Publications by authors named "Tiina M Mattila"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Taming the massive genome of Scots pine with PiSy50k, a new genotyping array for conifer research.

Plant J 2021 Dec 11. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland.

Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) is the most widespread coniferous tree in the boreal forests of Eurasia, with major economic and ecological importance. However, its large and repetitive genome presents a challenge for conducting genome-wide analyses such as association studies, genetic mapping and genomic selection. We present a new 50K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array for Scots pine research, breeding and other applications. To select the SNP set, we first genotyped 480 Scots pine samples on a 407 540 SNP screening array and identified 47 712 high-quality SNPs for the final array (called 'PiSy50k'). Here, we provide details of the design and testing, as well as allele frequency estimates from the discovery panel, functional annotation, tissue-specific expression patterns and expression level information for the SNPs or corresponding genes, when available. We validated the performance of the PiSy50k array using samples from Finland and Scotland. Overall, 39 678 (83.2%) SNPs showed low error rates (mean = 0.9%). Relatedness estimates based on array genotypes were consistent with the expected pedigrees, and the level of Mendelian error was negligible. In addition, array genotypes successfully discriminate between Scots pine populations of Finnish and Scottish origins. The PiSy50k SNP array will be a valuable tool for a wide variety of future genetic studies and forestry applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15628DOI Listing
December 2021

New model species for arctic-alpine plant molecular ecology.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 04 16;21(3):637-640. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Arctic and alpine, high latitude and high elevation environments are one of the most stressful environments for species to inhabit. This harshness manifests itself in lower species richness in comparison to more southern vegetation zones (Francis & Currie, 2003). Furthermore, the climatic oscillations-past and predicted-have the most dramatic effect on these ecosystems. For example, in regions of continental ice sheets-the northernmost part of Western Europe and North America-the Arctic species assemblages are no older than a few thousands of years, which is a relatively short period from an evolutionary perspective. Although similar environments may have existed further south during the Ice Age, allowing some preadaptation for the Arctic species, the current habitat is a unique combination of environmental factors such as the climate, soil, bedrock, and photoperiod. Hence, understanding the evolutionary forces shaping Arctic-alpine species will be important for predicting these vulnerable environments' population viability and adaptive potential in the future. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Nowak et al. (Molecular Ecology Resources) present extensive genome-wide resources for an Arctic-alpine plant Draba nivalis. This adds a valuable new member into the cabbage family models for evolutionary genetics and adaptation studies, to accompany e.g., Arabidopsis (Nature Genetics, 43, 476; Nature, 408, 796), Arabis (Nature Plants, 1, 14023) and Capsella (Nature Genetics, 45, 831). A whole new avenue will open up for molecular ecological studies not only for D. nivalis, but the whole large Draba genus with its diverse ecological and evolutionary characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13335DOI Listing
April 2021

Population Genomics of Transitions to Selfing in Brassicaceae Model Systems.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2090:269-287

Department of Ecology, Environment, and Plant Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Many plants harbor complex mechanisms that promote outcrossing and efficient pollen transfer. These include floral adaptations as well as genetic mechanisms, such as molecular self-incompatibility (SI) systems. The maintenance of such systems over long evolutionary timescales suggests that outcrossing is favorable over a broad range of conditions. Conversely, SI has repeatedly been lost, often in association with transitions to self-fertilization (selfing). This transition is favored when the short-term advantages of selfing outweigh the costs, primarily inbreeding depression. The transition to selfing is expected to have major effects on population genetic variation and adaptive potential, as well as on genome evolution. In the Brassicaceae, many studies on the population genetic, gene regulatory, and genomic effects of selfing have centered on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the crucifer genus Capsella. The accumulation of population genomics datasets have allowed detailed investigation of where, when and how the transition to selfing occurred. Future studies will take advantage of the development of population genetics theory on the impact of selfing, especially regarding positive selection. Furthermore, investigation of systems including recent transitions to selfing, mixed mating populations and/or multiple independent replicates of the same transition will facilitate dissecting the effects of mating system variation from processes driven by demography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0199-0_11DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of demography on linked selection in two outcrossing Brassicaceae species.

Ecol Evol 2019 Sep 13;9(17):9532-9545. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Environment, and Plant Sciences Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.

Genetic diversity is shaped by mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, recombination, and selection. The dynamics and interactions of these forces shape genetic diversity across different parts of the genome, between populations and species. Here, we have studied the effects of linked selection on nucleotide diversity in outcrossing populations of two Brassicaceae species, and , with contrasting demographic history. In agreement with previous estimates, we found evidence for a modest population size expansion thousands of generations ago, as well as efficient purifying selection in . In contrast, the population exhibited evidence for very recent strong population size decline and weaker efficacy of purifying selection. Using multiple regression analyses with recombination rate and other genomic covariates as explanatory variables, we can explain 47% of the variance in neutral diversity in the population, while in the population, only 11% of the variance was explained by the model. Recombination rate had a significant positive effect on neutral diversity in both species, suggesting that selection at linked sites has an effect on patterns of neutral variation. In line with this finding, we also found reduced neutral diversity in the vicinity of genes in the population. However, in no such reduction in diversity was evident, a finding that is consistent with expectations of the impact of a recent bottleneck on patterns of neutral diversity near genes. This study thus empirically demonstrates how differences in demographic history modulate the impact of selection at linked sites in natural populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745670PMC
September 2019

Utilization of Tissue Ploidy Level Variation in Transcriptome Assembly of .

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 10 7;9(10):3409-3421. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Ecology and Genetics.

Compared to angiosperms, gymnosperms lag behind in the availability of assembled and annotated genomes. Most genomic analyses in gymnosperms, especially conifer tree species, rely on the use of assembled transcriptomes. However, the level of allelic redundancy and transcript fragmentation in these assembled transcriptomes, and their effect on downstream applications have not been fully investigated. Here, we assessed three assembly strategies for short-reads data, including the utility of haploid megagametophyte tissue during assembly as single-allele guides, for six individuals and five different tissues in We then contrasted haploid and diploid tissue genotype calls obtained from the assembled transcriptomes to evaluate the extent of paralog mapping. The use of the haploid tissue during assembly increased its completeness without reducing the number of assembled transcripts. Our results suggest that current strategies that rely on available genomic resources as guidance to minimize allelic redundancy are less effective than the application of strategies that cluster redundant assembled transcripts. The strategy yielding the lowest levels of allelic redundancy among the assembled transcriptomes assessed here was the generation of SuperTranscripts with Lace followed by CD-HIT clustering. However, we still observed some levels of heterozygosity (multiple gene fragments per transcript reflecting allelic redundancy) in this assembled transcriptome on the haploid tissue, indicating that further filtering is required before using these assemblies for downstream applications. We discuss the influence of allelic redundancy when these reference transcriptomes are used to select regions for probe design of exome capture baits and for estimation of population genetic diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778806PMC
October 2019

Local adaptation and ecological differentiation under selection, migration, and drift in Arabidopsis lyrata.

Evolution 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.

How the balance between selection, migration, and drift influences the evolution of local adaptation has been under intense theoretical scrutiny. Yet, empirical studies that relate estimates of local adaptation to quantification of gene flow and effective population sizes have been rare. Here, we conducted a reciprocal transplant trial, a common garden trial, and a whole-genome-based demography analysis to examine these effects among Arabidopsis lyrata populations from two altitudinal gradients in Norway. Demography simulations indicated that populations within the two gradients are connected by gene flow (0.1 < 4N m < 11) and have small effective population sizes (N 6000), suggesting that both migration and drift can counteract local selection. However, the three-year field experiments showed evidence of local adaptation at the level of hierarchical multiyear fitness, attesting to the strength of differential selection. In the lowland habitat, local superiority was associated with greater fecundity, while viability accounted for fitness differences in the alpine habitat. We also demonstrate that flowering time differentiation has contributed to adaptive divergence between these locally adapted populations. Our results show that despite the estimated potential of gene flow and drift to hinder differentiation, selection among these A. lyrata populations has resulted in local adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13502DOI Listing
May 2018

Genome-Wide Analysis of Colonization History and Concomitant Selection in Arabidopsis lyrata.

Mol Biol Evol 2017 10;34(10):2665-2677

Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

The high climatic variability in the past hundred thousand years has affected the demographic and adaptive processes in many species, especially in boreal and temperate regions undergoing glacial cycles. This has also influenced the patterns of genome-wide nucleotide variation, but the details of these effects are largely unknown. Here we study the patterns of genome-wide variation to infer colonization history and patterns of selection of the perennial herb species Arabidopsis lyrata, in locally adapted populations from different parts of its distribution range (Germany, UK, Norway, Sweden, and USA) representing different environmental conditions. Using site frequency spectra based demographic modeling, we found strong reduction in the effective population size of the species in general within the past 100,000 years, with more pronounced effects in the colonizing populations. We further found that the northwestern European A. lyrata populations (UK and Scandinavian) are more closely related to each other than with the Central European populations, and coalescent based population split modeling suggests that western European and Scandinavian populations became isolated relatively recently after the glacial retreat. We also highlighted loci showing evidence for local selection associated with the Scandinavian colonization. The results presented here give new insights into postglacial Scandinavian colonization history and its genome-wide effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx193DOI Listing
October 2017

Role of seed germination in adaptation and reproductive isolation in Arabidopsis lyrata.

Mol Ecol 2017 Jul 5;26(13):3484-3496. Epub 2017 May 5.

Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Seed germination is an important developmental and life history stage. Yet, the evolutionary impact of germination has mainly been studied in the context of dormancy, or for its role in reproductive isolation between species. Here, we aim to examine multiple consequences of genetic divergence on germination traits between two Arabidopsis lyrata subspecies: ssp. petraea (Eurasia) and ssp. lyrata (North America). Postdormancy germination time, a potentially adaptive trait, showed differentiation between the populations, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping revealed that the trait variation is mainly controlled by two antagonistic loci. These QTL areas contain several candidate genes with known function in postdormancy germination in A. thaliana. The sequence variation of three genes was consistent with differential selection, and they also included fixed nonsynonymous substitutions with potential to account for the phenotypic differentiation. We further show that the divergence between the subspecies has led to a slight but significant reduction in hybrid germination proportions, indicating incipient reproductive isolation. Comparison of reciprocal F and F progenies suggests that Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities likely act through uniparentally inherited factors. Examination of genomewide transmission ratio distortion further revealed that cytonuclear interactions cause substantial pregermination inviability in the hybrids. These results confirm that seed germination has adaptive potential beyond the dormancy stage and that hybrid seed inviability can be one of the first reproductive barriers to arise during divergence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.14135DOI Listing
July 2017

Selection for population-specific adaptation shaped patterns of variation in the photoperiod pathway genes in Arabidopsis lyrata during post-glacial colonization.

Mol Ecol 2016 01 18;25(2):581-97. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Department of Genetics and Physiology, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland.

Spatially varying selection can lead to population-specific adaptation, which is often recognized at the phenotypic level; however, the genetic evidence is weaker in many groups of organisms. In plants, environmental shifts that occur due to colonization of a novel environment may require adaptive changes in the timing of growth and flowering, which are often governed by location-specific environmental cues such as day length. We studied locally varying selection in 19 flowering time loci in nine populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata, which has a wide but patchy distribution in temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere. The populations differ in their recent population demographic and colonization histories and current environmental conditions, especially in the growing season length. We searched for population-specific molecular signatures of directional selection by comparing a set of candidate flowering time loci with a genomic reference set within each population using multiple approaches and contrasted the patterns of different populations. The candidate loci possessed approximately 20% of the diversity of the reference loci. On average the flowering time loci had more rare alleles (a smaller Tajima's D) and an excess of highly differentiated sites relative to the reference, suggesting positive selection. The strongest signal of selection was detected in photoperiodic pathway loci in the colonizing populations of Northwestern Europe, whereas no evidence of positive selection was detected in the Central European populations. These findings emphasized the population-specific nature of selection and suggested that photoperiodic adaptation was important during postglacial colonization of the species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.13489DOI Listing
January 2016

Orthologous genes identified by transcriptome sequencing in the spider genus Stegodyphus.

BMC Genomics 2012 Feb 14;13:70. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

Department of Biology, University of Oulu, Finland.

Background: The evolution of sociality in spiders involves a transition from an outcrossing to a highly inbreeding mating system, a shift to a female biased sex ratio, and an increase in the reproductive skew among individuals. Taken together, these features are expected to result in a strong reduction in the effective population size. Such a decline in effective population size is expected to affect population genetic and molecular evolutionary processes, resulting in reduced genetic diversity and relaxed selective constraint across the genome. In the genus Stegodyphus, permanent sociality and regular inbreeding has evolved independently three times from periodic-social (outcrossing) ancestors. This genus is therefore an ideal model for comparative studies of the molecular evolutionary and population genetic consequences of the transition to a regularly inbreeding mating system. However, no genetic resources are available for this genus.

Results: We present the analysis of high throughput transcriptome sequencing of three Stegodyphus species. Two of these are periodic-social (Stegodyphus lineatus and S.tentoriicola) and one is permanently social (S. mimosarum). From non-normalized cDNA libraries, we obtained on average 7,000 putative uni-genes for each species. Three-way orthology, as predicted from reciprocal BLAST, identified 1,792 genes that could be used for cross-species comparison. Open reading frames (ORFs) could be deduced from 1,345 of the three-way alignments. Preliminary molecular analyses suggest a five- to ten-fold reduction in heterozygosity in the social S. mimosarum compared with the periodic-social species. Furthermore, an increased ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous polymorphisms in the social species indicated relaxed efficiency of selection. However, there was no sign of relaxed selection on the phylogenetic branch leading to S. mimosarum.

Conclusions: The 1,792 three-way ortholog genes identified in this study provide a unique resource for comparative studies of the eco-genomics, population genetics and molecular evolution of repeated evolution of inbreeding sociality within the Stegodyphus genus. Preliminary analyses support theoretical expectations of depleted heterozygosity and relaxed selection in the social inbreeding species. Relaxed selection could not be detected in the S. mimosarum lineage, suggesting that there has been a recent transition to sociality in this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3350440PMC
February 2012

Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

Proc Biol Sci 2008 Oct;275(1648):2195-9

Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden.

Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2603236PMC
October 2008
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