Publications by authors named "Timothy I Michaels"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ethnoracial health disparities and the ethnopsychopharmacology of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapies.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Faculty of Social Sciences.

Emerging evidence from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials suggests psychedelic compounds such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), when administered as an adjunct to psychotherapy, that is, psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP), may be beneficial for treating substance use disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Previous ethnopsychopharmacological research has identified ethnoracial differences in the metabolism, safety, and efficacy of psychotropic drugs, yet no studies have directly investigated the impact of ethnoracially based differences in psychedelic drug pharmacology. Although there is an extensive global history of psychedelic use among peoples of various cultures, ethnicities, and intersectional identities, psychedelic research has been conducted almost exclusively on White populations in North America and Western Europe. The failure to include Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) in psychedelic research trials neglects the ethnic, racial, and cultural factors that may impact individual responses to PAP and thereby prevents generalizability of findings. This article investigates the impact of biological and social factors related to culture, ethnicity, and race on pharmacological responses to PAP, as well as clinical outcomes. The limitations of ethnopsychopharmacology are discussed, and the authors present expected cultural, clinical, and public health benefits of expanding funding for this area. This work will draw attention to the unique and individualized needs of ethnoracially diverse clients in therapeutic settings and is intended to inform future PAP trials. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000490DOI Listing
June 2021

Maternal cerebellar gray matter volume is associated with daughters' psychotic experience.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2020 Jul 11;74(7):392-397. Epub 2020 May 11.

Brain Imaging Research Center, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA.

Aim: A substantial portion of children and adolescents show subthreshold psychotic symptoms called psychotic experience (PE). Because PE shares its biological and environmental risk factors with psychotic spectrum disorders, parental neuroanatomical variation could reflect a heritable biological underpinning of PE that may predict an offspring's PE.

Methods: A total of 94 participants from 35 families without a diagnosis of major neuropsychiatric disorders were examined, including 14 mother-daughter, 17 mother-son, 12 father-daughter, and 16 father-son dyads. An offspring's PE was assessed with the Atypicality subscale of the Behavior Assessment System for Children - 2nd Edition, Self-Report of Personality form (BASCaty). We examined correlations between voxel-by-voxel parental gray matter volume and their offspring's BASCaty score.

Results: Maternal cerebellar gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry was positively correlated with their daughters' BASCaty scores. The findings were significant in a more robust approach using cerebellum-specific normalization known. We did not find significant correlation between paternal gray matter volume and BASCaty scores or between offspring gray matter volumes and their BASCaty scores.

Conclusion: Expanding upon parent-of-origin effects in psychosis, maternal neuroanatomical variation was associated with daughters' PE. The nature of this sex-specific intergenerational effect is unknown, but maternally transmitted genes may relate cerebellum development to PE pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.13011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424852PMC
July 2020

Inclusion of people of color in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy: a review of the literature.

BMC Psychiatry 2018 07 31;18(1):245. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, Bousfield Psychology Building, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA.

Background: Despite renewed interest in studying the safety and efficacy of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of psychological disorders, the enrollment of racially diverse participants and the unique presentation of psychopathology in this population has not been a focus of this potentially ground-breaking area of research. In 1993, the United States National Institutes of Health issued a mandate that funded research must include participants of color and proposals must include methods for achieving diverse samples.

Methods: A methodological search of psychedelic studies from 1993 to 2017 was conducted to evaluate ethnoracial differences in inclusion and effective methods of recruiting peopple of color.

Results: Of the 18 studies that met full criteria (n = 282 participants), 82.3% of the participants were non-Hispanic White, 2.5% were African-American, 2.1% were of Latino origin, 1.8% were of Asian origin, 4.6% were of indigenous origin, 4.6% were of mixed race, 1.8% identified their race as "other," and the ethnicity of 8.2% of participants was unknown. There were no significant differences in recruitment methodologies between those studies that had higher (> 20%) rates of inclusion.

Conclusions: As minorities are greatly underrepresented in psychedelic medicine studies, reported treatment outcomes may not generalize to all ethnic and cultural groups. Inclusion of minorities in futures studies and improved recruitment strategies are necessary to better understand the efficacy of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in people of color and provide all with equal opportunities for involvement in this potentially promising treatment paradigm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1824-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069717PMC
July 2018

Aeolian dune sediment flux heterogeneity in Meridiani Planum, Mars.

Aeolian Res 2017 Jun 5;26:73-88. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA.

It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on the surface of Mars today, including early detections of active sand dunes in Meridiani Planum's Endeavour crater. Many of these reports are only based on a few sets of observations of relatively isolated bedforms and lack regional context. Here, we investigate aeolian activity across central Meridiani Planum and test the hypothesis that dune sites surrounding Endeavour crater are also active and part of region-wide sediment migration driven by northwesterly winds. All 13 dune fields investigated clearly showed evidence for activity and the majority exhibited dune migration (average rates of 0.6 m/Earth-year). Observations indicate substantial geographic and temporal heterogeneity of dune crest fluxes across the area and per site. Locations with multiple time steps indicate dune sand fluxes can vary by a factor of five, providing evidence for short periods of rapid migration followed by near-stagnation. In contrast, measurements at other sites are nearly identical, indicating that some dunes are in a steady-state as they migrate. The observed sediment transport direction was consistent with a regional northeasterly-to-northwesterly wind regime, revealing more variations than were appreciated from earlier, more localized studies. Craters containing shallow, degraded, flat-floored interiors tended to have dunes with high sediment fluxes/activity, whereas local kilometer-scale topographic obstructions (e.g., central peaks, yardangs) were found to be inversely correlated with dune mobility. Finally, the previous, more limited detections of dune activity in Endeavour crater have been shown to be representative of a broader, region-wide pattern of dune motion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeolia.2016.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5863747PMC
June 2017

Effects of chronic ketamine on hippocampal cross-frequency coupling: implications for schizophrenia pathophysiology.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 10 13;48(8):2903-2914. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Psychological Sciences Department, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA.

Disrupted neuronal oscillations have been identified as a potentially important biomarker for the perceptual and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Emerging evidences suggest that interactions between different frequency bands, cross-frequency coupling (CFC), serve an important role in integrating sensory and cognitive information and may contribute to disease pathophysiology. In this study, we investigated the effects of 14-day consecutive administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg i.p.) vs. saline on alterations in amplitude and changes in the coupling of low-frequency (0-30 Hz) phase and high-frequency (30-115 Hz) amplitude in the CA1 hippocampus of Long Evans rats. Intracranial electrode recordings were conducted pre- and post-injection while the animals performed a foraging task on a four-arm rectangular maze. Permutation analysis of frequency band-specific change in amplitudes revealed between-group differences in theta (6-12 Hz) and slow gamma (25-50 Hz) but not fast gamma (65-100 Hz) bands at both slow and fast speeds. Chronic ketamine challenge resulted in decreased coupling (pre to post) at slow speeds but increased coupling at faster speeds, compared to either no or modest increased coupling in the saline group. These results demonstrate that chronic ketamine administration alters the interaction of low-frequency phase and high-frequency oscillations chronically and that such coupling varies as a function of locomotive speed. These findings provide evidence for the potential relevance of CFC to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13822DOI Listing
October 2018

Can cannabis cause psychosis?

Clin Neuropharmacol 2015 Mar-Apr;38(2):63-4

Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (Michaels), Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY.

In recent years, increasing popular support for the medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has led to legalization for both medicinal and recreational purposes in the United States. To the extent that these changes in policy lead to increase widespread use, it is important to consider the association between heavy chronic cannabis use and the onset of psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia. This article provides a brief review of evidence that support cannabis use as a risk factor in the complex etiology of psychotic illness. In addition to reviewing psychopharmacology, longitudinal research, and clinical studies, the article addresses the potential implications of current research on public health policy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNF.0000000000000066DOI Listing
November 2015

Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence.

Front Psychol 2014 19;5:136. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Department of Psychology, New York University New York, NY, USA.

Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3928536PMC
June 2014

The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

Rep Prog Phys 2012 Oct 14;75(10):106901. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/75/10/106901DOI Listing
October 2012

Simulation of the atmospheric thermal circulation of a martian volcano using a mesoscale numerical model.

Nature 2002 Oct;419(6908):697-9

Department of Meteorology, San José State University, One Washington Square, San José, California 95117, USA.

Mesoscale (<100 km) atmospheric phenomena are ubiquitous on Mars, as revealed by Mars Orbiter Camera images. Numerical models provide an important means of investigating martian atmospheric dynamics, for which data availability is limited. But the resolution of general circulation models, which are traditionally used for such research, is not sufficient to resolve mesoscale phenomena. To provide better understanding of these relatively small-scale phenomena, mesoscale models have recently been introduced. Here we simulate the mesoscale spiral dust cloud observed over the caldera of the volcano Arsia Mons by using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. Our simulation uses a hierarchy of nested models with grid sizes ranging from 240 km to 3 km, and reveals that the dust cloud is an indicator of a greater but optically thin thermal circulation that reaches heights of up to 30 km, and transports dust horizontally over thousands of kilometres.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01114DOI Listing
October 2002