoglobulin classes for the individual patients exhibited a large degree of variation.

Conclusions: Using a definition of positive as a positive result for either IgA, IgG or IgM antibodies, a diagnostic sensitivity of 81% was achieved for samples received within 60 days after onset of symptoms. In particular, the levels of specific IgM antibodies were elevated. In comparison, the standard tube-agglutination assay achieved a sensitivity of 60% on the same samples. The sensitivity of the ELISA decreased the longer the duration of time since onset of symptoms. The ELISA was highly specific for Yersinia when testing sera from individuals with confirmed gastrointestinal infections by other bacteria. Moreover, the knowledge gained from this longitudinal study of antibody decay profiles can be used in future epidemiological studies of seroprevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-017-1035-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5445397PMC
May 2017

The incidence of invasive pneumococcal serotype 3 disease in the Danish population is not reduced by PCV-13 vaccination.

Heliyon 2016 Nov 29;2(11):e00198. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Since 2010, Denmark has included the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV-13) in the childhood immunization programme. However, serotype 3 remains as an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Denmark. IPD surveillance data (1999-2016) was used to calculate the incidence and age-distribution of serotype 3 IPD, and the effect of PCV-13 on serotype 3 IPD incidence was examined. The incidence of serotype 3 IPD in the age group below 65 years was 0.51/100,000 pre PCV-13, and 0.45/100,000 post PCV-13. In the group 0-4 years, serotype 3 IPD incidence was 0.28/100,000 pre PCV-13, and 0.16/100,000 post PCV-13. Serotype 3 IPD incidence in the elderly showed a mean of 4.27/100,000 pre PCV-13, and 4.32/100,000 post PCV-13. PCV-13 childhood immunization in Denmark has not lead to a reduction of the incidence of IPD caused by serotype 3. The reason behind this missing effect needs to be investigated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133732PMC
November 2016

Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013.

Euro Surveill 2016 Sep;21(36)

Statens Serum Institut, Microbiology and Infection Control, Copenhagen, Denmark.

We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0-25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5048713PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.36.30334DOI Listing
September 2016

The effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by ten non-vaccine serotypes in Denmark.

Vaccine 2016 Feb 6;34(6):769-74. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Surveillance data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Denmark (1999-2014) was analysed regarding the incidence and age-distribution due to ten selected non-PCV serotypes (10-Non-PCV). The effect of PCV-7 and PCV-13 vaccines on the 10-Non-PCV IPD incidence was examined.

Methods: IPD cases caused by serotypes included in PCV-7, the additional six serotypes included in PCV-13 and 10-Non-PCV serotypes were identified (8, 9N, 11A, 12F, 15A, 22F, 24F, 20, 23B, 33F). The IPD incidence was stratified by three age groups: 0-4 years, 5-64 years and 65+ years.

Results: The predominant IPD cases were caused by serotypes that are not included in PCV-13 (71%), followed by the six additional PCV-13 serotypes. The IPD incidence of serotypes included in the PCV-7 decreased markedly after PCV-7 introduction but are still diagnosed at a low level. The IPD incidence for the 10-Non-PCV serotypes was low for age groups 0-4 years and 5-64 years but high for 65+ years.

Conclusion: Future vaccinations of the young age group alone with a vaccine targeting some of the 10-Non-PCV serotypes may not elicit the desired effect on herd protection since these serotypes are primarily causing IPD among the elderly. Future pneumococcal vaccination strategies in Denmark may therefore need carriage studies in order to identify among whom the pneumococcal serotypes causing IPD are carried.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.12.056DOI Listing
February 2016

Multilocus sequence types of invasive pneumococcal isolates from Danish infants (0-90 days) 2003-2013.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Oct 14;8:563. Epub 2015 Oct 14.

Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has been part of the Danish childhood immunization programme since October 2007. It is administered at the ages of 3, 5 and 12 months and healthy infants younger than 90 days are consequently not vaccinated. Initially the PCV-7 vaccine was used but this was replaced by the PCV-13 in April 2010. Vaccination coverage in Denmark is approximately 90%.The aim of this study was to present multilocus sequence typing (MLST) profiles of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Danish infants (0-90 days) with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the period 2003-2013.

Findings: 32 IPD isolates were investigated for their MLST profiles. The identified sequence types (STs) had previously been observed in other European countries. Among the clones were ST 306 (serotype 1), ST 180 (serotype 3) and ST 191 (serotype 7F).

Conclusions: The ST profile distribution in this study is similar to that observed in other European studies and show a variety of STs. Our data show that the majority of STs found in Denmark is also observed in other European countries, indicating that the IPD isolates were from clones generally circulating in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1540-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606476PMC
October 2015

Pertussis Across the Globe: Recent Epidemiologic Trends From 2000 to 2013.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015 Sep;34(9):e222-32

*Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; †Department of Immunology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark; ‡Department of Pediatrics, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; §Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; ¶Department of Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital (UKBB), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; ‖Department of Pediatrics, Laboratorio VacSal, Instituto de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular (IBBM), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CCT-CONICET La Plata, Argentina; **Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; ††Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Nacional de Niños de Costa Rica "Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera," San José, Costa Rica; and ‡‡Labor:Medizin Krefeld MVZ, Krefeld, Germany.

Pertussis has reemerged as a problem across the world. To better understand the nature of the resurgence, we reviewed recent epidemiologic data and we report disease trends from across the world. Published epidemiologic data from January 2000 to July 2013 were obtained via PubMed searches and open-access websites. Data on vaccine coverage and reported pertussis cases from 2000 through 2012 from the 6 World Health Organization regions were also reviewed. Findings are confounded not only by the lack of systematic and comparable observations in many areas of the world but also by the cyclic nature of pertussis with peaks occurring every 3-5 years. It appears that pertussis incidence has increased in school-age children in North America and western Europe, where acellular pertussis vaccines are used, but an increase has also occurred in some countries that use whole-cell vaccines. Worldwide, pertussis remains a serious health concern, especially for infants, who bear the greatest disease burden. Factors that may contribute to the resurgence include lack of booster immunizations, low vaccine coverage, improved diagnostic methods, and genetic changes in the organism. To better understand the epidemiology of pertussis and optimize disease control, it is important to improve surveillance worldwide, irrespective of pertussis vaccine types and schedules used in each country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000795DOI Listing
September 2015

Invasive pneumococcal isolates from Danish infants (0 - 90 Days) during the years 1943 to 2013.

PLoS One 2014 26;9(8):e106180. Epub 2014 Aug 26.

Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Laboratory (NSRlab), Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (at 3, 5 and 12 months of age) in 2007 and was replaced with PCV-13 in 2010 without changes to the schedule. After the introduction of these vaccines the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to vaccine types (VTs) declined markedly in children aged 0-2 years; however, cases among infants too young to be protected by vaccination have not been studied in detail. We present data on IPD in infants less than 90 days from 1943 until 2013.

Study Design: The study included all infants younger than 90 days born from 1943 through 2013, who had not been PCV vaccinated and from whom a pneumococcus isolate from blood or cerebrospinal fluid had been submitted to the Danish national reference laboratory. All isolates were serotyped using Pneumotest Latex and Quellung reaction.

Results: A total of 216 IPD cases were identified. The age group specific incidence (total number of IPD cases per 100,000 live births) varied from 0 to 16 in the period 1943 to 2007 and from 1.7 to 9.2 in the period 2008 to 2013. IPD cases due to PCV-7 serotypes were not observed later than 2009.

Conclusion: In Danish infants younger than 90 days, IPD due to PCV-7 serotypes has decreased and has not been observed since 2009, but the total incidence of IPD has not changed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0106180PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4144964PMC
December 2015

Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence and mortality.

Clin Infect Dis 2014 Oct 16;59(8):1066-73. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at the population level is unclear. We explored PCV13's effect in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-related morbidity and mortality, and whether serotype-specific changes were attributable to vaccination or expected as a part of natural, cyclical variations.

Methods: This was a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study based on the linkage of laboratory surveillance data and the Danish Civil Registration System. Changes in IPD incidence and mortality during baseline (2000-2007), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2008-2010), and PCV13 (2011-2013) periods were estimated. Predicted incidences of serotypes were estimated controlling for cyclical trends from historical patterns observed during the past 20 years.

Results: We observed a 21% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-25%) in IPD incidence in the total population after PCV13's introduction, and a 71% reduction (95% CI, 62%-79%) in children aged <2 years, considered as the vaccine effectiveness. We estimated a 28% reduction (95% CI, 18%-37%) in IPD-related 30-day mortality, from 3.4 deaths (95% CI, 3.2-3.6) per 100 000 population in the pre-PCV period to 2.4 (95% CI, 2.2-2.7) in the PCV13 period. The decline in mortality was observed across all age groups but was mainly related to mortality reductions in the nonvaccinated population. For serotypes 1 and 3, there were no significant changes in incidence beyond what would be expected from natural cyclical patterns. Serotype 19A significantly increased following PCV7's introduction, but the incidence declined toward baseline in 2012.

Conclusions: PCV13 has brought greater benefits than we had expected in our setting. We observed a further decline on IPD incidence shortly after the shift from PCV7 to PCV13 in the national immunization program. This decline was accompanied by a substantial population-level decline in pneumococcal-related mortality of nearly 30% among nonvaccinated persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu524DOI Listing
October 2014

Global population structure and evolution of Bordetella pertussis and their relationship with vaccination.

mBio 2014 Apr 22;5(2):e01074. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) to less effective acellular vaccines (ACVs), waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. Pathogen adaptation is suggested by antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains and by the emergence of strains with increased pertussis toxin production. We applied comparative genomics to a worldwide collection of 343 B. pertussis strains isolated between 1920 and 2010. The global phylogeny showed two deep branches; the largest of these contained 98% of all strains, and its expansion correlated temporally with the first descriptions of pertussis outbreaks in Europe in the 16th century. We found little evidence of recent geographical clustering of the strains within this lineage, suggesting rapid strain flow between countries. We observed that changes in genes encoding proteins implicated in protective immunity that are included in ACVs occurred after the introduction of WCVs but before the switch to ACVs. Furthermore, our analyses consistently suggested that virulence-associated genes and genes coding for surface-exposed proteins were involved in adaptation. However, many of the putative adaptive loci identified have a physiological role, and further studies of these loci may reveal less obvious ways in which B. pertussis and the host interact. This work provides insight into ways in which pathogens may adapt to vaccination and suggests ways to improve pertussis vaccines. IMPORTANCE Whooping cough is mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis, and current vaccines are targeted against this organism. Recently, there have been increasing outbreaks of whooping cough, even where vaccine coverage is high. Analysis of the genomes of 343 B. pertussis isolates from around the world over the last 100 years suggests that the organism has emerged within the last 500 years, consistent with historical records. We show that global transmission of new strains is very rapid and that the worldwide population of B. pertussis is evolving in response to vaccine introduction, potentially enabling vaccine escape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01074-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3994516PMC
April 2014

Experience with monocomponent acellular pertussis combination vaccines for infants, children, adolescents and adults--a review of safety, immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness studies and 15 years of field experience.

Vaccine 2013 Oct 28;31(45):5178-91. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Statens Serum Institut, 5 Artillerivej, 2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark. Electronic address:

Combination vaccines containing a monocomponent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, manufactured at Statens Serum Institut (SSI), Denmark, have successfully controlled Bordetella pertussis infections in Denmark since 1997. The efficacy of this aP vaccine was 71% in a double-blind, randomised and controlled clinical trial. Its safety and immunogenicity have been demonstrated in infants, children, adolescents and adults. In approximately 500,000 children it was effective against pertussis requiring hospitalisation (VE: 93% after 3 doses) and against pertussis not requiring hospitalisation (VE: 78% after 3 doses). IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (IgG anti-PT) response rates after booster vaccination of adults with tetanus, diphtheria and aP combination vaccine (TdaP) were considerably higher for this monocomponent aP vaccine containing 20μg pertussis toxoid, inactivated by hydrogen peroxide (92.0%), than for two multicomponent aP vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde and/or glutaraldehyde: 3-component aP with 8μg pertussis toxoid (77.2%) and 5-component aP with 2.5μg pertussis toxoid (47.1%), without compromising the safety profile. In Denmark where this monocomponent aP vaccine has been the only pertussis vaccine in use for 15 years, there has been no pertussis epidemic since 2002 (population incidence 36 per 100,000), in contrast to neighbouring countries, where epidemics have occurred. This monocomponent aP vaccine can be used in combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccination against pertussis in all age groups and is an important tool for successful pertussis control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.034DOI Listing
October 2013

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Europe from 1998 to 2009.

J Clin Microbiol 2013 Feb 21;51(2):422-8. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.

Between 1998 and 2009, Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates were collected during three periods, i.e., 1998 to 2001 (n = 102), 2004 to 2005 (n = 154), and 2007 to 2009 (n = 140), from nine countries with distinct vaccination programs, i.e., Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed according to standardized recommendations for epidemiological typing of B. pertussis. There were 81 different PFGE profiles, five of which (BpSR3, BpSR5, BpSR10, BpSR11, and BpSR12) were observed in 61% of the 396 isolates and shown to be predominant in almost all countries. The major profile, BpSR11, showed a decreasing trend from 25% to 30% in 1998 to 2005 to 13% in 2007 to 2009, and there were increases in BpSR3 and BpSR10 from 0% and 8% to 21% and 22%, respectively. One difference between these profiles is that BpSR11 contains isolates harboring the fim3-2 allele and BpSR3 and BpSR10 contain isolates harboring the fim3-1 allele. The total proportion of the five predominant profiles increased from 44% in 1998 to 2001 to 63% in 2004 to 2005 to 70% in 2007 to 2009. In conclusion, common PFGE profiles were identified in B. pertussis populations circulating in European countries with different vaccination programs and different vaccine coverages. These prevalent isolates contain the novel pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3 allele. However, there is evidence for diversifying selection between ptxP3 strains characterized by distinct PFGE profiles. This work shows that, even within a relatively short time span of 10 years, successful isolates which spread through Europe and cause large shifts in B. pertussis populations may emerge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02036-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3553888PMC
February 2013

Detection of antibodies to Campylobacter in humans using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: a review of the literature.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2012 Oct 15;74(2):113-8. Epub 2012 Jul 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the European Union and the United States. Infection with Campylobacter spp. is frequently associated with different sequelae including neuropathies and reactive arthritis. Diagnosis is mainly by bacterial culturing which is time consuming, expensive, and not well suited for diagnosing sequelae or identifying infections from stool samples with nonviable bacteria. Serologic assays, in particular ELISAs, are well suited for this purpose, but, at present, there is no international consensus on antibody assays for human campylobacteriosis. In an extensive literature review, 19 studies validating such assays were identified of which 13 were more than 10 years old. We conclude that the best validated of these assays are developed and used in-house for research purposes rather than for routine diagnostics. Considering the burden of disease and potential long-term severity of Campylobacter infections, developing a standardized, commercially available antibody assay could be of great benefit for diagnostic and surveillance purposes worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.06.004DOI Listing
October 2012

A randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial on the safety and immunogenicity of a tetanus, diphtheria and monocomponent acellular pertussis (TdaP) vaccine in comparison to a tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine when given as booster vaccinations to healthy adults.

Vaccine 2012 Aug 6;30(37):5464-71. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Statens Serum Institut, 5 Artillerivej, 2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark.

Background: Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults.

Purpose: To obtain clinical documentation of the safety and immunogenicity of a tetanus, diphtheria and monocomponent acellular pertussis combination vaccine (TdaP), when given as a booster vaccination to adults.

Methods: The trial was double-blind, controlled and randomised. 802 healthy adults, aged 18-55 years who had completed childhood vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus and whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP), were booster vaccinated with TdaP or Td. Blood samples were taken before and one month after the vaccination for serological analysis and adverse events were recorded during the one-month-follow-up period.

Results: The monocomponent acellular pertussis vaccine (aP) in the TdaP vaccine was immunogenic in adults with 92.0% of TdaP vaccinated subjects obtaining an anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) antibody booster response. TdaP was non-inferior to Td in eliciting seroprotective anti-tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations with more than 98% of subjects obtaining post-vaccination seroprotective concentrations (≥ 0.1 IU/mL). T and d booster response rates were 93.0% and 97.5%, respectively. The frequencies of solicited local adverse reactions were low and comparable between TdaP and Td vaccinees. In the TdaP group, 30.7% reported pain, 4.2% swelling and 2.0% erythema at the injection site. The most frequent solicited general symptoms were headache (20.4%), fatigue (17.0%) and myalgia (10.0%). In the Td group, 35.7% reported pain, 2.5% swelling and 3.2% erythema at the injection site, whereas headache, fatigue and myalgia were reported by 15.7%, 14.5% and 12.5%, respectively. In conclusion, TdaP Vaccine SSI was safe and immunogenic when given as a booster vaccination to adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.073DOI Listing
August 2012

Temporal trends in Bordetella pertussis populations, Denmark, 1949-2010.

Emerg Infect Dis 2012 May;18(5):767-74

Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

We used multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and multiple antigen sequence typing to characterize isolates of Bordetella pertussis strains circulating in Denmark during periods with and without pertussis vaccination coverage. Our results show substantial shifts in the B. pertussis population over time and a reduction in genetic diversity. These changes might have resulted from the introduction of pertussis vaccines in Denmark and other parts of Europe. The predominant strains currently circulating in Denmark resemble those in other European countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1805.110812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3358084PMC
May 2012

Pertussis serology: assessment of IgG anti-PT ELISA for replacement of the CHO cell assay.

APMIS 2010 Dec 2;118(12):968-72. Epub 2010 Sep 2.

Department of Microbiological Surveillance and Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Two types of serological assays are commonly used for the assessment of pertussis vaccine-induced antibodies; the Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO cell) assay and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti pertussis toxin (PT) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgG anti-PT ELISA). Recently, both the techniques have been modified to improve performance with sera with interfering activity (CHO cell assay) or with heat-treated sera (IgG anti-PT ELISA). These two improved techniques were compared by the analysis of 100 individual serum samples from a previous clinical trial and 213 sera from a longitudinal serum collection from 20 Danish adults recently vaccinated with the Danish acellular pertussis vaccine. The comparison showed a significant linear correlation between the results of the two assays with a p-value of <0.0001 for the 100 individual samples. We, therefore, conclude that the improved IgG anti-PT ELISA can be used as a replacement for the often troublesome and time-consuming CHO cell assay for the measurement of vaccine-induced human antibodies to PT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0463.2010.02664.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3003908PMC
December 2010

Seroprevalence of pertussis among Danish patients with cough of unknown etiology.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2010 Dec 6;17(12):2016-23. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

Department of Microbiologic Surveillance and Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 45-305, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark.

The common perception that pertussis is only a childhood disease is not correct. Vaccination or infection with Bordetella pertussis provides only short-lived protection against pertussis-and the majority of the population is consequently at risk of contracting pertussis. We evaluated the seroprevalence of pertussis antibodies (IgG against pertussis toxin) in serum samples from 265 Danish patients, aged 8 years and older, with coughs of unknown etiology. Depending on the cutoff chosen, we found that 2.6% to 10.9% of these patients were seropositive for pertussis. Of 178 patients with a reported duration of cough between 2 weeks and 3 months, 3.4% to 12.4% were seropositive for pertussis, indicating recent infection. Our study indicates that B. pertussis infection may be underdiagnosed among older children and adults with coughs in Denmark.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00270-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3008190PMC
December 2010