Publications by authors named "Tilahun Bekele"

8 Publications

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Assessment of challenges of crop production and marketing in Bench-Sheko, Kaffa, Sheka, and West-Omo zones of southwest Ethiopia.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 16;7(6):e07319. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Mizan-Tepi University, P.O. Box 260, Ethiopia.

This study was conducted to identify the challenges of crop production and marketing in southwest Ethiopia. Primary and secondary sources of data were used. Qualitative and Quantitative data types were collected from 385 respondents through interviews, focus group discussion, key informant interviews, and observations. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and econometric models. Crop productivity was analyzed by the Cobb Douglas model and its efficiency and determinants were identified by the stochastic frontier model. The major bottlenecks of crop production were the low attitude of farmers towards improved technology, low supply and usage of improved seed varieties (94.5%), low supply and use of fertilizers (95%), knowledge and skill gap of farmers (80.1%), poor extension service (57.3%), soil acidity (94.8%), diseases and insect pest (77.8%), conflict (84.9%) and the outbreak of human diseases (60%). Marketing challenges were poor infrastructure (87.3%), lack of market linkage (62.5%), and lack of credit services (70.6%). The Cobb Douglas model result revealed that land size, local seed, improved seed, repetition of weeding, and labor force influenced crop productivity. The mean level of crop technical efficiency was 51.3%. Education level, extension service, access to credit, cooperative membership, number of livestock owned, and soil fertility were influenced crop inefficiency negatively and distance to the farm was positively related to technical inefficiency. Improving extension services and skill of farmers through practical based training and building capacity of extension workers and systems to enhance the attitude of farmers towards technology usage and proper management practices, timely provision of farm inputs, improving road and market access, and provision of credit services to producers were some of the recommendations forwarded to alleviate crop production and marketing challenges in the study areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225961PMC
June 2021

Gestational weight gain in sub-Saharan Africa: Estimation based on pseudo-cohort design.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0252247. Epub 2021 May 26.

Center for Food Science and Nutrition, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Inadequate or excess gestational weight gain (GWG) leads to multiple undesirable birth outcomes. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) little is known about the weight gain pattern in pregnancy. The purpose of the study is to estimate the average gestational weight gain (GWG) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to examined whether there had been recent improvements or not.

Methods: Based on cross-sectional anthropometric data extracted from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in SSA, we estimated the average GWG in the region. Pseudo-cohort design was used to reconstruct GWG trajectories based on aggregated data of 110,482 women extracted from 30 recent surveys. Trend in GWG between 2000 and 2015 was determined using the data of 11 SSA countries. Pre-pregnancy weight was estimated based on the weight of non-pregnant women at risk of conception.

Results: On average, women in SSA gain inadequate weight (6.6 kg, 95% confidence interval, 6.0-7.2) over pregnancy. No meaningful gain was observed in the first trimester; whereas, women in the second and third trimesters put on 2.2 and 3.2 kg, respectively. The highest weight gain (10.5, 8.2-12.9 kg) was observed in Southern African sub-region and the lowest in Western Africa (5.8, 5.0-6.6 kg). The GWG among women who had secondary or above education (9.5, 8.2-10.9 kg) was higher than women with lower education (5.0, 4.3-5.8 kg). Likewise, GWG in women from richest households (9.0, 7.2-10.7 kg) was superior to those from poorest households (6.1, 5.3-7.0 kg). The estimated recent (2015-20) mean GWG (6.6, 5.8-7.4 kg) was not significantly different from what had been at beginning of the new millennium (6.7, 5.9-7.5 kg).

Conclusion: In SSA GWG is extremely low and is not showing improvements.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252247PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153429PMC
May 2021

Predictors of preterm birth in Western Ethiopia: A case control study.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(4):e0247927. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Medicine, Institute of Health sciences,Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Early neonatal death caused by preterm birth contributes the most for perinatal death. The prevalence of preterm birth continues to rise and is a significant public health problem. The exact cause of preterm birth is yet unanswered, as mostly preterm birth happens spontaneously. Predictors of preterm birth in developing countries like Ethiopia were not well investigated, and no study was conducted before this in the study area.

Objectives: To identify predictors of preterm birth in Western Ethiopia, 2017/2018.

Methods: Health facility-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from October 20/2017-march 20/2018 in 4 Hospitals. A total sample size of 358 women was recruited. From this 72 were cases and 286 were controls. Cases were mothers who gave Preterm birth, and controls were mothers who gave birth at term. Ethical clearance was obtained from Wollega University ethical review committee. A pre tested, structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi Data 3.1 and SPSS version 21, respectively. Logistic regression was done to identify predictors of preterm birth.

Result: Three hundred fifty-eight women participated in this study of which 72 were cases and 286 were controls; making the overall response rate of 100%. Lack of antenatal care visit [AOR = 3.18, 95% CI 1.37-7.38]),(Having 1-2 antenatal care visit [AOR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.18-4.35]),history of previous preterm)[AOR = 5.19, 95% CI1.29-20.88],Short Interpregnancy Interval [AOR = 4.41.95% CI 2.05-9.47],Having Reproductive tract infections [AOR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.02-6.32] and having Obstetric complications [AOR = 2.48,95% CI 1.31-4.71] were found to be predictors of preterm birth.

Conclusion And Recommendation: Risk factors of preterm delivery are multifactorial and depend on geographical and demographic features of the population studied. Hence results of studies from one area might not be applicable to another area. Antenatal care visits are unique opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of problems. Therefore, antenatal care should be strengthened, and appropriate counseling should be given at each antenatal care follow up. Maintainning optimum birth interval through family planning, and early identification and treatment of reproductive tract infections are mandatory.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247927PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026033PMC
September 2021

Use of Different Natural Products to Control Growth of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Green Solvent Emulsion, Characterization, and Their Photocatalytic Application.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021 12;2021:6626313. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Applied Natural Science, Adama Science and Technology University, P.O. Box 1888, Adama, Ethiopia.

Water, one of the crucial and the pillar resources to every living thing, could be polluted day to day by different causes such as expansion in industrialization, rapid increment in population size, the threat of climate, and growth of urbanization. The existence of a number of organic dyes, detergents, and pesticides from industrial effluents could lead to severe diseases and even to the death of human beings. Currently, remediation of those hazardous organic contaminants using semiconductor metal oxide catalysts has received extensive attention in recent years. Among the numerous nanometal oxides, titanium oxide (TiO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been well known as a significant photocatalytic material due to their suitable physiochemical behaviors such as stability, conductivity, high surface area to volume ratio, structure, and porosity nature at the nanoscale level. TiO semiconductor nanoparticles could be synthesized via several physiochemical approaches; among those, the biogenic technique is the most selective one which involves the synthesis of NPs using different templates. Biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles is an environmentally friendly protocol that involves the use of different parts and types of biogenic sources such as bacteria, fungi, yeast, virus, and green plants or the byproducts of their metabolism, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. TiO NPs obtained via the biogenic method provide a potential application for the degradation of organic dyes and other pollutants in wastewater. This method of synthesis of NPs has been given a great attention by researchers due to their nontoxicity, low cost, environmental friendliness, the usage of green solvents, and simplicity of the process. This review focuses on summarizing the synthesis of TiO NPs using various biogenic sources, characterization, and their photocatalytic applications for the degradation of different wastes and organic dyes from polluted water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6626313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981184PMC
March 2021

Evaluating the African food supply against the nutrient intake goals set for preventing diet-related non-communicable diseases: 1990 to 2017 trend analysis.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(1):e0245241. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Center for Food Science and Nutrition, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Population intake goals intended to prevent diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been defined for multiple nutrients. Yet, little is known whether the existing food supply in Africa is in conformity with these goals or not. We evaluated the African food balances against the recommendations for macronutrients, free sugars, types of fatty acids, cholesterol and fruits and vegetables over 1990 to 2017, and provided regional, sub-regional and country-level estimates.

Methods: The per capita supply of 95 food commodities for 45 African countries (1990-2017) was accessed from the FAOSTAT database and converted into calories, carbohydrate, fat, protein, free sugars, cholesterol, saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids contents using the Food Data Central database. The supply of fruits and vegetables was also computed.

Results: In Africa the energy supply increased by 16.6% from 2,685 in 1990 to 3,132 kcal/person/day in 2017. However, the energy contribution of carbohydrate, fat and protein remained constant and almost within acceptable range around 73, 10 and 9%, respectively. In 2017, calories from fats surpassed the 20% limit in upper-middle- or high-income and Southern Africa countries. Energy from SFA remained within range (<10%) but that of PUFA was below the minimum desirable level of 6% in 28 countries. Over the period, energy from free sugars remained constant around 7% but the figure exceeded the limit of 10% in upper-middle- or high-income countries (14.7%) and in Southern (14.8%) and Northern (10.5%) sub-regions. Between 1990 and 2017 the availability of dietary cholesterol per person surged by 14% but was below the upper limit of 300 mg/day. The supply of fruits and vegetables increased by 27.5% from 279 to 356 g/capita/day; yet, with the exception of Northern Africa, the figure remained below the target of 400 g/capita/day in all sub-regions.

Conclusion: According to this population level data, in Africa most population intake goals are within acceptable range. Yet, the supply of fruits and vegetables and PUFAs are suboptimal and the increasing energy contributions of free sugars and fats are emerging concerns in specific sub-regions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245241PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799762PMC
May 2021

Inclusion and exclusion errors in the targeted supplementary feeding programme of Ethiopia.

Matern Child Nutr 2018 10 11;14(4):e12627. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Center for Food Science and Nutrition, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Ethiopia's targeted supplementary feeding (TSF) programme aims to rehabilitate moderately malnourished children and pregnant and lactating women in selected chronically food-insecure districts. Screening for malnutrition is made by health extension workers through the quarterly community health days (CHD) events based on mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) thresholds. This validation study examined the extent of targeting errors of inclusion (providing aid to the nonneedy) and exclusion (failure to reach the needy) in the TSF programme, among preschool children in 6 TSF districts. The study was conducted within 7 days after the completion of the CHD event. Multistage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 1,104 children. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire and by reviewing CHD registers. A paired t test was used to compare the MUAC measurements taken during the CHD and during the survey. The study found a global acute malnutrition prevalence of 13.0%. During the CHD, only 54.8% of the children were screened for malnutrition. The overall inclusion and exclusion errors of the TSF were 16.5% and 40.3%, respectively. The reasons for the exclusion errors were low coverage of the screening programme (67.2%) and MUAC measurement errors (32.8%). The mean including standard deviation (M ± SD) of the MUAC measured by health extension workers (11.8 ± 0.9 cm) was significantly lower than the measurements made by fieldworkers in the survey (12.1 ± 1.0 cm; p < .001). The study concluded that high targeting errors are committed in the TSF programme of Ethiopia. Targeting can be enhanced through accurate measurement of MUAC and maximization of the coverage of the screening programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6866090PMC
October 2018

Predictors of dietary diversity in children ages 6 to 23 mo in largely food-insecure area of South Wollo, Ethiopia.

Nutrition 2017 Jan 16;33:163-168. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

Center for Food Science and Nutrition, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level and predictors of dietary diversity (DD) in predominantly food-insecure area of South Wollo, Ethiopia among children ages 6 to 23 mo.

Methods: The study was conducted in October 2014. We selected 2080 children using a multistage sampling technique. DD in the preceding day of the survey was assessed with the standard seven-food group score. Predictors of DD were identified via Poisson regression model and the outputs are presented using adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: Only 7% (95% CI, 5.9%-8.1%) of the children met the recommended minimum DD. Child age and maternal knowledge of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) were significant predictors of DD with IRR of 1.027 (95% CI, 1.022-1.032) and 1.026 (95% CI, 1.010-1.043). Households with moderate and severe food insecurity had 9% (95% CI, 3.8-13.9%) and 24.9% (95% CI, 14.6-44%) reduced chance of providing diversified food. Husbands' direct involvement in IYCF increased DD by 13.7% (95% CI, 7.4-20.4). Caregivers who discussed IYCF with health extension workers, participated in cooking demonstrations, and heard radio spots about IYCF in the preceding 3 mo had 11.7% (95% CI, 3.4-20.7%), 18.9% (95% CI, 0.3-40.9%), and 11.4% (95% CI, 4.8-18.4) higher chance of providing diversified food, respectively. Backyard gardening (IRR, 1.088; 95% CI, 1.031-1.148) and number of chickens owned (IRR, 1.011; 95% CI, 1.001-1.021) also were significant predictors.

Conclusions: In predominately food-insecure areas, nutrition education, implementation of nutrition-sensitive agriculture, and husband involvement in IYCF can improve children's DD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.06.002DOI Listing
January 2017

Tissue reactivity and suture handling characteristics of "jimat" against silk and chromic gut in cat thigh muscle: A comparative study.

Vet World 2015 Aug 9;8(8):958-69. Epub 2015 Aug 9.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University, P. O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the tissue reactivity and suture handling characteristics of chromic gut, silk, and 'jimat' suture materials in cat thigh muscle.

Materials And Methods: This experimental study was conducted from November, 2013 to April, 2014 in Kombolcha Animal Diseases Survey, Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Kombolcha, Ethiopia. A total of 36 local breed male cats were randomly assigned into chromic gut, silk, and "jimat" groups of 12 cats each as A, B, and C, respectively. The hind leg muscle biceps femoris was incised and sutured with suture materials according to their groups. The muscle samples with its suture were collected at six different days interval i.e. 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 and processed histopathologically to assess the degree of leukocytic infiltration and fibrous and granulation tissue formation (GTF). In addition, all suture materials were evaluated intraoperatively about their handling characteristics, by rating the precision of knot tying, square knot positioning, and resistance to knot slippage. The statistical analysis was done with two-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-square tests.

Results: The histopathology showed that "jimat" thread (2.4±1.2) had produced least leukocytic infiltration than chromic gut (4.5±1.9) and silk (4.3±1.5) sutures during the study period. Higher GTF was seen at day 3 (6 [100%]), 7 (6 [100%]) and day 14 (4 [66.7%]) in all sutures, whereas "jimat" showed significantly (p<0.05) higher fibrous tissue formation (10 [83.3%]) than others. Moreover, "jimat" suture had equal suture handling characteristics (p>0.05) with both chromic gut and silk.

Conclusion: The result indicated that a single strand "jimat" thread appears to be the most satisfactory suture material as regards to both tissue reaction and suture handling characteristics for skeletal muscle approximation in cats and provided that studies on its carcinogenic effects should be done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2015.958-969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774762PMC
August 2015
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