Publications by authors named "Tina W f Yen"

68 Publications

Central Surgical Association 2020 Presidential Address: Looking within: The power and beauty of introversion.

Authors:
Tina W F Yen

Surgery 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.11.004DOI Listing
December 2021

Underdiagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with osteoarthritis undergoing arthroplasty.

Surgery 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Surgery, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated. Joint pain is a nonspecific symptom associated with osteoarthritis or primary HPT. We hypothesize that patients treated for osteoarthritis are underdiagnosed with primary HPT.

Methods: Adult patients diagnosed with hip/knee osteoarthritis at the Medical College of Wisconsin from January 2000 to October 2020 were queried. Patients with a calcium level drawn within 1 year of diagnosis of osteoarthritis were included. Patients who had undergone prior parathyroidectomy were excluded. Patients were stratified by serum calcium level, HPT diagnosis, and PTH level. Arthroplasty rates were compared between groups.

Results: Of 54,788 patients, 9,967 patients (18.2%) had a high serum calcium level, of whom 1,089 (10.9%) had a diagnosis of HPT. Only 76 (7.0%) patients with HPT underwent parathyroidectomy, 208 (19.1%) underwent knee/hip arthroplasty, and 14 (1.3%) underwent both. Arthroplasty was performed in 1,793 patients without evaluation and/or definitive treatment for HPT. There were higher rates of arthroplasty performed in patients with a high serum calcium level compared with those without (21.2% vs 17.4%, P < .001).

Conclusion: Patients with high serum calcium levels were more likely to undergo arthroplasty than those with normocalcemia. Hypercalcemia in the setting of hip or knee osteoarthritis should prompt a full evaluation for primary HPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.09.035DOI Listing
November 2021

Breast cancer-related lymphedema rates after modern axillary treatments: How accurate are our estimates?

Surgery 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

Background: Clinical trials have demonstrated methods to minimize the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema while preserving regional control. We sought to determine the percent lifetime-risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema that surgeons and radiation oncologists discuss with patients before axillary interventions.

Methods: A nationwide survey of surgeons and radiation oncologists was performed from July to August 2020. Participants were asked to identify what number they discuss with patients when estimating the percent lifetime-risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema after different axillary interventions.

Results: Six hundred and eighty surgeons and 324 radiation oncologists responded (14% response rate). While the estimated rate after sentinel lymph node biopsy was clinically similar between surgeons and radiation oncologists, statistically surgeons quoted a higher percent lifetime-risk (5.7% vs 5.0%, P = .03). Surgeons estimated significantly higher rates of breast cancer-related lymphedema compared with radiation oncologists (P < .001) for axillary lymph node dissection (21.8% vs 17.5%), sentinel lymph node biopsy with regional nodal irradiation (14.1% vs 11.2%), and axillary lymph node dissection with regional nodal irradiation (34.8% vs 26.2%).

Conclusion: There is variability in the estimated rates of breast cancer-related lymphedema providers discuss with patients. These findings highlight the need for physician education on the current evidence of percent lifetime-risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema to provide patients with accurate estimates before axillary interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.08.019DOI Listing
November 2021

Mortgage Lending Bias and Breast Cancer Survival Among Older Women in the United States.

J Clin Oncol 2021 09 15;39(25):2749-2757. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Advancing Population Science, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Purpose: The objective was to examine the relationship between contemporary redlining (mortgage lending bias on the basis of property location) and survival among older women with breast cancer in the United States.

Methods: A redlining index using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data (2007-2013) was linked by census tract with a SEER-Medicare cohort of 27,516 women age 66-90 years with an initial diagnosis of stage I-IV breast cancer in 2007-2009 and follow-up through 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between redlining and both all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality, accounting for covariates.

Results: Overall, 34% of non-Hispanic White, 57% of Hispanic, and 79% of non-Hispanic Black individuals lived in redlined tracts. As the redlining index increased, women experienced poorer survival. This effect was strongest for women with no comorbid conditions, who comprised 54% of the sample. For redlining index values of 1 (low), 2 (moderate), and 3 (high), as compared with 0.5 (least), hazard ratios (HRs) (and 95% CIs) for all-cause mortality were HR = 1.10 (1.06 to 1.14), HR = 1.27 (1.17 to 1.38), and HR = 1.39 (1.25 to 1.55), respectively, among women with no comorbidities. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer-specific mortality.

Conclusion: Contemporary redlining is associated with poorer breast cancer survival. The impact of this bias is emphasized by the pronounced effect even among women with health insurance (Medicare) and no comorbid conditions. The magnitude of this neighborhood level effect demands an increased focus on upstream determinants of health to support comprehensive patient care. The housing sector actively reveals structural racism and economic disinvestment and is an actionable policy target to mitigate adverse upstream health determinants for the benefit of patients with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407650PMC
September 2021

An Institutional experience with primary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly over two decades.

Am J Surg 2021 Sep 30;222(3):549-553. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Background: Parathyroidectomy is the only curative treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and is associated with low morbidity. This study examined the severity of disease and outcomes of parathyroidectomy based on patient age at a high-volume institution.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of sporadic pHPT patients who underwent initial parathyroidectomy. To study disease severity over time, patients were divided into timeframes: 1999-2007, 2007-2012, and 2013-2018. Elderly was defined as age ≥75 years.

Results: Over time, the elderly had progressively lower preoperative calcium (11.0, 10.7, 10.7; p = 0.05) and PTH (150.4, 111.9, 107.9; p < 0.001) levels. By age, there was no difference in preoperative calcium (10.8, 10.9; p = 0.91) or in rates of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, or persistent/recurrent pHPT.

Conclusions: Over the 3 time periods of the study, elderly patients had progressively lower calcium and PTH levels. There was no difference in endocrine-specific complications between the age groups, suggesting that parathyroidectomy in the elderly is safe and therefore, age-associated morbidity should not preclude parathyroidectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2021.01.027DOI Listing
September 2021

Guideline-concordant treatment predicts survival: a National Cancer Database validation study of novel composite locoregional and systemic treatment scores among women with early stage breast cancer.

Breast Cancer 2021 May 4;28(3):698-709. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: The aim of this large nationwide study was to validate two novel composite treatment scores that address guideline-concordant locoregional and systemic breast cancer care. We examined the relationship between these two scores and their association with survival.

Methods: Women with Stage I-III unilateral breast cancer were identified within the National Cancer Database. For each woman, a locoregional and a systemic treatment score (0, 1, 2) was assigned based on receipt of guideline-concordant care. Multivariable Cox regression models evaluated the association between the scores and survival.

Results: 623,756 women were treated at 1,221 different American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer (CoC) facilities. Overall, 86% had a locoregional treatment score of 2 (most guideline-concordant), 75% had a systemic treatment score of 2, and 72% had both scores of 2. Median follow-up was 4.5 years. Compared to women with a locoregional treatment score of 2, those with a score of 1 or 0 had a 1.7-fold and 2.0-fold adjusted greater risk of death. Compared to women with a systemic treatment score of 2, those with a score of 1 or 0 had a 1.5-fold and 2.1-fold adjusted greater risk of death. Risk-adjusted 5-year overall survival was 91.6% when both scores were 2 compared to 73.4% when both scores were 0.

Conclusions: In this large national study of CoC facilities, two composite scores capturing guideline-concordant breast cancer care had independent and combined robust effects on survival. These clinically constructed novel scores are promising tools for health services research and quality-of-care studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-020-01206-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Choice of local therapy for young women with early-stage breast cancer who have young-aged children.

Cancer 2020 11 5;126(21):4761-4769. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Decision making regarding the initial treatment of women with breast cancer is complicated. In the current study, the authors examined the relationship between treatment choices and their children's ages among young women with early-stage breast cancer.

Methods: Using the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database, the authors identified women aged 20 to 50 years who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer between 2008 and 2014. Predictors of compliance with radiotherapy after undergoing lumpectomy and of undergoing mastectomy were determined using multinomial logistic regression. The authors conducted sensitivity analyses to explore the impact of the number of young-aged children and a reduction in the sample size in 2014 due to the attrition of health plans contributing to MarketScan.

Results: A total of 21,052 women were included in the current analysis. Among women with at least 1 child aged <7 years, the adjusted rate of lumpectomy was 59.9%; approximately 22% of these women did not receive radiotherapy. Compared with women undergoing lumpectomy plus radiotherapy, women with at least 1 child aged <7 years or aged 7 to 12 years were 25% and 16%, respectively, more likely to undergo lumpectomy alone compared with women with no children aged <18 years (P = .002 and P = .012, respectively) and 64% and 37%, respectively, more likely to undergo mastectomy (P < .001).

Conclusions: Among privately insured women with breast cancer, having young children was found to be strongly associated with the omission of postlumpectomy radiotherapy or undergoing mastectomy. Having >1 young-aged child further amplified these associations. The findings of the current study suggested that caring for young children may present unique challenges to young women with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33099DOI Listing
November 2020

Perioperative Management and Outcomes of Hyperthyroid Patients Unable to Tolerate Antithyroid Drugs.

World J Surg 2020 Nov;44(11):3770-3777

Section of Endocrine Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Prior to thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism, it is recommended that patients are managed with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) and rendered euthyroid to decrease the risk of thyroid storm. However, not all patients tolerate ATD and the risk of thyroid storm during thyroidectomy in these patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the management and outcomes of hyperthyroid patients that were on ATDs prior to surgery to those who were not.

Study Design: A prospectively maintained, single-institution database was queried for all hyperthyroid patients who were initially treated with ATDs and underwent thyroidectomy from January 1, 2012, to June 18, 2018. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) those on ATDs at surgery (ATD group) and (2) those who could not tolerate and stopped ATDs prior to surgery (no-ATD group). Demographic and clinical data were collected. Primary outcomes were readmissions/emergency department visits and postoperative complications within 30 days of thyroidectomy.

Results: Of the 248 patients, 231 were in the ATD group and 17 (7%) were in the no-ATD group. There were no mortalities or thyroid storm events in either group. There was no difference in Clavien-Dindo Grade 2 or 3 complications between the two groups. There were no ED visits or 30-day readmissions in the no-ATD group compared to 17 (7%) events in the ATD group (p = 1.0).

Conclusion: While it is preferable to render patients euthyroid prior to thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism, results of this study suggest that when patients cannot tolerate ATDs, it is possible to perform thyroidectomy without increased risk of thyroid storm or intra- and postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-020-05654-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Update on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma from the SSO Endocrine and Head and Neck Disease Site Working Group, Part 2 of 2: Perioperative Management and Outcomes of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 May 28;27(5):1338-1347. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

This is the second part of a two-part review on pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGLs). In this part, perioperative management, including preoperative preparation, intraoperative, and postoperative interventions are reviewed. Current data on outcomes following resection are presented, including outcomes after cortical-sparing adrenalectomy for bilateral adrenal disease. In addition, pathological features of malignancy, surveillance considerations, and the management of advanced disease are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08221-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8638680PMC
May 2020

Update on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma from the SSO Endocrine/Head and Neck Disease-Site Work Group. Part 1 of 2: Advances in Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 May 28;27(5):1329-1337. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

This first part of a two-part review of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGLs) addresses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, treatment, and outcomes. In this first part, the epidemiology, prevalence, genetic etiology, clinical presentation, and biochemical and radiologic workup are discussed. In particular, recent advances in the genetics underlying PPGLs and the recommendation for genetic testing of all patients with PPGL are emphasized. Finally, the newer imaging methods for evaluating of PPGLs are discussed and highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08220-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8655649PMC
May 2020

Persistent/Recurrent Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Does the Number of Abnormal Glands Play a Role?

J Surg Res 2020 02 18;246:335-341. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: Persistent/recurrent hyperparathyroidism occurs in 2%-5% of patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). In this study, the incidence and time to recurrence in patients with single-gland disease (SGD), double adenomas (DAs), or four-gland hyperplasia (FGH) at initial parathyroidectomy were compared.

Methods: This retrospective review included adult patients with sporadic PHPT who underwent initial parathyroidectomy with intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring (IOPTH) from 1/2000 to 12/2016 with ≥6 mo follow-up. An abnormal parathyroid was defined by a gland weight of ≥50 mg. A concurrent serum calcium >10.2 mg/dL and parathyroid hormone >40 pg/mL was defined as persistent PHPT if present <6 mo and recurrent PHPT if present ≥6 mo postoperatively after initial normocalcemia.

Results: Of 1486 patients, 1203 (81%) had SGD, 159 (11%) DA, and 124 (8%) FGH. Among the 3 groups, there was no difference in the percent decrease from the baseline or time of excision to final postexcision IOPTH levels between groups (79% versus 80% versus 80%, respectively; P = 0.954) or in the proportion of patients with a final IOPTH ≥40 (22% versus 18% versus 14%; P = 0.059). Overall, 22 (1.5%) had persistent PHPT and 26 (1.7%) had recurrent PHPT. Persistent PHPT was more frequent with DAs (6; 3.8%) than other groups (SGD: 16, 1.3%; FGH: 0; P = 0.02). At median follow-up of 33 mo (IQR, 18-60), there was no difference in recurrence rate (1.6% versus 2.5% versus 2.4%; P = 0.57) or median time (mo) to recurrence (SGD: 59 [IQR, 21-86], DAs: 36 [IQR, 29-58], FGH: 23 [IQR, 17-40]; P = 0.46).

Conclusions: Recurrent PHPT occurred in 1.7% of patients who underwent curative initial parathyroidectomy, with no difference in incidence or time to recurrence between groups based on the number of glands removed. Patients with DA more commonly had persistent PHPT, raising the possibility of unrecognized FGH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.08.007DOI Listing
February 2020

Confirmation of Parathyroid Tissue: Are Surgeons Aware of New and Novel Techniques?

J Surg Res 2020 02 27;246:139-144. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Froedert Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: Ex vivo aspiration of parathyroid glands for the measurement of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels is a rapid point-of-care method to confirm parathyroid tissue during parathyroidectomy and an alternative to frozen section (FS). This study sought to determine the awareness and utilization of this technique among endocrine surgeons.

Materials And Methods: A de-identified 12-question survey regarding techniques for intraoperative identification/confirmation of parathyroid tissue and the use of IOPTH monitoring was distributed to all 608 members of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons.

Results: Among the 182 (30%) respondents, FS was the most common primary technique utilized by 115 (63%) respondents to confirm parathyroid tissue; only 12 (7%) utilized ex vivo aspiration, although 78 (42%) were familiar with the technique. Availability and familiarity were the principal reasons for use of the primary technique; the most common barrier was time. Serum IOPTH monitoring was routinely used by 124 (74%). Of respondents who utilized FS, serum IOPTH monitoring was routinely used by 75% (86/115), including 71% (45/63) who reported time as a barrier to FS. Of these 45, only 15 (33%) were familiar with ex vivo parathyroid aspiration. Only 48% of surgeons knew how PTH samples were charged.

Conclusions: FS was the most common method of identification/confirmation of parathyroid tissue. Although most respondents routinely performed IOPTH monitoring, relatively few utilized ex vivo aspiration as a technique for parathyroid identification and less than 50% were familiar with this technique. Broader dissemination about novel techniques such as ex vivo aspiration and cost awareness are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.08.006DOI Listing
February 2020

Prevalence and scope of advanced practice provider oncology care among Medicare beneficiaries with breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jan 21;179(1):57-65. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Purpose: Advanced practice providers (APPs) have increasingly become members of the oncology care team. Little is known about the scope of care that APPs are performing nationally. We determined the prevalence and extent of APP practice and examined associations between APP care and scope of practice regulations, phase of cancer care, and patient characteristics.

Methods: We performed an observational study among women identified from Medicare claims as having had incident breast cancer in 2008 with claims through 2012. Outpatient APP care included at least one APP independently billing for cancer visits/services. APP scope of practice was classified as independent, reduced, or restricted. A logistic regression model with patient-level random effects was estimated to determine the probability of receiving APP care at any point during active treatment or surveillance.

Results: Among 42,550 women, 6583 (15%) received APP care, of whom 83% had APP care during the surveillance phase and 41% during the treatment phase. Among women who received APP care during a given year of surveillance, the overall proportion of APP-billed clinic visits increased with each additional year of surveillance (36% in Year 1 to 61% in Year 4). Logistic regression model results indicate that women were more likely to receive APP care if they were younger, black, healthier, had higher income status, or lived in a rural county or state with independent APP scope of practice.

Conclusions: This study provides important clinical and policy-relevant findings regarding national practice patterns of APP oncology care. Among Medicare beneficiaries with incident breast cancer, 15% received outpatient oncology care that included APPs who were billing; most of this care was during the surveillance phase. Future studies are needed to define the degree of APP oncology practice and training that maximizes patient access and satisfaction while optimizing the efficiency and quality of cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-019-05447-xDOI Listing
January 2020

Oncologists' Views Regarding the Role of Electronic Health Records in Care Coordination.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2018 12;2:1-12

Onur Asan, Ann B. Nattinger, Jeanne T. Tyszka, and Tina W. F. Yen, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; and Ayse P. Gurses, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) play a significant role in complex health care processes, especially in information transfer with patients and care coordination among providers. EHRs may also generate unintended consequences, introducing new patient safety risks. To date, little investigation has been performed in oncology settings, despite the need for quality provider-patient communication and information transfer during oncology visits. In this qualitative study, we focused on oncology providers' perceptions of EHRs for supporting communication with patients and coordination of care with other providers.

Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with oncologists from an urban academic medical center to learn their perceptions of the use of EHRs before, during, and after clinic visits with patients. Our interview guide was developed on the basis of the work system model. We coded transcripts using inductive content analysis.

Results: Data analysis yielded four main themes regarding oncologists' practices in using the EHR and perceptions about EHRs: (1) EHR use for care coordination (eg, timeliness of receiving information, SmartSet documentation); (2) EHR use in the clinic visit (eg, educating patients, using as a reinforcement tool); (3) safety hazards in care coordination associated with EHRs (eg, incomplete documentation, error propagating, no filtering mechanism to capture errors); and (4) suggestions for improvements (eg, improved SmartSet functionalities, simplification of user interface).

Conclusion: Current EHRs do not adequately support teamwork of oncology providers, which could lead to potential hazards in the care of patients with cancer. Redesigning EHR features that are tailored to support oncology care and addressing the concerns regarding information overload, improved organization of flagging abnormal results, and documentation-related workload are needed to minimize potential safety hazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.17.00118DOI Listing
December 2018

Investigating the Association Between Advanced Practice Providers and Chemotherapy-Related Adverse Events in Women With Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study.

J Oncol Pract 2018 Oct 10:JOP1800277. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Purpose:: The effect of advanced practice provider (APP) involvement in oncology care on cancer-specific outcomes is unknown. We examined the association between team-based APP-physician care during chemotherapy and chemotherapy-related adverse events (AEs) among women with breast cancer.

Methods:: We performed separate nested case-control analyses in two national cohorts of women who received chemotherapy for incident breast cancer. Cohorts were identified from Medicare (≥ 65 years of age) and MarketScan (18 to 64 years of age) data. Cases experienced a chemotherapy-related AE (emergency room visit and/or hospitalization). Controls were matched 1:1 on the basis of each patient's age, comorbidities, census region, state's APP scope of practice regulations, and observation period from chemotherapy initiation to first AE. APP exposure (any outpatient claim billed by an APP during the observation period) was assessed for each matched pair member.

Results:: Among the 1,948 cases in the Medicare cohort, 225 (12%) had APP exposure before the first chemotherapy-related AE, compared with 213 controls (11%; P = .54). Among the 725 cases in the MarketScan cohort, 52 (7%) had APP exposure compared with 65 controls (9%; P = .21). In the matched case-control analysis, there was no association between outpatient APP exposure during chemotherapy and AEs in either cohort (Medicare: OR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.30]; MarketScan: OR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.50 to 1.14]).

Conclusion:: Our results suggest that team-based APP-physician care that includes an APP who is billing independently, at least for certain patients receiving chemotherapy, may be a viable strategy to safely leverage the scarce oncology workforce to increase access and delivery of cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JOP.18.00277DOI Listing
October 2018

Evaluation, Staging, and Surgical Management for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: An Update from the SSO Endocrine and Head and Neck Disease Site Working Group.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Nov 18;25(12):3460-3468. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

This is the first of a two-part review on adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare and aggressive malignancy that often presents at an advanced stage. Most patients present with symptoms related to cortisol and/or androgen excess. Appropriate biochemical evaluation and imaging is important in assessing the extent of disease, operative planning, and oncologic surveillance for patients with ACC. For patients with locoregional disease, potential cure requires margin-negative resection, and accumulating evidence suggests that regional lymphadenectomy should be performed. Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy is reported by some to be adequate for localized ACC, open resection in the hands of an experienced adrenal surgeon is the gold standard for operative management of this disease. Cure is rare following disease relapse, however select patients with severe symptoms related to hormone excess or pain may benefit from resection of local or distant recurrence. For best oncologic outcomes, it is recommended that all patients with ACC be treated at centers with multidisciplinary expertise in management of this rare and aggressive malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6749-2DOI Listing
November 2018

Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy, Treatment for Advanced Disease, and Genetic Considerations for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: An Update from the SSO Endocrine and Head and Neck Disease Site Working Group.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Nov 14;25(12):3453-3459. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

This is the second of a two-part review on adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) management. While margin-negative resection provides the only potential cure for ACC, recurrence rates remain high. Furthermore, many patients present with locally advanced, unresectable tumors and/or diffuse metastases. As a result, selecting patients for adjuvant therapy and understanding systemic therapy options for advanced ACC is important. Herein, we detail the current literature supporting the use of adjuvant mitotane therapy, consideration of adjuvant radiation therapy, and utility of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with advanced disease. Ongoing investigation into molecular targeted agents, immunotherapy, and inhibitors of steroidogenesis for the treatment of ACC are also highlighted. Lastly, the importance of genetic counseling in patients with ACC is addressed as up to 10% of patients will have an identifiable hereditary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6750-9DOI Listing
November 2018

Patients with Oncocytic Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Have a Similar Prognosis to Matched Classical Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Controls.

Thyroid 2018 11;28(11):1462-1467

1 Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: Previous studies have suggested that oncocytic variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) may be more aggressive, with higher rates of recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and outcomes of patients with oncocytic variant PTC compared to classical PTC.

Methods: Patients with oncocytic variant PTC were retrospectively identified from 519 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for PTC between January 2009 and August 2015. Data collected included patient demographics, laboratory and pathology findings, imaging studies, treatment, and follow-up. Patients were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and TNM stage with patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for classical PTC during the same time period.

Results: The cohort included 21 patients, of whom 18 (86%) were female, with a median age of 53 years (range 23-68 years). All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and 17 (81%) had a central compartment neck dissection (8 [38%] prophylactic). The median tumor size was 2.0 cm (range 0.9-6.5 cm), and four (19%) patients had extrathyroidal extension. There was no significant difference in histopathologic characteristics, including extrathyroidal extension and lymphovascular invasion, between the two groups except for an increased incidence of thyroiditis in oncocytic variant PTC (90.5% vs. 57%; p = 0.01). In oncocytic variant PTC patients who underwent central compartment neck dissection, malignant lymph nodes were found in 12 (57%) patients compared to 13 (62%) classical (p = 0.75). Lateral neck dissection was performed in 5 (24%) oncocytic variant and classical PTC patients, with metastatic lymphadenopathy found in four (a median of four malignant lymph nodes; range 1-6) and five (a median of 2.5 malignant lymph nodes; range 1-9), respectively. Radioactive iodine was administered to 18 (86%) oncocytic variant PTC and 18 (86%) classical PTC patients. At a median follow-up of 51 months (interquartile range 38-61), one oncocytic variant PTC patient had recurrent disease and underwent reoperation at 24 months. In classical PTC patients with a median follow-up time of 77 months (range 56-87 months), two (9.5%) patients had detectable thyroglobulin levels indicating early recurrence, but neither has undergone reoperation.

Conclusions: Oncocytic variant PTC was present in 5% of PTC patients. Most (95%) patients remain disease-free at four years, similar to classical PTC outcomes, suggesting that oncocytic variant may not represent a more aggressive variant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2017.0603DOI Listing
November 2018

A postoperative parathyroid hormone-based algorithm to reduce symptomatic hypocalcemia following completion/total thyroidectomy: A retrospective analysis of 591 patients.

Surgery 2018 10 30;164(4):746-753. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: An institutional protocol for selective calcium/calcitriol supplementation after completion/total thyroidectomy was established based on the 4-hour postoperative parathyroid hormone level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of this protocol 5 years after implementation.

Methods: All patients who underwent completion/total thyroidectomy from January 2012 to December 2016 were reviewed. Predictors of a 4-hour parathyroid hormone level <10 pg/mL and symptomatic hypocalcemia were assessed.

Results: Of 591 patients, 448 (76%) had a 4-hour parathyroid hormone ≥10, 72 (12%) had a 4-hour parathyroid hormone of 5-10, and 71 (12%) had a 4-hour parathyroid hormone <5. Hypocalcemic symptoms were infrequent (30/448, 7%) if the 4-hour parathyroid hormone was ≥10; 56% (40/71) of those with a 4-hour parathyroid hormone <5 reported symptoms. With 4-hour parathyroid hormone of 5-10, symptoms were reported in 32 of 72 (44%) patients; supplementation at discharge included calcium (n = 55, 76%), calcium and calcitriol (n = 12, 17%), or none (n = 5, 7%). Ten patients subsequently received calcitriol for persistent symptoms. On multivariate analysis, predictors of 4-hour parathyroid hormone <10 included incidental parathyroidectomy, malignancy, and thyroiditis; predictors of hypocalcemic symptoms included age <55 and 4-hour parathyroid hormone <10.

Conclusion: After completion/total thyroidectomy, patients with a 4-hour parathyroid hormone ≥10 can be safely discharged without routine supplementation. The addition of calcitriol to calcium supplementation should be strongly considered for patients with a 4-hour parathyroid hormone of 5-10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.04.040DOI Listing
October 2018

Prevalence and Consequences of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in the Era of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer.

Med Care 2018 01;56(1):78-84

Center for Patient Care and Outcomes Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Background: Despite clear guidelines for its use and wide adoption, no population-based study has examined the extent to which patients with early stage breast cancer are benefiting from sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) by being spared a potentially avoidable axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and its associated morbidity.

Objective: Examine variation in type of axillary surgery performed by surgeon volume; investigate the extent and consequences of potentially avoidable ALND.

Research Design/subjects: Observational study of older women with pathologically node-negative stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery in a SEER state in 2008-2009.

Measures: Surgeon annual volume of breast cancer cases and type of axillary surgery were determined by Medicare claims. An estimated probability of excess lymphedema due to ALND was calculated.

Results: Among 7686 pathologically node-negative women, 49% underwent ALND (either initially or after SLNB) and 25% were operated on by low-volume surgeons. Even after adjusting for demographic and tumor characteristics, women treated by higher volume surgeons were less likely to undergo ALND [medium volume: odds ratio, 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.82); high volume: odds ratio, 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.76)]. Potentially avoidable ALND cases were estimated to represent 21% of all expected lymphedema cases.

Conclusions: In this pathologically node-negative population-based breast cancer cohort, only half underwent solely SLNB. Patients treated by low-volume surgeons were more likely to undergo ALND. Resources and guidelines on the appropriate training and competency of surgeons to assure the optimal performance of SLNB should be considered to decrease rates of potentially avoidable ALND and lymphedema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000000832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5725235PMC
January 2018

Disparities in access to care and outcomes in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.

J Surg Res 2017 06 3;213:138-146. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Background: Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). The aim of the present study is to examine disparities in access to surgical resection and identify factors associated with overall survival following surgical resection.

Methods: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with ACC (2004-2013). Patient characteristics and disease details were abstracted. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors associated with surgical resection, and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of survival in the surgical cohort.

Results: Surgical resection was performed in 2007/2946 (68%) ACC patients. On multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for clinicodemographic factors, surgery was less likely to be performed in patients ≥56 y, males, African-Americans, patients with government insurance, or those treated at community cancer centers (P < 0.05). On a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for clinicodemographic and treatment variables, older age (≥56 y) and presence of comorbidities were associated with worse overall survival.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that there are demographic and socioeconomic disparities in access to surgical resection for ACC. However, after adjusting for patient and clinical characteristics, only patient age and presence of comorbidities were predictors of worse survival in patients undergoing surgery for ACC. More data are needed to determine the factors driving these disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2017.02.046DOI Listing
June 2017

Concurrent endocrine and other surgical procedures: an institutional experience.

J Surg Res 2017 05 22;211:107-113. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

Inroduction: The number of endocrine procedures, specifically parathyroidectomy, thyroidectomy, and adrenalectomy, being performed is increasing. There is a paucity of literature on the feasibility of combining these procedures with other surgical procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of performing concurrent surgical procedures on postoperative outcomes.

Methods: This is a single institution retrospective review of multiple prospectively maintained databases of patients who underwent elective thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, and/or adrenalectomy in combination with another procedure. The other procedures included soft tissue, breast or hernia, abdominal major, abdominal minor, cervical, and "other". Demographics, operative details, length-of-stay, and 30-d outcomes were reviewed. "Endocrine-specific" complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, cervical wound infection, hematoma, and other.

Results: The cohort comprised 104 patients. Overall, 19 (18%) patients had 21 complications, including endocrine-specific complications in eleven (11%) patients. These eleven complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (n = 3; 3%), hematoma (n = 2; 2%), wound infection (n = 1; 1%), transient hypoparathyroidism (n = 2; 2%), and other (n = 3; 3%). The remaining complications included three (3%) general complications, six (6%) patients with complications related to the concurrent procedure, and one patient who underwent an open adrenalectomy and hysterectomy and developed a midline wound dehiscence, which could not be specifically attributed to either procedure.

Conclusions: Less than 5% of patients undergoing a surgical endocrine procedure underwent a concurrent procedure, ranging from soft tissue to major abdominal. Short-term endocrine-specific complications were managed safely, suggesting that concurrent procedures can be considered, with minimal effect on patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2016.12.013DOI Listing
May 2017

Parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism improves sleep quality: A prospective study.

Surgery 2017 01 16;161(1):25-34. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

Background: This prospective survey study assessed changes in sleep quality in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy.

Methods: Patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (n = 110) or thyroidectomy for benign euthyroid disease (control group; n = 45) were recruited between June 2013 and June 2015 and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index preoperatively and at 1- and 6 months postoperatively. "Poor" sleep quality was defined as a score >5; a clinically important and relevant improvement was a ≥3-point decrease.

Results: Preoperatively, parathyroid patients had worse sleep quality than thyroid patients (mean 8.1 vs 5.3; P < .001); 76 (69%) parathyroid and 23 (51%) thyroid patients reported poor sleep quality (P = .03). Postoperatively, only parathyroid patients demonstrated improvement in sleep quality; mean scores did not differ between the parathyroid and thyroid groups at 1 month (6.3 vs 5.3; P = .12) or 6 months (5.8 vs 4.6; P = .11). The proportion of patients with a clinically important improvement in sleep quality was greater in the parathyroid group at 1 month (37% vs 10%; P < .001) and 6 months (40% vs 17%; P = .01). Importantly, there was no difference in the proportion of patients with poor sleep quality between the 2 groups at 1 month (50% vs 40%; P = .32) and 6 months (40% vs 29%; P = .22).

Conclusion: More than two-thirds of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism report poor sleep quality. After parathyroidectomy, over one-third experienced improvement, typically within the first month postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.05.047DOI Listing
January 2017

Effect of hospital volume on processes of breast cancer care: A National Cancer Data Base study.

Cancer 2017 05 8;123(6):957-966. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Center for Patient Care and Outcomes Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine variations in delivery of several breast cancer processes of care that are correlated with lower mortality and disease recurrence, and to determine the extent to which hospital volume explains this variation.

Methods: Women who were diagnosed with stage I-III unilateral breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to determine whether hospital volume was independently associated with each of 10 individual process of care measures addressing diagnosis and treatment, and 2 composite measures assessing appropriateness of systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy) and locoregional treatment (margin status and radiation therapy).

Results: Among 573,571 women treated at 1755 different hospitals, 38%, 51%, and 10% were treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient sociodemographic characteristics, treatment year and geographic location, hospital volume was a significant predictor for cancer diagnosis by initial biopsy (medium volume: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.25; high volume: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14-1.49), negative surgical margins (medium volume: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; high volume: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44), and appropriate locoregional treatment (medium volume: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17; high volume: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.24).

Conclusions: Diagnosis of breast cancer before initial surgery, negative surgical margins and appropriate use of radiation therapy may partially explain the volume-survival relationship. Dissemination of these processes of care to a broader group of hospitals could potentially improve the overall quality of care and outcomes of breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:957-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30413DOI Listing
May 2017

Intraoperative ex vivo parathyroid aspiration: A point-of-care test to confirm parathyroid tissue.

Surgery 2016 10 18;160(4):850-857. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Background: Ex vivo aspiration of a parathyroid gland with intraoperative parathyroid hormone determination is a method for intraoperative confirmation of parathyroid tissue. The aim of this study was to describe the use and applicability of this technique at a single, high-volume institution.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy and ex vivo aspiration of suspected, abnormal parathyroid tissue for intraoperative parathyroid hormone level (pg/mL). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels which were compared with the baseline serum aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone obtained prior to parathyroid excision in each patient.

Results: Of 921 tissue aspirates, 847 (92%) were confirmed as parathyroid on histopathology, with a mean ± standard deviation aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone of 3,838 ± 1,615 pg/mL. The 847 aspirates included 833 (98%) with aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels greater than the serum aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone and 14 (2%) with aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels less than the serum aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone; 74 (8%) aspirates were not parathyroid tissue, with a mean aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone level of 25 ± 12.7 pg/mL. An aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone ≥1.5 times the serum aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone represented the optimal threshold for confirmation of parathyroid tissue.

Conclusion: Intraoperative ex vivo aspiration of presumed parathyroid gland is a sensitive and specific point-of-care method to confirm the presence of parathyroid tissue. An aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone ≥1.5 times greater than the baseline serum aspirate intraoperative parathyroid hormone minimizes the likelihood of misidentifying parathyroid tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.06.036DOI Listing
October 2016

A statewide controlled trial intervention to reduce use of unproven or ineffective breast cancer care.

Contemp Clin Trials 2016 09 10;50:150-6. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States; Center for Patient Care and Outcomes Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Background: Challenged by public opinion, peers and the Congressional Budget Office, medical specialty societies have begun to develop "Top Five" lists of expensive procedures that do not provide meaningful benefit to at least some categories of patients for whom they are commonly ordered. The extent to which these lists have influenced the behavior of physicians or patients, however, remains unknown.

Methods: We partner with a statewide consortium of health systems to examine the effectiveness of two interventions: (i) "basic" public reporting and (ii) an "enhanced" intervention, augmenting public reporting with a smart phone-based application that gives providers just-in-time information, decision-making tools, and personalized patient education materials to support reductions in the use of eight breast cancer interventions targeted by Choosing Wisely® or oncology society guidelines. Our aims are: (1) to examine whether basic public reporting reduces use of targeted breast cancer practices among a contemporary cohort of patients with incident breast cancer in the intervention state relative to usual care in comparison states; (2) to examine the effectiveness of the enhanced intervention relative to the basic intervention; and (3) to simulate cost savings forthcoming from nationwide implementation of both interventions.

Discussion: The results will provide rigorous evidence regarding the effectiveness of a unique all-payer, all-age public reporting system for influencing provider behavior that may be easily exportable to other states, and potentially also to large healthcare systems. Findings will be further relevant to the ACO environment, which is expected to provide financial disincentives for ineffective or unproven care.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number pending.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2016.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5565266PMC
September 2016

The interplay between hospital and surgeon factors and the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Aug;95(31):e4392

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology Division of Biostatistics Department of Medicine Center for Patient Care and Outcomes Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Several surgeon characteristics are associated with the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer. No studies have systematically examined the relative contribution of both surgeon and hospital factors on receipt of SLNB.

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between surgeon and hospital characteristics, including a novel claims-based classification of hospital commitment to cancer care (HC), and receipt of SLNB for breast cancer, a marker of quality care.

Data Sources/study Design: Observational prospective survey study was performed in a population-based cohort of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent incident invasive breast cancer surgery, linked to Medicare claims, state tumor registries, American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, and American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Multiple logistic regression models determined surgeon and hospital characteristics that were predictors of SLNB.

Results: Of the 1703 women treated at 471 different hospitals by 947 different surgeons, 65% underwent an initial SLNB. Eleven percent of hospitals were high-volume and 58% had a high commitment to cancer care. In separate adjusted models, both high HC (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.10) and high hospital volume (HV, OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.28-2.79) were associated with SLNB. Adding surgeon factors to a model including both HV and HC minimally modified the effect of high HC (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.95-1.88) but significantly weakened the effect of high HV (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.82-1.90). Surgeon characteristics (higher volume and percentage of breast cancer cases) remained strong independent predictors of SLNB, even when controlling for various hospital characteristics.

Conclusions: Hospital factors are associated with receipt of SLNB but surgeon factors have a stronger association. Since regionalization of breast cancer care in the U.S. is unlikely to occur, efforts to improve the surgical care and outcomes of breast cancer patients must focus on optimizing patient access to SLNB by ensuring hospitals have the necessary resources and training to perform SLNB, staffing hospitals with surgeons who specialize/focus in breast cancer and referring patients who do not have access to SLNB to an experienced center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4979807PMC
August 2016

Association between body mass index and multigland primary hyperparathyroidism.

J Surg Res 2016 May 6;202(1):132-8. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Introduction: Multigland disease (MGD) accounts for 15% of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Several studies have reported a link between obesity and calcium metabolism (e.g., increased incidence of pHPT, higher levels of parathyroid hormone, lower vitamin D levels, and larger parathyroid glands). Obese patients have also been shown to require reoperation for persistent/recurrent pHPT more often than nonobese controls. We hypothesize that obese patients may have a higher prevalence of MGD.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of a prospectively collected parathyroid database that included adult patients with sporadic pHPT, who underwent initial parathyroidectomy between 1999 and 2013. Demographic, clinicopathologic, operative, and laboratory data were assessed for associations with MGD.

Results: Of 1305 consecutive patients, 200 (15%) had MGD. Median age was 59 y. Univariate analyses demonstrated that MGD was associated with age > 60 y, higher body mass index (BMI), history of lithium therapy, lower 24-h urine calcium excretion, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and smaller size of the first excised parathyroid gland. On multivariate analyses, predictors of MGD were BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2) (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.5), BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-3.1), and smaller size of the first excised parathyroid (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher incidence of MGD in obese and morbidly obese patients. Due to a higher risk of MGD, surgeons should have a lower threshold to perform bilateral exploration in obese patients, especially if the first excised parathyroid gland is relatively small.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.12.055DOI Listing
May 2016

Delayed Calcium Normalization After Presumed Curative Parathyroidectomy is Not Associated with the Development of Persistent or Recurrent Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

Ann Surg Oncol 2016 07 22;23(7):2310-4. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Following parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), serum calcium levels typically normalize relatively quickly. The purpose of this study was to identify potential factors associated with delayed normalization of calcium levels despite meeting intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) criteria and to determine whether this phenomenon is associated with higher rates of persistent pHPT.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of 554 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for sporadic pHPT from January 2009 to July 2013. Patients who underwent presumed curative parathyroidectomy and had elevated POD0 calcium levels (>10.2 mg/dL) were matched 1:2 for age and gender to control patients with normal POD0 calcium levels.

Results: Of the 554 patients, 52 (9 %) had an elevated POD0 Ca (median 10.7, range 10.3-12.2). Compared with the control group, these patients had higher preoperative calcium (12 vs. 11.1, p < 0.001) and PTH (144 vs. 110 pg/mL, p = 0.004) levels and lower 25OH vitamin D levels (26 vs. 31 pg/mL; p = 0.024). Calcium normalization occurred in 64, 90, and 96 % of patients by postoperative days (POD) 1, 14, and 30, respectively. There was no difference in rates of single-gland disease or cure rates between the groups.

Conclusions: After presumed curative parathyroidectomy, nearly 10 % of patients had transiently persistent hypercalcemia. Most of these patients had normal serum calcium levels within the first 2 weeks and did not have increased rates of persistent pHPT. Immediate postoperative calcium levels do not predict the presence of persistent pHPT, and these patients may not require more stringent follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-016-5190-7DOI Listing
July 2016

Management of suspected adrenal metastases at 2 academic medical centers.

Am J Surg 2016 Apr 5;211(4):664-70. Epub 2016 Jan 5.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 W. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The optimal management of suspected adrenal metastases remains controversial.

Methods: This is a retrospective bi-institutional review of 37 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for suspected adrenal metastasis between 2001 and 2014.

Results: Three (8%) patients had benign adenomas on final pathology. At a median follow-up of 21 months, 7 (32%) patients were alive with no evidence of disease and 7 (32%) were alive with recurrent disease. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 8 months; decreased RFS was associated with positive margins and size ≥6 cm. Overall survival (OS) was 29 months; decreased OS was associated with capsular disruption. There were no differences in RFS or OS by surgical approach.

Conclusions: The favorable OS supports adrenalectomy in select patients with suspected adrenal metastases. Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is safe and effective, but the surgical approach should be based on the ability to achieve a margin-negative resection with avoidance of capsular disruption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.11.019DOI Listing
April 2016
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