Publications by authors named "Timothy Olanrewaju"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nigeria in 1995 and 2020: A systematic analysis of current evidence.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 May 18;23(5):963-977. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Improved understanding of the current burden of hypertension, including awareness, treatment, and control, is needed to guide relevant preventative measures in Nigeria. A systematic search of studies on the epidemiology of hypertension in Nigeria, published on or after January 1990, was conducted. The authors employed random-effects meta-analysis on extracted crude hypertension prevalence, and awareness, treatment, and control rates. Using a meta-regression model, overall hypertension cases in Nigeria in 1995 and 2020 were estimated. Fifty-three studies (n = 78 949) met our selection criteria. Estimated crude prevalence of pre-hypertension (120-139/80-89 mmHg) in Nigeria was 30.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.0%-39.7%), and the crude prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was 30.6% (95% CI: 27.3%-34.0%). When adjusted for age, study period, and sample, absolute cases of hypertension increased by 540% among individuals aged ≥20 years from approximately 4.3 million individuals in 1995 (age-adjusted prevalence 8.6%, 95% CI: 6.5-10.7) to 27.5 million individuals with hypertension in 2020 (age-adjusted prevalence 32.5%, 95% CI: 29.8-35.3). The age-adjusted prevalence was only significantly higher among men in 1995, with the gap between both sexes considerably narrowed in 2020. Only 29.0% of cases (95% CI: 19.7-38.3) were aware of their hypertension, 12.0% (95% CI: 2.7-21.2) were on treatment, and 2.8% (95% CI: 0.1-5.7) had at-goal blood pressure in 2020. Our study suggests that hypertension prevalence has substantially increased in Nigeria over the last two decades. Although more persons are aware of their hypertension status, clinical treatment and control rates, however, remain low. These estimates are relevant for clinical care, population, and policy response in Nigeria and across Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14220DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and risk factors in North-Central Nigeria: a population-based survey.

BMC Nephrol 2020 11 10;21(1):467. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There is insufficient population-based data on CKD in Nigeria that is required to estimate its true burden, and to design prevention and management strategies. The study aims to determine the prevalence of CKD and its risk factors in Nigeria.

Methods: We studied 8 urban communities in Kwara State, North-Central zone of Nigeria. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, urinalysis, weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference were obtained. Albuminuria and kidney length were measured by ultrasound while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was derived from serum creatinine, using chronic disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Associations of risk factors with CKD were determined by multivariate logistic regression and expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals.

Results: One thousand three hundred and fifty-three adults ≥18 years (44% males) with mean age of 44.3 ± 14.4 years, were screened. Mean kidney lengths were: right, 93.5 ± 7.0 cm and left, 93.4 ± 7.5 cm. The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 24%; diabetes 4%; obesity 8.7%; albuminuria of > 30 mg/L 7%; and dipstick proteinuria 13%. The age-adjusted prevalence of CKD by estimated GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m and/or Proteinuria was 12%. Diabetes (aOR 6.41, 95%CI = 3.50-11.73, P = 0.001), obesity (aOR 1.50, 95%CI = 1.10-2.05, P = 0.011), proteinuria (aOR 2.07, 95%CI = 1.05-4.08, P = 0.035); female sex (aOR 1.67, 95%CI = 1.47-1.89, P = 0.001); and age (aOR 1.89, 95%CI = 1.13-3.17, P = 0.015) were the identified predictors of CKD.

Conclusions: CKD and its risk factors are prevalent among middle-aged urban populations in North-Central Nigeria. It is common among women, fueled by diabetes, ageing, obesity, and albuminuria. These data add to existing regional studies of burden of CKD that may serve as template for a national prevention framework for CKD in Nigeria. One of the limitations of the study is that the participants were voluntary community dwellers and as such not representative for the community. The sample may thus have been subjected to selection bias possibly resulting in overestimation of CKD risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-02126-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654149PMC
November 2020

Deceased donor organ transplantation potential: A peep into an untapped gold mine.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2020 Jan-Feb;31(1):245-253

Department of Accident and Emergency, University of Ilorin, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Organ transplantation is the gold standard for treating end-stage organ diseases, many of whom are on waiting lists. The reasons for this include the nonavailability of suitable organs to be transplanted. In many nations, most of these challenges have been surmounted by the adoption of deceased donor program, which is not so in sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria. This study is to audit the potentially transplantable organs available from potential deceased donors from a Nigerian tertiary hospital. This is a study of deaths in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the accident and emergency units of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Data included the biodata, social history, diagnosis or indications for admission, time of arrival and death, causes of death, associated comorbidities, potential organs available, social history, and availability of relations at the time of death. There were 104 deaths in the ICU and 10 patients in the accident and emergency unit. There were 66 males (57.9%) and 48 females (42.1%). Eighty patients were Muslims (70.2%) and 34 were Christians (19.8%). A total of 33 participants were unmarried (28.9%),whereas 81 (71.1%) were married. The tribes of the patients were Yoruba (105, 92.1%), Igbo (7, 6.1%), Hausa (1, 0.9%), and Nupe (1, 0.9%). The age range was 0.08-85 years. Twenty-two (19.3%) had primary and the remaining had at least secondary education. The causes of death were myriad, and there were relatives available at the times of all deaths. The Maastricht classification of the deaths were Class I - 1 (0.9%), Class II - 37 (32.2%), Class III - 9 (7.8%), Class IV - 20 (17.4%), and Class V - 47(40.9%). There were no transplantable organs in 42 (36.5%), one organ in eight (7%), two organs in two (7%), three organs in one (0.9%), four organs in 13 (11.3%), five organs in six (5.2%), six organs in 11 (9.6%), seven organs in 11 (9.6%), eight organs in five (13%), and nine organs in five (4.3%). Deceased donor sources of organs are worthy of being exploited to improve organ transplantation in Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.279947DOI Listing
January 2021

Kidney care in low- and middle-income countries.

Clin Nephrol 2020 Supplement Jan;93(1):21-30

Optimal kidney care requires a trained nephrology workforce, essential healthcare services, and medications. This study aimed to identify the access to these resources on a global scale using data from the multinational survey conducted by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) (Global Kidney Health Atlas (GKHA) project), with emphasis on developing nations. For data analysis, the 125 participating countries were sorted into the 4 World Bank income groups: low income (LIC), lower-middle income (LMIC), upper-middle income (UMIC), and high income (HIC). A severe shortage of nephrologists was observed in LIC and LMIC with < 5 nephrologists per million population. Many LIC were unable to access estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria (proteinuria) tests in primary-care levels. Acute and chronic hemodialysis was available in most countries, although acute and chronic peritoneal dialysis access was severely limited in LIC (24% and 35%, respectively). Most countries had kidney transplantation access, except for LIC (12%). HIC and UMIC funded their renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal medications primarily through public means, whereas LMIC and LIC required private and out-of-pocket contributions. In conclusion, this study found a huge gap in the availability and access to trained nephrology workforce, tools for diagnosis and management of CKD, RRT, and funding of RRT and essential medications in LIC and LMIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CNP92S104DOI Listing
September 2020

Global capacity for clinical research in nephrology: a survey by the International Society of Nephrology.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2018 Feb 19;8(2):82-89. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Due to the worldwide rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), there is a need to develop strategies through well-designed clinical studies to guide decision making and improve delivery of care to CKD patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted based on the International Society of Nephrology Global Kidney Health Atlas data. For this study, the survey assessed the capacity of various countries and world regions in participating in and conducting kidney research. Availability of national funding for clinical trials was low (27%,  = 31), with the lowest figures obtained from Africa (7%,  = 2) and South Asia (0%), whereas high-income countries in North America and Europe had the highest participation in clinical trials. Overall, formal training to conduct clinical trials was inadequate for physicians (46%,  = 53) and even lower for nonphysicians, research assistants, and associates in clinical trials (34%,  = 39). There was also diminished availability of workforce and funding to conduct observational cohort studies in nephrology, and participation in highly specialized transplant trials was low in many regions. Overall, the availability of infrastructure (bio-banking and facilities for storage of clinical trial medications) was low, and it was lowest in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Ethics approval for study conduct was mandatory in 91% ( = 106) of countries and regions, and 62% ( = 66) were reported to have institutional committees. Challenges with obtaining timely approval for a study were reported in 53% ( = 61) of regions but the challenges were similar across these regions. A potential limitation is the possibility of over-reporting or under-reporting due to social desirability bias. This study highlights some of the major challenges for participating in and conducting kidney research and offers suggestions for improving global kidney research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336214PMC
February 2018

Global coverage of health information systems for kidney disease: availability, challenges, and opportunities for development.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2018 Feb 19;8(2):74-81. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Development and planning of health care services requires robust health information systems to define the burden of disease, inform policy development, and identify opportunities to improve service provision. The global coverage of kidney disease health information systems has not been well reported, despite their potential to enhance care. As part of the Global Kidney Health Atlas, a cross-sectional survey conducted by the International Society of Nephrology, data were collected from 117 United Nations member states on the coverage and scope of kidney disease health information systems and surveillance practices. Dialysis and transplant registries were more common in high-income countries. Few countries reported having nondialysis chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury registries. Although 62% of countries overall could estimate their prevalence of chronic kidney disease, less than 24% of low-income countries had access to the same data. Almost all countries offered chronic kidney disease testing to patients with diabetes and hypertension, but few to high-risk ethnic groups. Two-thirds of countries were unable to determine their burden of acute kidney injury. Given the substantial heterogeneity in the availability of health information systems, especially in low-income countries and across nondialysis chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury, a global framework for prioritizing development of these systems in areas of greatest need is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336215PMC
February 2018

Global access of patients with kidney disease to health technologies and medications: findings from the Global Kidney Health Atlas project.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2018 Feb 19;8(2):64-73. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Access to essential medications and health products is critical to effective management of kidney disease. Using data from the ISN Global Kidney Health Atlas multinational cross-sectional survey, global access of patients with kidney disease to essential medications and health products was examined. Overall, 125 countries participated, with 118 countries, composing 91.5% of the world's population, providing data on this domain. Most countries were unable to access eGFR and albuminuria in their primary care settings. Only one-third of low-income countries (LICs) were able to measure serum creatinine and none were able to access eGFR or quantify proteinuria. The ability to monitor diabetes mellitus through serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin measurements was suboptimal. Pathology services were rarely available in tertiary care in LICs (12%) and lower middle-income countries (45%). While acute and chronic hemodialysis services were available in almost all countries, acute and chronic peritoneal dialysis services were rarely available in LICs (18% and 29%, respectively). Kidney transplantation was available in 79% of countries overall and in 12% of LICs. While over one-half of all countries publicly funded RRT and kidney medications with or without copayment, this was less common in LICs and lower middle-income countries. In conclusion, this study demonstrated significant gaps in services for kidney care and funding that were most apparent in LICs and lower middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336224PMC
February 2018

Global nephrology workforce: gaps and opportunities toward a sustainable kidney care system.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2018 Feb 19;8(2):52-63. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Internal Disease and Nephrology, North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

The health workforce is the cornerstone of any health care system. An adequately trained and sufficiently staffed workforce is essential to reach universal health coverage. In particular, a nephrology workforce is critical to meet the growing worldwide burden of kidney disease. Despite some attempts, the global nephrology workforce and training capacity remains widely unknown. This multinational cross-sectional survey was part of the Global Kidney Health Atlas project, a new initiative administered by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN). The objective of this study was to address the existing global nephrology workforce and training capacity. The questionnaire was administered online, and all data were analyzed and presented by ISN regions and World Bank country classification. Overall, 125 United Nations member states responded to the entire survey, with 121 countries responding to survey questions pertaining to the nephrology workforce. The global nephrologist density was 8.83 per million population (PMP); high-income countries reported a nephrologist density of 28.52 PMP compared with 0.31 PMP in low-income countries. Similarly, the global nephrologist trainee density was 1.87 PMP; high-income countries reported a 30 times greater nephrology trainee density than low-income countries (6.03 PMP vs. 0.18 PMP). Countries reported a shortage in all care providers in nephrology. A nephrology training program existed in 79% of countries, ranging from 97% in high-income countries to 41% in low-income countries. In countries with a training program, the majority (86%) of programs were 2 to 4 years, and the most common training structure (56%) was following general internal medicine. We found significant variation in the global density of nephrologists and nephrology trainees and shortages in all care providers in nephrology; the gap was more prominent in low-income countries, particularly in African and South Asian ISN regions. These findings point to significant gaps in the current nephrology workforce and opportunities for countries and regions to develop and maintain a sustainable workforce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336213PMC
February 2018

Global overview of health systems oversight and financing for kidney care.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2018 Feb 19;8(2):41-51. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Reliable governance and health financing are critical to the abilities of health systems in different countries to sustainably meet the health needs of their peoples, including those with kidney disease. A comprehensive understanding of existing systems and infrastructure is therefore necessary to globally identify gaps in kidney care and prioritize areas for improvement. This multinational, cross-sectional survey, conducted by the ISN as part of the Global Kidney Health Atlas, examined the oversight, financing, and perceived quality of infrastructure for kidney care across the world. Overall, 125 countries, comprising 93% of the world's population, responded to the entire survey, with 122 countries responding to questions pertaining to this domain. National oversight of kidney care was most common in high-income countries while individual hospital oversight was most common in low-income countries. Parts of Africa and the Middle East appeared to have no organized oversight system. The proportion of countries in which health care system coverage for people with kidney disease was publicly funded and free varied for AKI (56%), nondialysis chronic kidney disease (40%), dialysis (63%), and kidney transplantation (57%), but was much less common in lower income countries, particularly Africa and Southeast Asia, which relied more heavily on private funding with out-of-pocket expenses for patients. Early detection and management of kidney disease were least likely to be covered by funding models. The perceived quality of health infrastructure supporting AKI and chronic kidney disease care was rated poor to extremely poor in none of the high-income countries but was rated poor to extremely poor in over 40% of low-income countries, particularly Africa. This study demonstrated significant gaps in oversight, funding, and infrastructure supporting health services caring for patients with kidney disease, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336220PMC
February 2018

Guidelines, policies, and barriers to kidney care: findings from a global survey.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2018 Feb 19;8(2):30-40. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

An international survey led by the International Society of Nephrology in 2016 assessed the current capacity of kidney care worldwide. To better understand how governance and leadership guide kidney care, items pertinent to government priority, advocacy, and guidelines, among others, were examined. Of the 116 responding countries, 36% ( = 42) reported CKD as a government health care priority, which was associated with having an advocacy group (χ2 = 11.57;  = 0.001). Nearly one-half (42%; 49 of 116) of countries reported an advocacy group for CKD, compared with only 19% (21 of 112) for AKI. Over one-half (59%; 68 of 116) of countries had a noncommunicable disease strategy. Similarly, 44% (48 of 109), 55% (57 of 104), and 47% (47 of 101) of countries had a strategy for nondialysis CKD, chronic dialysis, and kidney transplantation, respectively. Nearly one-half (49%; 57 of 116) reported a strategy for AKI. Most countries (79%; 92 of 116) had access to CKD guidelines and just over one-half (53%; 61 of 116) reported guidelines for AKI. Awareness and adoption of guidelines were low among nonnephrologist physicians. Identified barriers to kidney care were factors related to patients, such as knowledge and attitude (91%; 100 of 110), physicians (84%; 92 of 110), and geography (74%; 81 of 110). Specific to renal replacement therapy, patients and geography were similarly identified as a barrier in 78% (90 of 116) and 71% (82 of 116) of countries, respectively, with the addition of nephrologists (72%; 83 of 116) and the health care system (73%; 85 of 116). These findings inform how kidney care is currently governed globally. Ensuring that guidelines are feasible and distributed appropriately is important to enhancing their adoption, particularly in primary care. Furthermore, increasing advocacy and government priority, especially for AKI, may increase awareness and strategies to better guide kidney care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336223PMC
February 2018

Expanding renal transplantation organ donor pool in Nigeria.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Sep-Oct;29(5):1181-1187

Department of Accident and Emergency Unit, University of Ilorin, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Kidney transplantation is the gold standard for end-stage renal disease. All over the world there are several challenges preventing sufficient organ donation to meet the growing needs of patients on the waiting list. One major challenge which is common to most countries is the shortage of organs from willing living donors. Many countries, especially, the developed countries, have devised several models of expanding their donor pools to meet the growing needs of patients on the waiting list. Nigeria, a developing country has very low kidney transplantation rate even though some progress have been made in making the procedure feasible in about a dozen hospitals in Nigeria. One very major challenge has been the shortage of donor organ supply. This paper intends to proffer suggestions on how to expand the organ donor pool in Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.243946DOI Listing
November 2019

Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Renal Function and Renal Phosphate Handling in African Adults with Advanced HIV and CKD.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(1):88-100

Department of Medicine (Renal Unit), University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has been implicated in renal dysfunction with hypophosphataemia.

Objective: We prospectively evaluated renal phosphate excretion during HAART use.

Method: Newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals were treated with Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/Emtricitabine/Efavirenz (TDF/FTC/EFV), n=33; Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine (ZDV/3TC/NVP), n=53; and Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (ZDV/3TC/EFV), n=16. Creatinine and phosphate were assayed in blood and urine simultaneously at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fractional phosphate excretion and reabsorption (FEPi % and TRP), and the ratio of tubular maximum reabsorption of phosphate (TmP) to GFR (TmP/GFR) were estimated.

Results: At baseline, eGFR showed moderate chronic kidney disease (mean: 35.50 ± 2.02, 33.14 ± 1.63, and 39.97±1.84 ml/min/1.73m2 in the 3 groups respectively); 54 (52.9%) patients had hyperphosphataemia (>1.4mmo/L); 43 (42.2%) had normophosphataemia (0.6-1.4mmol/L); 5 (4.9%) had hypophosphataemia (<0.6mmol/L). eGFR improved significantly from 1 month (≥60, 58.65 ± 1.11, and 51.76 ±1.59 ml/min/1.73m2; p=0.04, <0.001, 0.67 respectively), with a relapse at 9 months in TDFtreated subjects (50.10 ± 1.89 ml/min/1.73m2). TDF/FTC/EFV resulted in significantly greater reduction in plasma phosphate than ZDV/3TC/NVP (p=0.031), but not significantly different from ZDV/3TC/EFV (p=0.968). Similarly, ZDV/3TC/EFV resulted in significantly greater reduction in plasma phosphate than ZDV/3TC/NVP (p=0.036). FEP% progressively increased with HAART duration, more in TDF-treated and ZDV/3TC/EFV-treated groups than ZDV/3TC/NVP (p=0.014); TRP was elevated (>0.86), implying non-maximal phosphate reabsorption. TmP/GFR values were elevated, (>1.35mmol/l).

Conclusion: HIV causes kidney dysfunction with reduced phosphate excretion resulting in hyperphosphataemia but HAART improves renal function. Prolonged use of TDF can cause renal toxicity with hypophosphataemia as fractional excretion progressively increased with duration of therapy unlike ZDV/3TC/NVP. The use of different third agents (either NVP or EFV) in zidovudine-based therapy results in significantly different plasma phosphate levels; ZDV/3TC/EFV, like TDF/FTC/EFV, resulted in significantly greater decline in plasma phosphate than ZDV/3TC/NVP. Thus, Evafirenz (EVF) may have similar or synergistic adverse effects with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526518666180720115240DOI Listing
June 2019

Organ Donation Among Tiers of Health Workers: Expanding Resources to Optimize Organ Availability in a Developing Country.

Transplant Direct 2016 Jan 15;2(1):e52. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Unlabelled: The global increase in end organ failure but disproportional shortage of organ donation calls for attention. Expanding the organ pool by assessing and improving health workers' attitude at all levels of care may be a worthwhile initiative.

Methods: A questionnaire-based cross sectional study involving tertiary, secondary, and primary health institutions in Southwestern Nigeria was conducted.

Results: Age range was 18 to 62 (36.7 ± 9.2) years. Only 13.5%, 11.7%, and 11.2% from primary, secondary, and tertiary health centers, respectively, would definitely donate despite high level of awareness (>90%) at each level of care. Participants from primary health care are of low income (P < 0.05), and this cohort is less likely to be aware of organ donation (P < 0.05). At each level of care, permission by religion to donate organs influenced positive attitudes (willingness to donate, readiness to counsel families of potential donors, and signing of organ donation cards) toward organ donation. Good knowledge of organ donation only significantly influenced readiness to counsel donors (P < 0.05) and not willingness to donate (P > 0.05). At each level of health care, young health care workers (P < 0.05) and women (P > 0.05) would be willing to donate, whereas men show positive attitude in signing of organ donor cards (P < 0.05) and counseling of families of potential donors (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Knowledge and willingness to donate organs among health care levels were not different. Considering the potential advantage of community placement of other tiers of health care (primary and secondary) in Nigeria, integrating them would be strategically beneficial to organ donation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TXD.0000000000000560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4946505PMC
January 2016

Nephrology training curriculum and implications for optimal kidney care in the developing world.

Clin Nephrol 2016 Supplement 1;86 (2016)(13):110-113

An effective workforce is essential for delivery of high-quality chronic disease care. Low-income nations are challenged by a dearth and/or maldistribution of an essential workforce required for all chronic disease care including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nephrology education and training in developed countries have grown at pace with the technological advancement in the practice of medicine in order to meet the standards required of kidney health professionals towards high-quality, patient-centered medical care. The standards designed by institutions and/or professional societies, such as Royal Colleges and Medical Councils in high-income nations with well-developed health systems and infrastructures, are often not easily translatable to issues critical to nephrology practice in low-income nations. Little or no guidance is provided on common nephrological issues of regional nature or pertaining to ethnic minorities and disadvantaged groups living in those countries. There is an emergent need for a training curriculum that meets the needs and peculiarities of the developing nations, and this needs to leverage on the existing and well-validated systems of training across the globe. We evaluated nephrology training programs across 25 upper-middle and high-income nations to identify best practices and opportunities for adoption in low-income nations. We reviewed training guidelines from major professional societies on content and process of training. There are similarities and differences in structure, content, and process of training programs across countries, and there are clearly adoptable concepts/frameworks for application in low-income nations. We provide recommendations and a strategic plan for the future focus of nephrology training in the developing world to align with current trends in technological advancement and development as well as the need for emphasis on prevention of CKD. The essential competencies (patient- and population--based) required of a nephrologist in a developing world setting are outlined with practical measures and an action plan for adoption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CNP86S123DOI Listing
January 2017

Chronic renal failure in a patient with bilateral ureterocele.

Saudi Med J 2015 Jul;36(7):862-4

Nephrology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. E-mail.

Ureterocele is a congenital anomaly, in which there is mal-development of the caudal segments of the ureter. There is a female preponderance with most cases seen in Caucasians. Among the reported complications of this condition, chronic renal failure occurring in the setting of ureterocele has not been well documented. We report a case of a young girl with bilateral ureterocele presenting with chronic renal failure, whose management presented a diagnostic failure and inadequate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2015.7.11786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4503908PMC
July 2015

Challenges of hemodialysis in a new renal care center: call for sustainability and improved outcome.

Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2014 18;7:347-52. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Renal Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Background: Nephrologists are faced with enormous challenges in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where hemodialysis is the most common modality of renal replacement therapy in the region. Therefore, we reviewed our 3 years of experience with hemodialysis services in a tertiary hospital located in a rural community of South West Nigeria. This was with a view to presenting the profile of hemodialysis patients and the challenges they face in sustaining hemodialysis.

Methods: We reviewed the case records and hemodialysis registers for 176 patients over the 3 years from November 2010 to December 2013. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 software.

Results: Of the 176 patients, 119 (66.9%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 44.87±17.21 years. Most were semiskilled or unskilled (111; 63.5%) and 29 (16.5%) were students. Twenty-six (14.8%) had acute kidney injury in the failure stage. Chronic glomerulonephritis, hypertensive nephropathy, and diabetic nephropathy accounted for 45.3%, 23.3%, and 12.1%, respectively, of patients with end-stage renal disease. Only 6.8% of patients could afford hemodialysis beyond 3 months.

Conclusion: Sustainability of maintenance hemodialysis is poor in our environment. Efforts should be intensified to improve other modalities of renal replacement therapy, in particular kidney transplantation, which is cost-effective in the long-term. Also, preventive measures such as education for affected patients and the general population would assist in reducing the prevalence and progression to end-stage renal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S65835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174020PMC
September 2014

Usefulness of renal length and volume by ultrasound in determining severity of chronic kidney disease.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2014 Sep;25(5):1117-21

Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

To determine the correlation of renal ultrasonic parameters and degree of kidney function among chronic kidney disease patients seen at the Nephrology unit of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) Ilorin, we studied 322 patients. The results were analyzed with specific reference to socio-demography and correlating renal length and volume with estimated glomerular filtration rate. The male to female ratio was 2:1, with an age range from 20 to 80 years and mean age of 45.06 (±13.0) years. The serum creatinine levels ranged from 201 to 1205 μmol/L, with a mean of 388 ± 168 μmol/L, while the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ranged from 3.77 to 44.32 mL/min, with a mean of 18.2 ± 7.19 mL/min. The right and left renal lengths ranged from 6.9 to 13.0 cm, with a mean of 9.11 ± 1.06, and 6.5-13.4 cm, with a mean of 9.23 ± 1.07 cm, respectively. The mean volumes of the right and left kidneys were 98.6 ± 41.9 cm 3 and 105 ± 46.2 cm 3 , respectively. The Pearson correlation of the right and left kidneys length to eGFR were -0.197 and -0.137 respectively, while that of the right and left kidney volume to eGFR were -0.122 and -0.043, respectively. Our study showed that there is a positive correlation between ultrasonic renal measurements and degree of kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.139981DOI Listing
September 2014

Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in sickle cell anaemia and its correlation with QT parameters.

Niger Med J 2013 Nov;54(6):382-5

Department of Physiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: Abnormalities of QT parameters together with cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) confer significant risks of cardiac morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. We questioned whether or not CAN influences occurrence of QT interval prolongation and dispersion in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA).

Materials And Methods: Forty stable adult sickle cell patients with 44 healthy haemoglobin AA controls were studied. Baseline electrocardiograms were obtained and cardiovascular autonomic function tests were performed using standard protocols.

Results: Mean corrected QT (QTc) in sickle cell patients was significantly higher (P = 0.001) than the mean of controls. Similarly, mean QT dispersion (QTcd) was higher (P = 0.001) in the former than in the latter. Mean QTc in patients with CAN was longer than patients with normal autonomic function (461 ± 26 ms versus 411 ± 23 ms), P = 0.001 (OR of 17.1, CI 3.48-83.71). Similarly, QTcd was higher (P = 0.001) in patients with CAN than those with normal cardiac autonomic function. Positive correlations were found between CAN with QTc and QTcd (r = 0.604, P = 0.001, r = 0.523, P = 0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: CAN is a risk factor for abnormalities of QT parameters in SCA and both may be harbinger for cardiac death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.126288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3948959PMC
November 2013

Profile and causes of mortality among elderly patients seen in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria.

Ann Afr Med 2011 Oct-Dec;10(4):278-83; discussion 283-4

Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Background: Old age is one of the factors associated with increased risk of dying when admitted to hospital. Therefore, aim of this study was to examine causes and pattern of death among elderly patients managed in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria with scanty mortality records.

Materials And Methods: This prospective study was on deaths that occurred in patients 60 years and above admitted to University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, between January 2005 and June 2007. Excluded were all brought-in-dead during the study period. Information obtained included demographic data, duration on admission, and diagnosis. Causes of death were determined from clinical progress notes and diagnosis.

Results: A total of 1298 deaths occurred during the study period, of which 297 occurred in persons 60 years and above with crude death rate of 22.8%. The mean age at death was 68 ± 9 years (ranged 60-100 years). This consisted of 59% males and 41% females. Mean age at death for females was 69.7 ± 8.7 years and for males 68.1 ± 9.8 years (P = 0.05). Mean values of serum chemistry were sodium 137 ± 8 mMol/l, potassium 3.6 ± 1 mMol/l, urea 11 ± 8 mMol/l, and creatinine 126 ± 91 μmol/l. The value of mean haemogram concentration was 10.5 ± 3 gm/dl and white cell count was 12 ± 2 × 10(9)/mm3. The three most common diagnoses at deaths were stroke (19.8%), sepsis (16.5%), and lower respiratory tract disease (8.1%). Infectious diseases accounted for 38.2% of all diagnoses. Collective mean length of hospital stay (LOS) at death was 6.8 ± 8.6 (ranged 15 minutes-60 days). Close to 27.4% of the deaths occurred within 24 hours and neurological disorder had shortest hospital stay (4.6 ± 6.3 days), followed by endocrine disorders (6.8 ± 8.4 days) and respiratory diseases (8.4 ± 5.6 days) [P = 0.001].

Conclusion: Hospital mortality is high amongst older people. Stroke and infectious diseases are leading causes of death. Efforts should be geared toward reducing risk for cardiovascular diseases and improvement on level of personal and community hygiene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1596-3519.87043DOI Listing
March 2012

Interest in neurology during medical clerkship in three Nigerian medical schools.

BMC Med Educ 2010 May 20;10:36. Epub 2010 May 20.

Neurology unit, Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1459, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria.

Background: This study sought to ascertain perception of Nigerian medical students of neurology in comparison with 7 other major medical specialties. To also determine whether neurology was the specialty students consider most difficult and the reasons for this and to appraise their opinion on how neurosciences and neurology were taught in their different universities.

Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from randomly selected clinical students from 3 medical colleges in Nigeria (University of Ibadan, Ibadan; University of Ilorin, Ilorin; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo).

Results: Of 320 questionnaires sent out, 302 were returned given 94% response rate. Students felt they knew neurology least of all the 8 medical specialties, and were not confident of making neurological diagnoses. About 82% of the students indicated they learnt neurology best from bedside teaching, followed by use of medical textbooks. Close to 15% found online resources very useful for learning neurology and 6% indicated that group discussion was quite useful in the acquisition of knowledge on neurology. Histology and biochemistry were the preclinical subjects participants opined were least useful in learning neurology. The most frequent reasons students felt neurology was difficult were problems with understanding neuroanatomy (49%), insufficient exposure to neurological cases (41%), too many complex diagnoses (32%) and inadequate neurology teachers (32%).

Conclusions: Nigerian medical students perceived neurology as the most difficult medical specialty and are not interested in specializing in it. Neurology education could be improved upon by provision of more bedside tutorials and increased availability of online resources to enhance learning. There is need to emphasize increased frequency of small group discussions amongst students so that they will be used to teamwork after graduation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-10-36DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890591PMC
May 2010

Pattern of urinary sediments and comparison with dipstick urinalysis in hypertensive Nigerians.

J Nephrol 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):547-55

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: Urinary sediment examination and dipstick urinalysis are an integral part in evaluating hypertensive patients. This study aims to determine the prevalence of urinary sediment abnormalities and compare this result with dipstick urinalysis in hypertensive Nigerians.

Methods: 138 newly diagnosed, adult, hypertensive Nigerians were studied. They were compared with an age- and sex-matched non-hypertensive control group from the general population. The subjects' urine samples were analyzed by dipstick test and microscopy (bright field), enhanced by Sternheimer's stain. Significant sediments were defined as =3/hpf and dipstick proteinuria or hematuria as =1+.

Results: Mean age was 43.21±9.64 yrs and 43.19±9.55 yrs in patients and controls respectively with 76 (55%) males in the patients and 80 (58%) in controls. Microscopic hematuria (=3/hpf) was detected in 15.2% of the patients and 3.6% of the control group (p=0.0009).Other elements present in insignificant quantities in patients and controls, respectively, were: leukocytes (7.2%, 9.4%, p=0.513); hyaline casts (5.8%, 8%, p=0.476), granular casts (1.4%, 0%) and crystals (6.5%, 5.1%, p=0.606). Dipstick proteinuria with hematuria was found in 6.55% and proteinuria alone in 1.45% of cases, while the control group showed 2.2% and 1.45% of hematuria and proteinuria, respectively; 47.6% of hypertensive patients with urinary sediment hematuria were not detected by dipstick test.

Conclusions: Hypertensive Nigerians showed a high prevalence of microscopic hematuria which may be suggestive of sub-clinical kidney damage at diagnosis. There is a high false-negative rate with dipstick urinalysis, underscoring the need for routine examination of urinary sediment in the assessment of hypertensive patients.
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December 2010