Publications by authors named "Tien Yin Wong"

924 Publications

Relationship between vision impairment and employment.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI), Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC), Singapore.

Aims: To examine the relationship between vision impairment (VI) and employment outcomes in a multiethnic Asian population.

Methods: We included 7608 Asian individuals aged ≥40 years (mean (SD) age: 58.4 (10.3) years; 64.8% male) from the Singapore Epidemiology Eye Disease Study (response rate: 78.8%), a population-based cohort study (mean follow-up period: 6.2 years). Presenting visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart, with VI defined as mild (VA >0.3 to <0.6 logMAR) and moderate to severe (VA ≥0.6 logMAR). Self-reported employment statuses at both baseline and follow-up were used as outcomes. Underemployment was defined as a decline in occupational skill level, categorised by International Standard Classification of Occupations, at follow-up compared with baseline. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine independent associations between VI and various employment outcomes, adjusted for variables that were found to significantly differ across employment statuses.

Results: Presenting VI was prevalent in 20.2% (N=1536) of participants. Compared with those without VI, participants with mild and moderate to severe VI were more likely to be unemployed at baseline (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.87, p=0.002 and 2.74, 95% CI 1.94 to 3.89, p<0.001, respectively). At follow-up, participants with any VI at baseline were more likely to be underemployed (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.05, p=0.033).

Conclusion: VI, even when mild, is associated with unemployment and underemployment. Future studies should investigate whether visual interventions could be used as part of a multipronged strategy to improve employment outcomes for the population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319655DOI Listing
October 2021

Blockchain applications in health care for COVID-19 and beyond: a systematic review.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial and global impact on health care, and has greatly accelerated the adoption of digital technology. One of these emerging digital technologies, blockchain, has unique characteristics (eg, immutability, decentralisation, and transparency) that can be useful in multiple domains (eg, management of electronic medical records and access rights, and mobile health). We conducted a systematic review of COVID-19-related and non-COVID-19-related applications of blockchain in health care. We identified relevant reports published in MEDLINE, SpringerLink, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Xplore, ScienceDirect, arXiv, and Google Scholar up to July 29, 2021. Articles that included both clinical and technical designs, with or without prototype development, were included. A total of 85 375 articles were evaluated, with 415 full length reports (37 related to COVID-19 and 378 not related to COVID-19) eventually included in the final analysis. The main COVID-19-related applications reported were pandemic control and surveillance, immunity or vaccine passport monitoring, and contact tracing. The top three non-COVID-19-related applications were management of electronic medical records, internet of things (eg, remote monitoring or mobile health), and supply chain monitoring. Most reports detailed technical performance of the blockchain prototype platforms (277 [66·7%] of 415), whereas nine (2·2%) studies showed real-world clinical application and adoption. The remaining studies (129 [31·1%] of 415) were themselves of a technical design only. The most common platforms used were Ethereum and Hyperledger. Blockchain technology has numerous potential COVID-19-related and non-COVID-19-related applications in health care. However, much of the current research remains at the technical stage, with few providing actual clinical applications, highlighting the need to translate foundational blockchain technology into clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00210-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510632PMC
October 2021

Knowledge, attitudes, and practice towards COVID-19 among multi-ethnic elderly Asian residents in Singapore: a mixed methods study.

Singapore Med J 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.

Introduction: We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) about COVID-19 and related preventive measures in Singaporeans aged ≥ 60 years.

Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional, mixed-methods study (13 May 2020-9 June 2020) of participants aged ≥60 years. Self-reported KAP about ten COVID-19 symptoms and six government-endorsed preventive measures were evaluated. Multivariable regression models identified sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices in our sample. Associations between knowledge/attitude scores, and practice categories were determined using logistic regression. 78 participants were interviewed qualitatively about practice of additional preventive measures and data were analysed thematically.

Results: Mean awareness score of the symptoms was 7.2/10. Fever (93.0%) and diarrhoea (33.5%) were the most- and least-known symptoms, respectively. Most knew all six preventive measures (90.4%), perceived them as effective (78.7%), and practiced 'wear a mask' (97.2%). Indians, Malays, and those in smaller housing had poorer mean knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms scores. Older participants had poorer attitudes towards preventive measures. Compared to Chinese, Indians had lower odds of practicing 3/6 recommendations. A one-point increase in knowledge of and attitudes towards preventive measures score had higher odds of always practicing 3/6 and 2/6 measures, respectively. Qualitative interviews revealed use of other preventive measures, e.g. maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Conclusion: Elderly Singaporeans displayed high levels of KAP about COVID-19 and related preventive measures, with a positive association between levels of knowledge/attitude, and practice. However, important ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were evident, suggesting key vulnerabilities remain, requiring immediate attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2021152DOI Listing
October 2021

Six-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration and correlation to OCT-derived drusen volume measurements in a Chinese population.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore

Aims: To report the 6-year incidence of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived age-related changes in drusen volume and related systemic and ocular associations.

Methods: Chinese adults aged 40 years and older were assessed at baseline and 6 years with colour fundus photography (CFP) and spectral domain (SD) OCT. CFPs were graded for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) features and drusen volume was generated using commercially available automated software.

Results: A total of 4172 eyes of 2580 participants (mean age 58.12±9.03 years; 51.12% women) had baseline and 6-year follow-up CFP for grading, of these, 2130 eyes of 1305 participants had gradable SD-OCT images, available for analysis. Based on CFP grading, 136 (3.39%) participants developed incident early AMD and 10 (0.25%) late AMD. Concurrently, retinal pigment epithelial-Bruch's membrane (RPE-BrC) volumes decreased, remained stable and increased in 6.8%, 78.5% and 14.7%, respectively, over 6 years. In eyes where RPE-BrC volumes were >0 mm at baseline, this was associated with two-fold higher prevalence rate of any AMD at baseline (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that when compared with eyes where RPE-BrC volume was unchanged, volume decrease was significantly associated with older age (OR=1.30; p<0.001), smoking (OR=2.21; p=0.001) and chronic kidney disease (OR=3.4, p=0.008), while increase was associated with older age (OR=1.36; p<0.001) and hypertension (OR=1.43; p=0.016).

Conclusion: AMD incidence detected at 6 years on CFP and correlated OCT-derived drusen volume measurement change is low. Older age and some systemic risk factors are associated with drusen volume change, and our data provide new insights into relationship between systemic risk factors and outer retinal morphology in Asian eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319290DOI Listing
October 2021

The association between markers of inflammation and retinal microvascular parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Sep 22;336:12-22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, Melbourne University, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Adverse changes to the microcirculation play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and inflammation is a key causal mechanism. We investigated the relationship between inflammatory markers and retinal microvascular parameters.

Methods: Studies up to April 2021 were identified in Medline, Embase and PubMed with the following terms: retinal microvascular parameters, inflammatory markers, and observational studies. Correlation coefficients of inflammatory markers and retinal vascular caliber were pooled using the random-effects model.

Results: Of 4783 studies identified, 36 met the inclusion criteria (general population 26, patients with diseases 10). C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were most frequently reported. We conducted meta-analysis with 12 CRP studies (22422 participants) and six WBC studies (15209 participants), and also performed a narrative review of all studies. There was consistent evidence of a modest association between CRP and venular caliber (r = 0.09, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.12), but little evidence of an association between CRP with retinal arteriolar caliber (r = 0.00, 95%CI -0.02 to 0.02). Similarly, WBC had stronger associations with venular (r = 0.18, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.31) than arteriolar caliber (r = 0.05, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.09). Narrative review of other inflammatory markers showed consistent findings. There was little evidence of associations between inflammation markers and other microvascular parameters, fractal dimension and tortuosity.

Conclusions: There was more evidence for an association of inflammation with retinal venular than with arterial caliber. The findings suggest a potential druggable mechanism contributing to microvascular damage that has been relatively overlooked in CVD pathogenesis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.09.025DOI Listing
September 2021

High-density lipoprotein 3 cholesterol and primary open-angle glaucoma: metabolomics and mendelian randomization analyses.

Ophthalmology 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore,; Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:

Objective: We hypothesized that the effect of blood lipid-related metabolites on POAG would differ according to specific lipoprotein particles and lipid sub-fractions. We thus investigated the associations of blood levels of lipoprotein particles and lipid sub-fractions with POAG.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Participants: Individuals recruited for the baseline visit of the population-based Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease study (n=8,503).

Methods: All participants underwent detailed standardised ocular and systemic examinations. A total of 130 blood lipid-related metabolites were quantified using a nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform. The analyses were conducted in two stages. First, we investigated whether and which lipid-related metabolites were directly associated with POAG, using regression analyses followed by Bayesian network modelling. Second, we investigated if any causal relationship exists between the identified lipid-related metabolites, if any, and POAG, using two-sample mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on HDL3 cholesterol (after inverse normal transformation) and used the top variants associated with HLD3 cholesterol as instrumental variables (IVs) in the MR analysis.

Main Outcome Measure: POAG RESULTS: Of the participants, 175 (2.1%) had POAG. First, a logistic regression model showed that total HDL3 cholesterol (negatively) and phospholipids in very large HDL (positively) were associated with POAG. Further analyses using a Bayesian network analysis showed that only total HDL3 cholesterol was directly associated with POAG (OR = 0.72 per 1 standard deviation increase in HDL3 cholesterol; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.61, 0.84), independently of age, gender, IOP, BMI, education level, systolic blood pressure, axial length, and statin medication. Using 4 IVs identified from the GWAS and with the inverse variance weighted MR method, we found that higher levels of HDL3 cholesterol was associated with a decreased odds of POAG (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84 - 0.98, P = 0.016). Other MR methods, including weighted median, mode-based estimator, and contamination mixture methods derived consistent OR estimates. Finally, none of the routine lipids (blood total, HDL or LDL cholesterol) were associated with POAG.

Conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that the relationship between HDL3 cholesterol and POAG might be causal and specific, and that dysregulation of cholesterol transport may thus play a role in the pathogenesis of POAG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.09.013DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical operational considerations and responses to lockdown and reopening in the Covid-19 pandemic: experience of a tertiary ophthalmology centre in Singapore.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Much has been written on infection control and clinical measures for ophthalmic institutions and departments to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few articles have detailed implementation plans to manage lockdowns and subsequent re-openings. In this article, specific operational responses and their outcomes in a large tertiary ophthalmology centre are described.

Method: Through a concerted effort led by a dedicated task force, the Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC) planned and executed an operational transformation to respond to the restrictions imposed on healthcare delivery during a national lock down. A carefully calibrated re-starting of services was carried out with the subsequent phased reopening of the country, taking into consideration unique constraints faced at that time. Strategies for operating in the new normal environment were also developed.

Results: Outpatient attendances were safely and expediently reduced by 70% (8749 vs. 29,311) and 82% (5164 vs. 29,342) in April and May 2020, respectively, compared to the corresponding months in 2019. A correspondingly large reduction in surgical load was also achieved through a similar triaging and prioritization system. Through optimizing the center's use of space and time, as well as expanding on new models of care, a return to pre-pandemic patient load was achieved 3 months into the phased reopening of the country, and subsequently exceeded in the following months.

Conclusion: The lessons gleaned from SNEC's experience may be useful for institutions currently facing the same challenges, and for future responses to COVID-19 resurgences or other pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41433-021-01566-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477723PMC
September 2021

Identifying the content for an item bank and computerized adaptive testing system to measure the impact of age-related macular degeneration on health-related quality of life.

Qual Life Res 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, The Academia, 20 College Road, Level 6, Singapore, 169856, Singapore.

Purpose: We are developing an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) item bank, applicable to Western and Asian populations. We report primarily on content generation and refinement, but also compare the HRQoL issues reported in our study with Western studies and current AMD-HRQoL questionnaires.

Methods: In this cross-sectional, qualitative study of AMD patients attending the Singapore National Eye Centre (May-December 2019), items/domains were generated from: (1) AMD-specific questionnaires; (2) published articles; (3) focus groups/semi-structured interviews with AMD patients (n = 27); and (4) written feedback from retinal experts. Following thematic analysis, items were systematically refined to a minimally representative set and pre-tested using cognitive interviews with 16 AMD patients.

Results: Of the 27 patients (mean ± standard deviation age 67.9 ± 7.0; 59.2% male), 18 (66.7%), two (7.4%), and seven (25.9%) had no, early-intermediate, and late/advanced AMD (better eye), respectively. Whilst some HRQoL issues, e.g. activity limitation, mobility, lighting, and concerns were similarly reported by Western patients and covered by other questionnaires, others like anxiety about intravitreal injections, work tasks, and financial dependency were novel. Overall, 462 items within seven independent HRQoL domains were identified: Activity limitation, Lighting, Mobility, Emotional, Concerns, AMD management, and Work. Following item refinement, items were reduced to 219, with 31 items undergoing amendment.

Conclusion: Our 7-domain, 219-item AMD-specific HRQoL instrument will undergo psychometric testing and calibration for computerized adaptive testing. The future instrument will enable users to precisely, rapidly, and comprehensively quantify the HRQoL impact of AMD and associated treatments, with item coverage relevant across several populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02989-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Retinal microvasculature and time to pregnancy in a multi-ethnic pre-conception cohort in Singapore.

Hum Reprod 2021 Oct;36(11):2935-2947

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore, Singapore.

Study Question: Can abnormalities in retinal microvasculature representing adverse microcirculatory perfusion and inflammation shed light on the pathophysiology of female fecundability?

Summary Answer: In our prospective study, abnormalities in retinal vascular geometric morphology (i.e. sparser arteriolar fractal and larger venular bifurcation) during pre-conception phase are temporarily associated with a prolonged time-to-pregnancy (TTP).

What Is Known Already: Suboptimal retinal microcirculatory morphology has been associated with obesity, psychological stress and hypertension, all of which are known risk factors for reduced female fecundability.

Study Design, Size, Duration: A total of 652 women of Chinese, Malay or Indian ethnicity 18-45 years of age and planning to conceive spontaneously within the next 12 months were recruited during the pre-conception period into the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes (S-PRESTO), from February 2015 to October 2017.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: During recruitment, we collected information on socio-demographic factors, menstrual characteristics and lifestyle behaviors and made anthropometric measurements. We assessed the following retinal microvascular features: caliber, branching angle and fractal dimension. We conducted follow-up telephone surveys to track each participant's pregnancy status at 6, 9 and 12 months after enrolment. We ascertained clinical pregnancies via ultrasonography, with TTP measured by the number of menstrual cycles required to achieve a clinical pregnancy over a 1-year follow-up. Then, we performed discrete-time proportional hazards models to estimate the fecundability odds ratio (FOR) and 95% CI for each retinal microvascular feature in association with TTP, after adjusting for major confounders, including body mass index and fasting glycemic level at study entry.

Main Results And The Role Of The Chance: Among 652 recruited women, 276 (42.3%) successfully conceived within 1 year of follow-up. The mean (and SD) was 1.24 (0.05) Df for retinal arteriolar dimension fraction and 78.45 (9.79) degrees for retinal venular branching angle, respectively. Non-linear relationship testing was performed before multiple adjustment in all associations and a non-monotonic association was detected between retinal venular branching angle and TTP. Compared with women in the highest tertile of retinal arteriolar fractal dimension, women in the second tertile had a prolonged TTP (FOR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51-0.92), as did women in the lowest tertile (FOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.98). Compared with women in the middle tertile of retinal venular branching angle, women in the highest tertile had a borderline prolonged TTP (FOR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.56-1.02). No other retinal vascular features were significantly associated with TTP.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: We were unable to adjust for other potential confounding factors such as female sexual function (e.g. frequency of sexual intercourse), which might introduce a residual bias. Moreover, even though this is a prospective cohort design, our findings can identify the temporal relationship but not necessarily infer a causal relationship between maternal microvasculature and TTP. Lastly, our study involving mainly Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities might not be generalizable to other races or ethnicities.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Suboptimal microcirculation may lead to reduced female fecundability. In the future, in addition to conventional ultrasonographic evaluation of ovarian and uterine physiological function, assessing the retinal microvasculature might be useful for assessment of ovarian age, fertility prediction and endometrial evaluation before assisted reproductive techniques for fertility treatments.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): This research is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF) under its Translational and Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Programme and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council (NMRC) (Singapore-NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014) and Singapore National Medical Research Council Transition Award (NMRC TA/0027/2014). The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03531658.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deab197DOI Listing
October 2021

Blockchain Technology for Ophthalmology: Coming of Age?

Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2021 Jul-Aug 01;10(4):343-347

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/APO.0000000000000399DOI Listing
August 2021

Gender Prediction for a Multiethnic Population via Deep Learning Across Different Retinal Fundus Photograph Fields: Retrospective Cross-sectional Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Aug 17;9(8):e25165. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Deep learning algorithms have been built for the detection of systemic and eye diseases based on fundus photographs. The retina possesses features that can be affected by gender differences, and the extent to which these features are captured via photography differs depending on the retinal image field.

Objective: We aimed to compare deep learning algorithms' performance in predicting gender based on different fields of fundus photographs (optic disc-centered, macula-centered, and peripheral fields).

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 172,170 fundus photographs of 9956 adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Optic disc-centered, macula-centered, and peripheral field fundus images were included in this study as input data for a deep learning model for gender prediction. Performance was estimated at the individual level and image level. Receiver operating characteristic curves for binary classification were calculated.

Results: The deep learning algorithms predicted gender with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.94 at the individual level and an AUC of 0.87 at the image level. Across the three image field types, the best performance was seen when using optic disc-centered field images (younger subgroups: AUC=0.91; older subgroups: AUC=0.86), and algorithms that used peripheral field images had the lowest performance (younger subgroups: AUC=0.85; older subgroups: AUC=0.76). Across the three ethnic subgroups, algorithm performance was lowest in the Indian subgroup (AUC=0.88) compared to that in the Malay (AUC=0.91) and Chinese (AUC=0.91) subgroups when the algorithms were tested on optic disc-centered images. Algorithms' performance in gender prediction at the image level was better in younger subgroups (aged <65 years; AUC=0.89) than in older subgroups (aged ≥65 years; AUC=0.82).

Conclusions: We confirmed that gender among the Asian population can be predicted with fundus photographs by using deep learning, and our algorithms' performance in terms of gender prediction differed according to the field of fundus photographs, age subgroups, and ethnic groups. Our work provides a further understanding of using deep learning models for the prediction of gender-related diseases. Further validation of our findings is still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/25165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408758PMC
August 2021

Considerations for Artificial Intelligence Real-World Implementation in Ophthalmology: Providers' and Patients' Perspectives.

Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2021 May-Jun 01;10(3):299-306

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore.

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular deep learning, has made waves in the health care industry, with several prominent examples shown in ophthalmology. Despite the burgeoning reports on the development of new AI algorithms for detection and management of various eye diseases, few have reached the stage of regulatory approval for real-world implementation. To better enable real-world translation of AI systems, it is important to understand the demands, needs, and concerns of both health care professionals and patients, as providers and recipients of clinical care are impacted by these solutions. This review outlines the advantages and concerns of incorporating AI in ophthalmology care delivery, from both the providers' and patients' perspectives, and the key enablers for seamless transition to real-world implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/APO.0000000000000400DOI Listing
August 2021

Generative adversarial networks in ophthalmology: what are these and how can they be used?

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2021 Sep;32(5):459-467

Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore.

Purpose Of Review: The development of deep learning (DL) systems requires a large amount of data, which may be limited by costs, protection of patient information and low prevalence of some conditions. Recent developments in artificial intelligence techniques have provided an innovative alternative to this challenge via the synthesis of biomedical images within a DL framework known as generative adversarial networks (GANs). This paper aims to introduce how GANs can be deployed for image synthesis in ophthalmology and to discuss the potential applications of GANs-produced images.

Recent Findings: Image synthesis is the most relevant function of GANs to the medical field, and it has been widely used for generating 'new' medical images of various modalities. In ophthalmology, GANs have mainly been utilized for augmenting classification and predictive tasks, by synthesizing fundus images and optical coherence tomography images with and without pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Despite their ability to generate high-resolution images, the development of GANs remains data intensive, and there is a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate the outputs produced by GANs.

Summary: Although the problem of artificial biomedical data generation is of great interest, image synthesis by GANs represents an innovation with yet unclear relevance for ophthalmology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000794DOI Listing
September 2021

A Multitask Deep-Learning System to Classify Diabetic Macular Edema for Different Optical Coherence Tomography Devices: A Multicenter Analysis.

Diabetes Care 2021 09 27;44(9):2078-2088. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Byers Eye Institute at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA.

Objective: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the primary cause of vision loss among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). We developed, validated, and tested a deep learning (DL) system for classifying DME using images from three common commercially available optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices.

Research Design And Methods: We trained and validated two versions of a multitask convolution neural network (CNN) to classify DME (center-involved DME [CI-DME], non-CI-DME, or absence of DME) using three-dimensional (3D) volume scans and 2D B-scans, respectively. For both 3D and 2D CNNs, we used the residual network (ResNet) as the backbone. For the 3D CNN, we used a 3D version of ResNet-34 with the last fully connected layer removed as the feature extraction module. A total of 73,746 OCT images were used for training and primary validation. External testing was performed using 26,981 images across seven independent data sets from Singapore, Hong Kong, the U.S., China, and Australia.

Results: In classifying the presence or absence of DME, the DL system achieved area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) of 0.937 (95% CI 0.920-0.954), 0.958 (0.930-0.977), and 0.965 (0.948-0.977) for the primary data set obtained from CIRRUS, SPECTRALIS, and Triton OCTs, respectively, in addition to AUROCs >0.906 for the external data sets. For further classification of the CI-DME and non-CI-DME subgroups, the AUROCs were 0.968 (0.940-0.995), 0.951 (0.898-0.982), and 0.975 (0.947-0.991) for the primary data set and >0.894 for the external data sets.

Conclusions: We demonstrated excellent performance with a DL system for the automated classification of DME, highlighting its potential as a promising second-line screening tool for patients with DM, which may potentially create a more effective triaging mechanism to eye clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-3064DOI Listing
September 2021

Multicentre, randomised clinical trial comparing intravitreal aflibercept monotherapy versus aflibercept combined with reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (RF-PDT) for the treatment of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

BMJ Open 2021 07 15;11(7):e050252. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) monotherapy versus aflibercept combined with reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (RF-PDT) (IVA+RF-PDT) for the treatment of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).

Methods And Analysis: Multicentred, double-masked, randomised controlled trial to compare the two treatment modalities. The primary outcome of the study is to compare the 52-week visual outcome of IVA versus IVA+RF PDT. One hundred and sixty treatment-naïve patients with macular PCV confirmed on indocyanine green angiography will be recruited from three centres in Singapore. Eligible patients will be randomised (1:1 ratio) into one of the following groups: IVA monotherapy group-aflibercept monotherapy with sham photodynamic therapy (n=80); combination group-aflibercept with RF-PDT (n=80). Following baseline visit, all patients will be monitored at 4 weekly intervals during which disease activity will be assessed based on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ophthalmic examination findings, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography where indicated. Eyes that meet protocol-specified retreatment criteria will receive IVA and sham/RF-PDT according to their randomisation group. Primary endpoint will be assessed as change in BCVA at week 52 from baseline. Secondary endpoints will include anatomical changes based on OCT and dye angiography as well as safety assessment. Additionally, we will be collecting optical coherence tomography angiography data prospectively for exploratory analysis.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study will be conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki and that are consistent with the ICH E6 guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and the applicable regulatory requirements. Approval from the SingHealth Centralised Institutional Review Board has been sought prior to commencement of the study.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03941587.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286776PMC
July 2021

Impact of type 2 diabetes and microvascular complications on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in a multiethnic Asian population.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 07;9(1)

Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a growing public health epidemic in Asia. We examined the impact of type 2 diabetes, glycemic control and microvascular complications on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in a multiethnic population-based cohort of Asians without prior cardiovascular disease.

Research Design And Methods: This was a prospective population-based cohort study in Singapore comprising participants from the three major Asian ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians, with baseline examination in 2004-2011. Participants with type 1 diabetes and those with cardiovascular disease at baseline were excluded. Type 2 diabetes, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and presence of microvascular complications (diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy) were defined at baseline. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as a composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke and revascularization, collected using a national registry.

Results: A total of 8541 subjects were included, of which 1890 had type 2 diabetes at baseline. Subjects were followed for a median of 6.4 (IQR 4.8-8.8) years. Diabetes was a significant predictor of mortality (adjusted HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45 to 2.08, p<0.001) and MACE (adjusted HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.93, p<0.001). In those with diabetes, higher HbA1c levels were associated with increased MACE rates (adjusted HR (per 1% increase) 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26, p<0.001) but not mortality (p=0.115). Subjects with two microvascular complications had significantly higher mortality and MACE compared with those with only either microvascular complication (adjusted p<0.05) and no microvascular complication (adjusted p<0.05).

Conclusion: Diabetes is a significant predictor of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in Asian patients without prior cardiovascular disease. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, poorer glycemic control was associated with increased MACE but not mortality rates. Greater burden of microvascular complications identified a subset of patients with poorer outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268896PMC
July 2021

Deep learning algorithms for automatic detection of pterygium using anterior segment photographs from slit-lamp and hand-held cameras.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore

Background/aims: To evaluate the performances of deep learning (DL) algorithms for detection of presence and extent pterygium, based on colour anterior segment photographs (ASPs) taken from slit-lamp and hand-held cameras.

Methods: Referable pterygium was defined as having extension towards the cornea from the limbus of >2.50 mm or base width at the limbus of >5.00 mm. 2503 images from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study were used as the development set. Algorithms were validated on an internal set from the SEED cohort (629 images (55.3% pterygium, 8.4% referable pterygium)), and tested on two external clinic-based sets (set 1 with 2610 images (2.8% pterygium, 0.7% referable pterygium, from slit-lamp ASP); and set 2 with 3701 images, 2.5% pterygium, 0.9% referable pterygium, from hand-held ASP).

Results: The algorithm's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for detection of any pterygium was 99.5%(sensitivity=98.6%; specificity=99.0%) in internal test set, 99.1% (sensitivity=95.9%, specificity=98.5%) in external test set 1 and 99.7% (sensitivity=100.0%; specificity=88.3%) in external test set 2. For referable pterygium, the algorithm's AUROC was 98.5% (sensitivity=94.0%; specificity=95.3%) in internal test set, 99.7% (sensitivity=87.2%; specificity=99.4%) in external set 1 and 99.0% (sensitivity=94.3%; specificity=98.0%) in external set 2.

Conclusion: DL algorithms based on ASPs can detect presence of and referable-level pterygium with optimal sensitivity and specificity. These algorithms, particularly if used with a handheld camera, may potentially be used as a simple screening tool for detection of referable pterygium. Further validation in community setting is warranted.

Synopsis/precis: DL algorithms based on ASPs can detect presence of and referable-level pterygium optimally, and may be used as a simple screening tool for the detection of referable pterygium in community screenings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-318866DOI Listing
July 2021

Artificial Intelligence for Prediction of Anti-VEGF Treatment Burden in Retinal Diseases: Towards Precision Medicine.

Ophthalmol Retina 2021 07;5(7):601-603

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2021.05.001DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and Validation of a Preference-Based Glaucoma Utility Instrument Using Discrete Choice Experiment.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Aug;139(8):866-874

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.

Importance: A glaucoma-specific instrument for estimating utilities across the spectrum of glaucoma severity is currently lacking, hindering the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of glaucoma treatments.

Objective: To develop and validate the preference-based Glaucoma Utility Instrument (Glau-U) and to ascertain the association between Glau-U utilities and severity of glaucoma and vision impairment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 stages at the Singapore National Eye Centre glaucoma clinics. Stage 1 focused on the identification and pretesting of the Glau-U attributes and was carried out between June 2009 and May 2016. Stage 2 involved the development and administration of the discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey and tasks and was conducted between May 7, 2018, and December 11, 2019. Stage 2 participants were English- or Mandarin-speaking Singaporean citizens or permanent residents of Chinese, Malay, or Indian ethnicity who were 40 years or older and had a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in at least 1 eye.

Exposures: Glau-U comprised 6 quality-of-life attributes: activities of daily living, lighting and glare, movement, eye discomfort, other effects of glaucoma, and social and emotional effects. The descriptions or response options for these attributes were no difficulty or never, some difficulty or sometimes, or severe difficulty or often.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Utility weights for Glau-U were developed using a DCE questionnaire, which was interviewer administered to participants. Mixed logit regression determined utility weights for each health state. Glau-U utility weights across better- or worse-eye glaucoma and vision impairment severity were calculated using 1-way analysis of variance. Correlations between Glau-U utilities and better- or worse-eye visual fields and EuroQol 5-Dimension utilities were ascertained to assess convergent and divergent validity.

Results: Of the 304 participants (mean [SD] age, 68.3 [8.7] years; 182 men [59.9%]), 281 (92.4%) had no vision impairment in the better eye, 13 (4.3%) had mild impairment, and 10 (3.3%) had moderate to severe vision impairment. Mean (SD) Glau-U utilities decreased as better-eye glaucoma severity increased (none: 0.73 [0.21]; mild: 0.66 [0.21]; moderate: 0.66 [0.20]; severe: 0.60 [0.28]; and advanced or end-stage: 0.22 [0.38]; P < .001), representing reductions of 20.7% to 76.1% in quality-adjusted life-years compared with a health state that included preperimetric glaucoma. Mean (SD) Glau-U utilities also decreased as better-eye vision impairment worsened from 0.67 (0.23) for none to 0.58 (0.32) for mild to 0.46 (0.29) for moderate to severe vision impairment. Glau-U utilities demonstrated moderate correlations with better-eye (r = 0.34; P < .001) and worse-eye (r = 0.33; P < .001) mean deviation scores and low correlations with EuroQol 5-Dimension utilities (r = 0.22; P < .001), supporting convergent and divergent validity.

Conclusions And Relevance: Use of Glau-U revealed large decrements in utility that were associated with late-stage glaucoma, suggesting that this new instrument may be useful for cost-effectiveness analyses of interventions and informing resource allocation policies for glaucoma and vision loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.1874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227456PMC
August 2021

Near work, screen time, outdoor time and myopia in schoolchildren in the Sunflower Myopia AEEC Consortium.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose: To examine the association between near work, screen time including TV and outdoor time with myopia in children from the Sunflower Myopia Asian Eye Epidemiology Consortium (AEEC).

Methods: We analysed AEEC cross-sectional data (12 241 children) on risk factors (near work, screen time including TV and outdoor time) and myopia of six population-based studies (China, Hong Kong and Singapore). Cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AL) measurements were included. Risk factors were determined using questionnaires. Data were pooled from each study, and multivariable regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between risks factors and myopia, spherical equivalent (SE) and AL.

Results: Among the included children, 52.1% were boys, 98.1% were Chinese and 69.7% lived in urban areas. Mean±standard deviation (SD) for age was 8.8 ± 2.9 years, for SE was -0.14 ± 1.8 D and for AL was 23.3 ± 1.1 mm. Myopia prevalence was 30.6%. In multivariate analysis, more reading and writing (OR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.24), more total near work (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) and less outdoor time (OR = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.75-0.88) were associated with myopia (p's < 0.05). These factors were similarly associated with SE and AL (p's < 0.05), except for total near work and AL (p = 0.15). Screen time including TV was not significantly associated with myopia (p = 0.49), SE (p = 0.49) or AL (p = 0.83).

Conclusion: In this study, increased reading and writing and decreased outdoor time were associated with myopia. Screen time may be a surrogate factor of near work or outdoor time, but further research is needed to assess its role as an independent risk factor for myopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14942DOI Listing
June 2021

Determinants of penetrance and variable expressivity in monogenic metabolic conditions across 77,184 exomes.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3505. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Hundreds of thousands of genetic variants have been reported to cause severe monogenic diseases, but the probability that a variant carrier develops the disease (termed penetrance) is unknown for virtually all of them. Additionally, the clinical utility of common polygenetic variation remains uncertain. Using exome sequencing from 77,184 adult individuals (38,618 multi-ancestral individuals from a type 2 diabetes case-control study and 38,566 participants from the UK Biobank, for whom genotype array data were also available), we apply clinical standard-of-care gene variant curation for eight monogenic metabolic conditions. Rare variants causing monogenic diabetes and dyslipidemias display effect sizes significantly larger than the top 1% of the corresponding polygenic scores. Nevertheless, penetrance estimates for monogenic variant carriers average 60% or lower for most conditions. We assess epidemiologic and genetic factors contributing to risk prediction in monogenic variant carriers, demonstrating that inclusion of polygenic variation significantly improves biomarker estimation for two monogenic dyslipidemias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23556-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190084PMC
June 2021

Retinal imaging in Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Sep 9;92(9):983-994. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.

Identifying biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will accelerate the understanding of its pathophysiology, facilitate screening and risk stratification, and aid in developing new therapies. Developments in non-invasive retinal imaging technologies, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography and digital retinal photography, have provided a means to study neuronal and vascular structures in the retina in people with AD. Both qualitative and quantitative measurements from these retinal imaging technologies (eg, thinning of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, inner retinal layer, and choroidal layer, reduced capillary density, abnormal vasodilatory response) have been shown to be associated with cognitive function impairment and risk of AD. The development of computer algorithms for respective retinal imaging methods has further enhanced the potential of retinal imaging as a viable tool for rapid, early detection and screening of AD. In this review, we present an update of current retinal imaging techniques and their potential applications in AD research. We also discuss the newer retinal imaging techniques and future directions in this expanding field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-325347DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of Aberrant Posterior Vitreous Detachment and Pathologic Tractional Forces With Myopic Macular Degeneration.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 06;62(7)

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the tractional elements of pathologic myopia (PM; e.g. myopic traction maculopathy [MTM], posterior staphyloma [PS], and aberrant posterior vitreous detachment [PVD]) are associated with myopic macular degeneration (MMD) independent of age and axial length, among highly myopic (HM) eyes.

Methods: One hundred twenty-nine individuals with 239 HM eyes from the Myopic and Pathologic Eyes in Singapore (MyoPES) cohort underwent ocular biometry, fundus photography, swept-source optical coherence tomography, and ocular B-scan ultrasound. Images were analyzed for PVD grade, and presence of MTM, PS, and MMD. The χ² test was done to determine the difference in prevalence of MMD between eyes with and without PVD, PS, and MTM. Multivariate probit regression analyses were performed to ascertain the relationship between the potential predictors (PVD, PS, and MTM) and outcome variable (MMD), after accounting for possible confounders (e.g. age and axial length). Marginal effects were reported.

Results: Controlling for potential confounders, eyes with MTM have a 29.92 percentage point higher likelihood of having MMD (P = 0.003), and eyes with PS have a 25.72 percentage point higher likelihood of having MMD (P = 0.002). The likelihood of MMD increases by 10.61 percentage points per 1 mm increase in axial length (P < 0.001). Subanalysis revealed that eyes with incomplete PVD have a 22.54 percentage point higher likelihood of having MMD than eyes with early PVD (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an association between tractional (MTM, PS, and persistently incomplete PVD) and degenerative elements of PM independent of age and axial length. These data provide further insights into the pathogenesis of MMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.7.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185394PMC
June 2021

Defining Nonadherence and Nonpersistence to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapies in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 07;139(7):769-776

Division of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Importance: Poor adherence or persistence to treatment can be a barrier to optimizing clinical practice (real-world) outcomes to intravitreal injection therapy in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Currently, there is a lack of consensus on the definition and classification of adherence specific to this context.

Objective: To describe the development and validation of terminology on patient nonadherence and nonpersistence to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Following a systematic review of currently used terminology in the literature, a subcommittee panel of retinal experts developed a set of definitions and classification for validation. Definitions were restricted to use in patients with nAMD requiring intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Validation by the full nAMD Barometer Leadership Coalition was established using a modified Delphi approach, with predetermined mean scores of 7.5 or more signifying consensus. Subsequent endorsement of the definitions was provided from a second set of retinal experts, with more than 50% members agreeing or strongly agreeing with all definitions.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Development of consensus definitions for the terms adherence and persistence and a classification system for the factors associated with treatment nonadherence or nonpersistence in patients with nAMD.

Results: Nonadherence was defined as missing 2 or more treatment or monitoring visits over a period of 12 months, with a visit considered missed if it exceeded more than 2 weeks from the recommended date. Nonpersistence was defined by nonattendance or an appointment not scheduled within the last 6 months. The additional terms planned discontinuation and transfer of care were also established. Reasons for treatment nonadherence and nonpersistence were classified into 6 dimensions: (1) patient associated, (2) condition associated, (3) therapy associated, (4) health system and health care team associated, (5) social/economic, and (6) other, with subcategories specific to treatment for nAMD.

Conclusions And Relevance: This classification system provides a framework for assessing treatment nonadherence and nonpersistence over time and across different health settings in the treatment of nAMD with current intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments. This may have additional importance, given the potential association of the coronavirus pandemic on adherence to treatment in patients with nAMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.1660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176386PMC
July 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

COVID-19 awareness, knowledge and perception towards digital health in an urban multi-ethnic Asian population.

Sci Rep 2021 05 24;11(1):10795. Epub 2021 May 24.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, The Academia, 20 College Road, Discovery Tower Level 6, Singapore, 169856, Singapore.

This study aimed to determine COVID-19-related awareness, knowledge, impact and preparedness among elderly Asians; and to evaluate their acceptance towards digital health services amidst the pandemic. 523 participants (177 Malays, 171 Indians, 175 Chinese) were recruited and underwent standardised phone interview during Singapore's lockdown period (07 April till 01 June 2020). Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the associations between demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle, and systemic factors, with COVID-19 awareness, knowledge, preparedness, well-being and digital health service acceptance. The average perception score on the seriousness of COVID-19 was 7.6 ± 2.4 (out of 10). 75.5% of participants were aware that COVID-19 carriers can be asymptomatic. Nearly all (≥ 90%) were aware of major prevention methods for COVID-19 (i.e. wearing of mask, social distancing). 66.2% felt prepared for the pandemic, and 86.8% felt confident with government's handling and measures. 78.4% felt their daily routine was impacted. 98.1% reported no prior experience in using digital health services, but 52.2% felt these services would be helpful to reduce non-essential contact. 77.8% were uncomfortable with artificial intelligence software interpreting their medical results. In multivariable analyses, Chinese participants felt less prepared, and more likely felt impacted by COVID-19. Older and lower income participants were less likely to use digital health services. In conclusion, we observed a high level of awareness and knowledge on COVID-19. However, acceptance towards digital health service was low. These findings are valuable for examining the effectiveness of COVID-19 communication in Singapore, and the remaining gaps in digital health adoption among elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90098-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144201PMC
May 2021
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