Publications by authors named "Timothy A Jinam"

10 Publications

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Discerning the Origins of the Negritos, First Sundaland People: Deep Divergence and Archaic Admixture.

Genome Biol Evol 2017 08;9(8):2013-2022

Division of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan.

Human presence in Southeast Asia dates back to at least 40,000 years ago, when the current islands formed a continental shelf called Sundaland. In the Philippine Islands, Peninsular Malaysia, and Andaman Islands, there exist indigenous groups collectively called Negritos whose ancestry can be traced to the "First Sundaland People." To understand the relationship between these Negrito groups and their demographic histories, we generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data in the Philippine Negritos and compared them with existing data from other populations. Phylogenetic tree analyses show that Negritos are basal to other East and Southeast Asians, and that they diverged from West Eurasians at least 38,000 years ago. We also found relatively high traces of Denisovan admixture in the Philippine Negritos, but not in the Malaysian and Andamanese groups, suggesting independent introgression and/or parallel losses involving Denisovan introgressed regions. Shared genetic loci between all three Negrito groups could be related to skin pigmentation, height, facial morphology and malarial resistance. These results show the unique status of Negrito groups as descended from the First Sundaland People.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evx118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5597900PMC
August 2017

A partial nuclear genome of the Jomons who lived 3000 years ago in Fukushima, Japan.

J Hum Genet 2017 Feb 1;62(2):213-221. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Department of Genetics, School of Life Science, SOKENDAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Mishima, Japan.

The Jomon period of the Japanese Archipelago, characterized by cord-marked 'jomon' potteries, has yielded abundant human skeletal remains. However, the genetic origins of the Jomon people and their relationships with modern populations have not been clarified. We determined a total of 115 million base pair nuclear genome sequences from two Jomon individuals (male and female each) from the Sanganji Shell Mound (dated 3000 years before present) with the Jomon-characteristic mitochondrial DNA haplogroup N9b, and compared these nuclear genome sequences with those of worldwide populations. We found that the Jomon population lineage is best considered to have diverged before diversification of present-day East Eurasian populations, with no evidence of gene flow events between the Jomon and other continental populations. This suggests that the Sanganji Jomon people descended from an early phase of population dispersals in East Asia. We also estimated that the modern mainland Japanese inherited <20% of Jomon peoples' genomes. Our findings, based on the first analysis of Jomon nuclear genome sequence data, firmly demonstrate that the modern mainland Japanese resulted from genetic admixture of the indigenous Jomon people and later migrants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2016.110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5285490PMC
February 2017

Human genetic diversity in the Japanese Archipelago: dual structure and beyond.

Genes Genet Syst 2015 ;90(3):147-52

Division of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics.

The Japanese Archipelago stretches approximately 3,000 kilometers from Hokkaido in the north to the Ryukyu Islands in the south, and has seen human activity since at least 30 thousand years ago (KYA). The Jomon period from 16 to 3 KYA is associated with cord-marked pottery and the people at that time, who were hunter-gatherers, occupied a range of locations across the Japanese Archipelago. The Yayoi period from 3 to 1.7 KYA saw the introduction of migrants from the Asian Continent who brought rice agriculture to the archipelago. The dual-structure model, which is based on craniofacial measurements, proposes that admixture between the Jomon and Yayoi people resulted in current-day Japanese. Subsequent genetic studies using uniparental and autosomal markers in current-day and ancient human samples are widely in support of the dual-structure model. These genetic data have also unveiled the uniqueness of the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan people while further demonstrating the genetic substructure within the Mainland Japanese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1266/ggs.90.147DOI Listing
August 2016

Unique characteristics of the Ainu population in Northern Japan.

J Hum Genet 2015 Oct 16;60(10):565-71. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Division of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan.

Various genetic data (classic markers, mitochondrial DNAs, Y chromosomes and genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) have confirmed the coexistence of three major human populations on the Japanese Archipelago: Ainu in Hokkaido, Ryukyuans in the Southern Islands and Mainland Japanese. We compared genome-wide SNP data of the Ainu, Ryukyuans and Mainland Japanese, and found the following results: (1) the Ainu are genetically different from Mainland Japanese living in Tohoku, the northern part of Honshu Island; (2) using Ainu as descendants of the Jomon people and continental Asians (Han Chinese, Koreans) as descendants of Yayoi people, the proportion of Jomon genetic component in Mainland Japanese was ~18% and ~28% in Ryukyuans; (3) the time since admixture for Mainland Japanese ranged from 55 to 58 generations ago, and 43 to 44 generations ago for the Ryukyuans, depending on the number of Ainu individuals with varying rates of recent admixture with Mainland Japanese; (4) estimated haplotypes of some Ainu individuals suggested relatively long-term admixture with Mainland Japanese; and (5) highly differentiated genomic regions between Ainu and Mainland Japanese included EDAR and COL7A1 gene regions, which were shown to influence macroscopic phenotypes. These results clearly demonstrate the unique status of the Ainu and Ryukyuan people within East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2015.79DOI Listing
October 2015

Admixture patterns and genetic differentiation in negrito groups from West Malaysia estimated from genome-wide SNP data.

Hum Biol 2013 Feb-Jun;85(1-3):173-88

Department of Genetics, School of Life Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mishima, Japan and Division of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan.

Southeast Asia houses various culturally and linguistically diverse ethnic groups. In Malaysia, where the Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups form the majority, there exist minority groups such as the "negritos" who are believed to be descendants of the earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. Here we report patterns of genetic substructure and admixture in two Malaysian negrito populations (Jehai and Kensiu), using ~50,000 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We found traces of recent admixture in both the negrito populations, particularly in the Jehai, with the Malay through principal component analysis and STRUCTURE analysis software, which suggested that the admixture was as recent as one generation ago. We also identified significantly differentiated nonsynonymous SNPs and haplotype blocks related to intracellular transport, metabolic processes, and detection of stimulus. These results highlight the different levels of admixture experienced by the two Malaysian negritos. Delineating admixture and differentiated genomic regions should be of importance in designing and interpretation of molecular anthropology and disease association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3378/027.085.0308DOI Listing
April 2015

HLA-DPB1*04:01 allele is associated with non-obstructive azoospermia in Japanese patients.

Hum Genet 2013 Dec 10;132(12):1405-11. Epub 2013 Aug 10.

Division of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Yata 1111, Mishima, 411-8540, Japan,

Azoospermia is defined by absence of sperm in the semen and can either be caused by obstruction of the seminal tract (obstructive azoospermia) or by defects in spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia, NOA). Previous studies reported that specific alleles and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were associated with NOA in East Asians. We attempt to expand upon previous findings by genotyping more HLA genes and to replicate SNP associations by focusing on Japanese NOA patients. HLA typing of six genes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1) was done on 355 NOA patients using SSO-Luminex assay while genotyping of two previously reported SNPs (rs498422 and rs3129878) was done on 443 patients and 544 fertile males using TaqMan assay. Association between the HLA alleles and SNP with NOA was assessed with Chi squared and logistic regression tests. We found that HLA-DPB1*04:01 [corrected p value, P(c) 7.13 × 10(-6); odds ratio (OR) 2.52], DRB1*13:02 (P(c) 4.93 × 10(-4), OR 1.97), DQB1*06:04 (P(c) 8.94 × 10(-4), OR 1.91) and rs3129878 (p value 3.98 × 10(-4); OR 1.32) showed significant association with NOA, however, these loci are in linkage disequilibrium with each other. The conditional logistic regression tests showed that DPB1*04:01 is independently associated with NOA, confirming the involvement of the HLA region in the etiology of NOA in Japanese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-013-1347-7DOI Listing
December 2013

Phase-defined complete sequencing of the HLA genes by next-generation sequencing.

BMC Genomics 2013 May 28;14:355. Epub 2013 May 28.

Division of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, the 3.8-Mb segment of the human genome at 6p21, has been associated with more than 100 different diseases, mostly autoimmune diseases. Due to the complex nature of HLA genes, there are difficulties in elucidating complete HLA gene sequences especially HLA gene haplotype structures by the conventional sequencing method. We propose a novel, accurate, and cost-effective method for generating phase-defined complete sequencing of HLA genes by using indexed multiplex next generation sequencing.

Results: A total of 33 HLA homozygous samples, 11 HLA heterozygous samples, and 3 parents-child families were subjected to phase-defined HLA gene sequencing. We applied long-range PCR to amplify six HLA genes (HLA-A, -C, -B, DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1) followed by transposase-based library construction and multiplex sequencing with the MiSeq sequencer. Paired-end reads (2 × 250 bp) derived from the sequencer were aligned to the six HLA gene segments of UCSC hg19 allowing at most 80 bases mismatch. For HLA homozygous samples, the six amplicons of an individual were pooled and simultaneously sequenced and mapped as an individual-tagging method. The paired-end reads were aligned to corresponding genes of UCSC hg19 and unambiguous, continuous sequences were obtained. For HLA heterozygous samples, each amplicon was separately sequenced and mapped as a gene-tagging method. After alignments, we detected informative paired-end reads harboring SNVs on both forward and reverse reads that are used to separate two chromosomes and to generate two phase-defined sequences in an individual. Consequently, we were able to determine the phase-defined HLA gene sequences from promoter to 3'-UTR and assign up to 8-digit HLA allele numbers, regardless of whether the alleles are rare or novel. Parent-child trio-based sequencing validated our sequencing and phasing methods.

Conclusions: Our protocol generated phased-defined sequences of the entire HLA genes, resulting in high resolution HLA typing and new allele detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671147PMC
May 2013

Evolutionary history of continental southeast Asians: "early train" hypothesis based on genetic analysis of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA data.

Mol Biol Evol 2012 Nov 22;29(11):3513-27. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Department of Genetics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mishima, Japan.

The population history of the indigenous populations in island Southeast Asia is generally accepted to have been shaped by two major migrations: the ancient "Out of Africa" migration ∼50,000 years before present (YBP) and the relatively recent "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian agriculturalists approximately 5,000 YBP. The Negritos are believed to have originated from the ancient migration, whereas the majority of island Southeast Asians are associated with the Austronesian expansion. We determined 86 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete genome sequences in four indigenous Malaysian populations, together with a reanalysis of published autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of Southeast Asians to test the plausibility and impact of those migration models. The three Austronesian groups (Bidayuh, Selatar, and Temuan) showed high frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups, which originated from the Asian mainland ∼30,000-10,000 YBP, but low frequencies of "Out of Taiwan" markers. Principal component analysis and phylogenetic analysis using autosomal SNP data indicate a dichotomy between continental and island Austronesian groups. We argue that both the mtDNA and autosomal data suggest an "Early Train" migration originating from Indochina or South China around the late-Pleistocene to early-Holocene period, which predates, but may not necessarily exclude, the Austronesian expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mss169DOI Listing
November 2012

Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania.

Am J Hum Genet 2011 Oct 22;89(4):516-28. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a "Negrito" group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3188841PMC
October 2011

Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia.

Science 2009 Dec;326(5959):1541-5

Asia harbors substantial cultural and linguistic diversity, but the geographic structure of genetic variation across the continent remains enigmatic. Here we report a large-scale survey of autosomal variation from a broad geographic sample of Asian human populations. Our results show that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Most populations show relatedness within ethnic/linguistic groups, despite prevalent gene flow among populations. More than 90% of East Asian (EA) haplotypes could be found in either Southeast Asian (SEA) or Central-South Asian (CSA) populations and show clinal structure with haplotype diversity decreasing from south to north. Furthermore, 50% of EA haplotypes were found in SEA only and 5% were found in CSA only, indicating that SEA was a major geographic source of EA populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1177074DOI Listing
December 2009