Publications by authors named "Tibor Becske"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Remodeling of the Posterior Cerebral Artery P1-Segment after Pipeline Flow Diverter Treatment of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

Neurol Int 2021 May 7;13(2):195-201. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Introduction: Flow diverters such as the pipeline embolization device (PED) cause hemodynamic changes of the treated vessel segment. In posterior communicating artery (PcomA), aneurysms' unique anatomic consideration have to be taken in account due to the connection between the anterior and posterior circulation. We hypothesize that in conjunction with PcomA remodeling, there will also be remodeling of the ipsilateral P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) after PED treatment for PcomA aneurysms.

Methods: We retrospectively collected radiological as well as clinical data of PcomA aneurysm patients treated with PED including PcomA and P1 vessel diameters before and after treatment as well as patient and aneurysm characteristics.

Results: Overall, 14 PcomA aneurysm patients were included for analysis and PED treatment was performed without complications in all patients. In 10 out of 14 patients (71%), a decrease in PcomA diameter was observed and there was a significant mean decrease of 0.78 mm in PcomA diameter on angiographic last follow-up (LFU) ( = 0.003). In the same patient population (10 out of 14 patients), there was meanwhile a significant mean increase of 0.43 mm in the ipsilateral P1 segment diameter observed ( = 0.015). These vessel remodeling effects were in direct correlation with aneurysm occlusion since all of these patients showed aneurysm occlusion at LFU while 29% showed only partial occlusion without vessel remodeling effects. A decrease in PcomA diameter was directly associated with aneurysm occlusion ( = 0.042). There were no neurologic complications on LFU.

Conclusion: In the treatment of PcomA aneurysms with PED, the P1 segment of the PCA increases in diameter while the PcomA diameter decreases. Our results suggest that this remodeling effect is associated with aneurysm occlusion and decrease of PcomA is hemodynamically compensated for by an increase in the ipsilateral P1 diameter.
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May 2021

Performance of the vision, aphasia, neglect (VAN) assessment within a single large EMS system.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Neurology, UNC Rex Healthcare, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

Background: There is limited evidence on the performance of emergent large-vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke screening tools when used by emergency medical services (EMS) and emergency department (ED) providers. We assessed the validity and predictive value of the vision, aphasia, neglect (VAN) assessment when completed by EMS and in the ED among suspected stroke patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of VAN performed by EMS providers and VAN inferred from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale performed by ED nurses at a single hospital. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of VAN by EMS and in the ED for LVO and a combined LVO and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcome.

Results: From January 2018 to June 2020, 1,547 eligible patients were identified. Sensitivity and specificity of ED VAN were similar for LVO (72% and 74%, respectively), whereas EMS VAN was more sensitive (84%) than specific (68%). PPVs were low for both EMS VAN (26%) and ED VAN (21%) to detect LVO. Due to several VAN-positive ICHs, PPVs were substantially higher for both EMS VAN (44%) and ED VAN (39%) to detect LVO or ICH. EMS and ED VAN had high NPVs (97% and 96%, respectively).

Conclusions: Among suspected stroke patients, we found modest sensitivity and specificity of VAN to detect LVO for both EMS and ED providers. Moreover, the low PPV in our study suggests a significant number of patients with non-LVO ischemic stroke or ICH could be over-triaged with VAN.
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April 2021

Permanent Deployment of the Solitaire FR™ Device in the Basilar Artery in an Acute Stroke Scenario.

Interv Neurol 2018 Feb 27;7(1-2):6-11. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Scarce reports exist of permanent deployment of Solitaire FR™ devices for arterial steno-occlusive disease as it is primarily indicated for temporary deployment for thrombectomy in large-vessel, anterior-circulation ischemic strokes. Even more scarce are reports describing permanent deployment of the Solitaire device for posterior circulation strokes.

Summary: We present 2 cases where the Solitaire device was electrolytically detached to re-establish flow in an occluded or stenotic basilar artery in acutely symptomatic patients. In both cases, a 4 × 15 mm Solitaire device was positioned across the stenotic or occluded portion of the basilar artery and electrolytically detached to maintain vessel patency. Both cases had good clinical outcomes with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 1 (from 24) on 90-day follow-up and an NIHSS score of 2 (from 7) on 30-day follow-up.

Key Messages: Permanent deployment of the Solitaire device may potentially be a safe and effective means of maintaining vessel patency in an occluded or stenotic basilar artery.
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February 2018

Long-Term Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes Following Pipeline Embolization Device Treatment of Complex Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Five-Year Results of the Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms Trial.

Neurosurgery 2017 Jan;80(1):40-48

New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.

Background: Early and mid-term safety and efficacy of aneurysm treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has been well demonstrated in prior studies.

Objective: To present 5-yr follow-up for patients treated in the Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms clinical trial.

Methods: In our prospective, multicenter trial, 109 complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms in 107 subjects were treated with the PED. Patients were followed per a standardized protocol at 180 d and 1, 3, and 5 yr. Aneurysm occlusion, in-stent stenosis, modified Rankin Scale scores, and complications were recorded.

Results: The primary endpoint of complete aneurysm occlusion at 180 d (73.6%) was previously reported. Aneurysm occlusion for those patients with angiographic follow-up progressively increased over time to 86.8% (79/91), 93.4% (71/76), and 95.2% (60/63) at 1, 3, and 5 yr, respectively. Six aneurysms (5.7%) were retreated. New serious device-related events at 1, 3, and 5 yr were noted in 1% (1/96), 3.5% (3/85), and 0% (0/81) of subjects. There were 4 (3.7%) reported deaths in our trial. Seventy-eight (96.3%) of 81 patients with 5-yr clinical follow-up had modified Rankin Scale scores ≤2. No delayed neurological deaths or hemorrhagic or ischemic cerebrovascular events were reported beyond 6 mo. No recanalization of a previously occluded aneurysm was observed.

Conclusion: Our 5-yr findings demonstrate that PED is a safe and effective treatment for large and giant wide-necked aneurysms of the intracranial ICA, with high rates of complete occlusion and low rates of delayed adverse events.
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January 2017

Parent vessel occlusion after Pipeline embolization of cerebral aneurysms of the anterior circulation.

J Neurosurg 2017 Dec 6;127(6):1333-1341. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Departments of2Radiology.

OBJECTIVE The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is now a well-established option for the treatment of giant or complex aneurysms, especially those arising from the anterior circulation. Considering the purpose of such treatment is to maintain patency of the parent vessel, postembolization occlusion of the parent artery can be regarded as an untoward outcome. Antiplatelet therapy in the posttreatment period is therefore required to minimize such events. Here, the authors present a series of patients with anterior circulation aneurysms treated with the PED who subsequently experienced parent vessel occlusion (PVO). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all anterior circulation aneurysms consecutively treated at a single institution with the PED through 2014, identifying those with PVO on follow-up imaging. Aneurysm size and location, number of PEDs used, and follow-up digital subtraction angiography results were recorded. When available, pre- and postembolization platelet function testing results were also recorded. RESULTS Among 256 patients with anterior circulation aneurysms treated with the PED, the authors identified 8 who developed PVO after embolization. The mean aneurysm size in this cohort was 22.3 mm, and the number of PEDs used per case ranged from 2 to 10. Six patients were found to have asymptomatic PVO discovered incidentally on routine follow-up imaging between 6 months and 3 years postembolization, 3 of whom had documented "delayed" PVO with prior postembolization angiograms confirming aneurysm occlusion and a patent parent vessel at an earlier time. Two additional patients experienced symptomatic PVO, one of which was associated with early discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy. CONCLUSIONS In this large series of anterior circulation aneurysms, the authors report a low incidence of symptomatic PVO, complicating premature discontinuation of postembolization antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. Beyond the subacute period, asymptomatic PVO was more common, particularly among complex fusiform or very large-necked aneurysms, highlighting an important phenomenon with the use of PED for the treatment of anterior circulation aneurysms, and suggesting that extended periods of antiplatelet coverage may be required in select complex aneurysms.
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December 2017

Pipeline for uncoilable or failed aneurysms: 3-year follow-up results.

J Neurosurg 2017 Jul 14;127(1):81-88. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Departments of 1 Radiology.

OBJECTIVE The long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment of large and giant wide-neck aneurysms using traditional endovascular techniques has been disappointing, with high recanalization and re-treatment rates. Flow diversion with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has been recently used as a stand-alone therapy for complex aneurysms, showing significant improvement in effectiveness while demonstrating a similar safety profile to stent-supported coil treatment. However, relatively little is known about its long-term safety and effectiveness. Here the authors report on the 3-year safety and effectiveness of flow diversion with the PED in a prospective cohort of patients with large and giant internal carotid artery aneurysms enrolled in the Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms (PUFS) trial. METHODS The PUFS trial is a prospective study of 107 patients with 109 aneurysms treated with the PED. Primary effectiveness and safety end points were demonstrated based on independently monitored 180-day clinical and angiographic data. Patients were enrolled in a long-term follow-up protocol including 1-, 3-, and 5-year clinical and imaging follow-up. In this paper, the authors report the midstudy (3-year) effectiveness and safety data. RESULTS At 3 years posttreatment, 74 subjects with 76 aneurysms underwent catheter angiography as required per protocol. Overall, complete angiographic aneurysm occlusion was observed in 71 of these 76 aneurysms (93.4% cure rate). Five aneurysms were re-treated, using either coils or additional PEDs, for failure to occlude, and 3 of these 5 were cured by the 3-year follow-up. Angiographic cure with one or two treatments of Pipeline embolization alone was therefore achieved in 92.1%. No recanalization of a previously completely occluded aneurysm was noted on the 3-year angiograms. There were 3 (2.6%) delayed device- or aneurysm-related serious adverse events, none of which led to permanent neurological sequelae. No major or minor late-onset hemorrhagic or ischemic cerebrovascular events or neurological deaths were observed in the 6-month through 3-year posttreatment period. Among 103 surviving patients, 85 underwent functional outcome assessment in which modified Rankin Scale scores of 0-1 were demonstrated in 80 subjects. CONCLUSIONS Pipeline embolization is safe and effective in the treatment of complex large and giant aneurysms of the intracranial internal carotid artery. Unlike more traditional endovascular treatments, flow diversion results in progressive vascular remodeling that leads to complete aneurysm obliteration over longer-term follow-up without delayed aneurysm recanalization and/or growth. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00777088 (
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July 2017

Learning from failure: persistence of aneurysms following pipeline embolization.

J Neurosurg 2017 Feb 6;126(2):578-585. Epub 2016 May 6.

Departments of 1 Radiology, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Neurointerventional Radiology Section.

OBJECTIVE A detailed analysis was performed of anterior circulation aneurysms treated with a Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) that did not progress to complete occlusion by 1-year follow-up. Angiography was performed with the purpose of identifying specific factors potentially responsible for these failed outcomes. METHODS From among the first 100 patients with anterior circulation aneurysms, 92 underwent 1-year follow-up angiography and were individually studied through review of their pre- and postembolization studies. RESULTS Nineteen aneurysms (21%) remained unoccluded at 12 months. Independent predictors of treatment failure, identified by logistic regression analysis, were found to be fusiform aneurysm morphology, decreasing dome-to-neck ratio, and the presence of a preexisting laser-cut stent. Further examination of individual cases identified several common mechanisms-device malapposition, inadequate coverage of the aneurysm neck with persistent exchange across the device, and the incorporation of a branch vessel into the aneurysm fundus-potentially contributing to failed treatment in these settings. CONCLUSIONS Attention to specific features of the aneurysm and device construct can frequently identify cases predisposed to treatment failure and suggest strategies to maximize favorable outcomes.
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February 2017

Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis.

J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg 2016 Mar 31;18(1):42-7. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Rupture of isolated posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms is a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that presents unique diagnostic challenges owing to a nuanced clinical presentation. Here, we report on the diagnosis and management of the first known case of an isolated PSA aneurysm in the context of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. A 53-year-old male presented to an outside institution with acute bilateral lower extremity paralysis 9 days after admission for recurrent cellulitis. Early magnetic resonance imaging was read as negative and repeat imaging 15 days after presentation revealed SAH and a compressive spinal subdural hematoma. Angiography identified a PSA aneurysm at T9, as well as other areas suspicious for inflammatory or post-hemorrhagic reactive changes. The patient underwent a multilevel laminectomy for clot evacuation and aneurysm resection to prevent future hemorrhage and to establish a diagnosis. The postoperative course was complicated by medical issues and led to the diagnosis of leukocytoclastic vasculitis that may have predisposed the patient to aneurysm development. Literature review reveals greater mortality for cervical lesions than thoracolumbar lesions and that the presence of meningitic symptoms portents better functional outcome than symptoms of cord compression. The outcome obtained in this case is consistent with outcomes reported in the literature.
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March 2016

Neuroophthalmological outcomes associated with use of the Pipeline Embolization Device: analysis of the PUFS trial results.

J Neurosurg 2015 Oct 10;123(4):897-905. Epub 2015 Jul 10.


Object: Neuroophthalmological morbidity is commonly associated with large and giant cavernous and supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. The authors sought to evaluate the neuroophthalmological outcomes after treatment of these aneurysms with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED).

Methods: The Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms (PUFS) trial was an international, multicenter prospective trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of the PED. All patients underwent complete neuroophthalmological examinations both before the PED procedure and at a 6-month follow-up. All examinations were performed for the purpose of this study and according to study criteria.

Results: In total, 108 patients were treated in the PUFS trial, 98 of whom had complete neuroophthalmological follow-up. Of the patients with complete follow-up, 39 (40%) presented with a neuroophthalmological baseline deficit that was presumed to be attributable to the aneurysm, and patients with these baseline deficits had significantly larger aneurysms. In 25 of these patients (64%), the baseline deficit showed at least some improvement 6 months after PED treatment, whereas in 1 patient (2.6%), the deficits only worsened. In 5 patients (5%), new deficits had developed at the 6-month follow-up, while in another 6 patients (6%), deficits that were not originally assumed to be related to the aneurysm had improved by that time. A history of diabetes was associated with failure of the baseline deficits to improve after the treatment. The aneurysm maximum diameter was significantly larger in patients with a new deficit or a worse baseline deficit at 6 months postprocedure.

Conclusions: Patients treated with the PED for large and giant ICA aneurysms had excellent neuroophthalmological outcomes 6 months after the procedure, with deficits improving in most of the patients, very few deficits worsening, and few new deficits developing.
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October 2015

Rapid aneurysm growth and rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Surg Neurol Int 2015 20;6. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.

Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial aneurysm rupture is a major neurosurgical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid aneurysm growth is associated with rupture. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disorder whose complications can include cerebral vasculitis and vasculopathy. Intracranial aneurysms are not known to occur more frequently in SLE patients than the general population; however, aneurysm growth rates have not been studied in SLE.

Case Description: We present a 43-year-old female with SLE on prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine with moderate disease activity who presented with severe, acute-onset headache and was found to have Hunt and Hess grade II SAH due to rupture of an 8 mm saccular anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. The patient developed severe vasospasm, re-ruptured, and was taken for angiography and embolization, which was challenging due to a high degree of vasospasm and arterial stenosis. Review of imaging from less than 2 years prior demonstrated a normal ACoA complex without evidence of an aneurysm.

Conclusion: We review the literature and discuss the risk factors and pathophysiology of rapid aneurysm growth and rupture, as well as the pathologic vascular changes associated with SLE. Although SLE patients do not develop intracranial aneurysm at an increased rate, these changes may predispose them to higher incidence of growth and rupture. This possibility-coupled with increased morbidity and mortality of SAH in SLE-suggests that SAH should be considered in SLE patients presenting with headache, and advocates for more aggressive treatment of SLE patients with unruptured aneurysms.
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February 2015

Features predictive of brain arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage: extrapolation to a physiologic model.

Stroke 2014 Jul 12;45(7):1964-70. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

From the Departments of Neurology (D.H.S., T.B.), Radiology (D.H.S., P.M., T.B., P.K.N.), and Neurosurgery (P.H., J.J.J., P.K.N.), NYU Langone Medical Center; Department of Radiology, Hospital Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain (P.M.); and Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (E.S.C.).

Background And Purpose: Although there is generally thought to be a 2% to 4% per annum rupture risk for brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs), there is no way to estimate risk for an individual patient.

Methods: In this retrospective study, patients were eligible who had nidiform bAVMs and underwent detailed pretreatment diagnostic cerebral angiography at our medical center from 1996 to 2006. All patients had superselective microcatheter angiography, and films were reviewed for the purpose of this project. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, and angioarchitectural characteristics were analyzed. A univariate analysis was performed, and angioarchitectural features with potential physiological significance that showed at least a trend toward significance were added to a multivariate logistic regression model.

Results: One hundred twenty-two bAVMs met criteria for study entry. bAVMs with single venous drainage anatomy were more likely to present with hemorrhage. In addition, patients with multiple draining veins and a venous stenosis reverted to a risk similar to those with 1 draining vein, whereas those with multiple draining veins and without stenosis had diminished association with hemorrhage presentation. Those bAVMs with associated aneurysms were more likely to present with hemorrhage. These findings were robust in both univariate and multivariate models.

Conclusions: The results of this article lead to the first physiological, internally consistent model of individual bAVM hemorrhage risk, where 1 draining vein, venous stenosis, and associated aneurysms increase risk.
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July 2014

Temporary stent scaffolding during aneurysm coiling.

J Clin Neurosci 2014 May 30;21(5):852-4. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Bernard and Irene Schwartz Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York University School of Medicine, 660 First Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

We report a case of temporary Solitaire FR stent (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) scaffolding to reduce coil herniation during embolization of a large neck anterior communicating artery aneurysm. In contrast to classic stent-assisted coiling, the fully retrievable stent is recaptured prior to detachment of the last coil. The presented technical nuance hence does not require institution of prolonged antiplatelet coverage. But the door is left open for coil-repositioning in case of coil basket instability. Permanent stent redeployment remains a fall-back option if critical hardware conflict occurs. In comparison to classic balloon remodeling, the presented method may offer easier distal access, particularly in tortuous arterial anatomy. Temporary occlusion of the parent artery, side branches, and perforators is also avoided. Given its specific potential advantages, temporary stent scaffolding using the fully retrievable Solitaire FR device may find its niche as a bailout option, primarily in a very specific subset of distally located wide neck aneurysms.
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May 2014

National trends in utilization and outcomes of angioplasty and stenting for revascularization in intracranial stenosis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2014 Jan 8;116:54-60. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Angioplasty and intracranial stenting (ICS) are both endovascular revascularization procedures that have emerged as treatment options for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). Some believe angioplasty alone is better, while others believe stenting is better. This study examines recent trends in utilization and outcomes of angioplasty alone and ICS in the United States using a population-based cohort.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried for patients with ICAD who underwent angioplasty or ICS from 2005 to 2010.

Results: There were 1115 patients (angioplasty: n=495, ICS: n=620) with ICAD who underwent endovascular revascularization. Over time, the number of endovascular revascularization procedures increased. The percentage of symptomatic patients (p=0.015) as well as in the number of comorbidities of patients treated (p<0.001) also increased. Combined post-procedure stroke and death rates were 16% and 28.9% for angioplasty and ICS, respectively (p<0.001). A larger percentage of angioplasty patients presented symptomatically compared to those who underwent ICS (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Angioplasty appears to be associated with higher rates of peri-procedural complications; however, that may represent patient selection bias. Further studies are needed to identify patients who would benefit from revascularization and to clarify the roles of angioplasty and ICS.
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January 2014

Non-saccular vertebrobasilar aneurysms and dolichoectasia: a systematic literature review.

J Neurointerv Surg 2014 Jun 10;6(5):389-93. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Bernard and Irene Schwartz Neurointerventional Radiology Section, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background And Objective: Treatment of non-saccular vertebrobasilar aneurysms remains highly challenging despite significant recent advances in endovascular techniques. Establishing the natural history of this heterogeneous disease, as best as currently available data allows, is crucial to help guide counseling and management.

Methods: A review of the literature was conducted to identify publications describing the presentation and natural history of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia and non-saccular aneurysms.

Results: Nine studies of 440 patients met the analysis inclusion criteria. The majority of patients presented with ischemia, mass effect, or incidentally; hemorrhage was uncommon and overlapped with the population of vertebrobasilar dissection. Overall mortality was ~40% after 7 years of follow-up, with 43% of these deaths resulting from non-neurologic causes. Neurologic course was dominated by ischemic stroke rather than hemorrhage. Mass effect prognosis was especially poor, with 40% mortality after ~4 years. Incidentally discovered lesions which remain morphologically stable have a favorable long term course.

Conclusions: Initial clinical presentation is a strong predictor of subsequent disease course. Although overall prognosis is poor, nearly half of all deaths resulted from non-neurologic causes, underscoring the importance of comprehensive medical management. Aneurysms characterized by expansion, established mass effect, or hemorrhage have a poor natural history, and may be considered for invasive treatment, which is increasingly endovascular in nature. Lesions presenting with ischemia or incidentally are likely best addressed with aggressive neurologic and overall medical management.
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June 2014

Pipeline for uncoilable or failed aneurysms: results from a multicenter clinical trial.

Radiology 2013 Jun 15;267(3):858-68. Epub 2013 Feb 15.

Neurointerventional Service, Department of Radiology, New York University Medical Center, 560 First Ave, Room HE 208, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3/Covidien, Irvine, Calif) in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms.

Materials And Methods: The Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms is a multicenter, prospective, interventional, single-arm trial of PED for the treatment of uncoilable or failed aneurysms of the internal carotid artery. Institutional review board approval of the HIPAA-compliant study protocol was obtained from each center. After providing informed consent, 108 patients with recently unruptured large and giant wide-necked aneurysms were enrolled in the study. The primary effectiveness endpoint was angiographic evaluation that demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion and absence of major stenosis at 180 days. The primary safety endpoint was occurrence of major ipsilateral stroke or neurologic death at 180 days.

Results: PED placement was technically successful in 107 of 108 patients (99.1%). Mean aneurysm size was 18.2 mm; 22 aneurysms (20.4%) were giant (>25 mm). Of the 106 aneurysms, 78 met the study's primary effectiveness endpoint (73.6%; 95% posterior probability interval: 64.4%-81.0%). Six of the 107 patients in the safety cohort experienced a major ipsilateral stroke or neurologic death (5.6%; 95% posterior probability interval: 2.6%-11.7%).

Conclusion: PED offers a reasonably safe and effective treatment of large or giant intracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms, demonstrated by high rates of complete aneurysm occlusion and low rates of adverse neurologic events; even in aneurysms failing previous alternative treatments.
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June 2013

Long-term outcomes after staged-volume stereotactic radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations.

Neurosurgery 2012 Sep;71(3):632-43; discussion 643-4

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment modality for small arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain. For larger AVMs, the treatment dose is often lowered to reduce potential complications, but this decreases the likelihood of cure. One strategy is to divide large AVMs into smaller anatomic volumes and treat each volume separately.

Objective: To prospectively assess the long-term efficacy and complications associated with staged-volume radiosurgical treatment of large, symptomatic AVMs.

Methods: Eighteen patients with AVMs larger than 15 mL underwent prospective staged-volume radiosurgery over a 13-year period. The median AVM volume was 22.9 mL (range, 15.7-50 mL). Separate anatomic volumes were irradiated at 3- to 9-month intervals (median volume, 10.9 mL; range, 5.3-13.4 mL; median marginal dose, 15 Gy; range, 15-17 Gy). The AVM was divided into 2 volumes in 10 patients, 3 volumes in 5 patients, and 4 volumes in 3 patients. Seven patients underwent retreatment for residual disease.

Results: Actuarial rates of complete angiographic occlusion were 29% and 89% at 5 and 10 years. Five patients (27.8%) had a hemorrhage after radiosurgery. Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulative hemorrhage rates after treatment were 12%, 18%, 31%, and 31% at 2, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. One patient died after a hemorrhage (5.6%).

Conclusion: Staged-volume radiosurgery for AVMs larger than 15 mL is a viable treatment strategy. The long-term occlusion rate is high, whereas the radiation-related complication rate is low. Hemorrhage during the lag period remains the greatest source of morbidity and mortality.
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September 2012

Nidal embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: rates of cure, partial embolization, and clinical outcome.

J Neurosurg 2012 Jul 27;117(1):65-77. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Neurointerventional Service, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Object: Nidal embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) has become an increasingly important component of bAVM treatment. However, controversy exists as to the relative efficacy and safety of single-stage versus multistage approaches to bAVM embolization, with recent literature favoring multistage strategies. The authors present a series of consecutive bAVMs embolized at their institution, demonstrating the safety and efficacy of a predominantly single-stage embolization strategy. The safety and efficacy of embolization are reported in the context of predetermined treatment strategies to provide more generalizable insight into treatment outcome.

Methods: One hundred thirty consecutive patients with 131 bAVMs underwent endovascular embolization at a single center. Diagnostic angiography with superselective microcatheterizations was performed in all patients. Postembolization angiograms were reviewed by 3 neuroradiologists for degree of occlusion and angiographic evidence of procedural complications. Patients were divided into cohorts based on the prospectively determined treatment strategy, which included the following: global devascularization of the bAVM (Devasc); targeting of a focal angioarchitectural weakness (Target), typically as an adjunct to surgery or Gamma Knife treatment; and primary occlusion of the bAVM by embolization alone (Occlude). Safety and efficacy were evaluated in the context of these treatment groups.

Results: The 131 bAVMs were treated over an average of 1.28 embolization sessions per bAVM; 105 bAVMs (80%) were treated in a single stage. The average percentage devascularization in the Devasc arm was 85.3%, which was statistically significantly greater than the 72% aggregate devascularization reported in 8 modern N-butyl cyanoacrylate and Onyx papers based on 1-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum testing (p<0.001). Focal angioarchitectural weaknesses were successfully embolized for all 24 bAVMs in the Target group, directly with the embolic agent in 23 bAVMs and indirectly in 1 bAVM with a venous aneurysm/pseudoaneurysm by reducing arterial inflow and inducing venous thrombosis. Lesions in all patients in the Occlude arm were 100% occluded with embolization alone. Overall, the bAVMs in the Occlude arm were significantly smaller and required embolization of fewer pedicles than those in the Devasc group. One patient (0.8%) experienced significant morbidity following embolization, and 1 patient in the cohort died (0.8%).

Conclusions: This research communicates the authors' experience in developing a largely single-stage strategy for embolization of bAVMs. The results suggest that an aggressive, single-stage embolization may be implemented with a margin of safety and effectiveness similar to the multistage approaches more commonly reported in the literature. This work additionally introduces the importance of prospective assignment to a treatment strategy in assessing procedural outcome in bAVM embolization, thereby improving generalizability of the results and allowing for more rigorous interpretation of efficacy and safety.
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July 2012

The intracarotid amobarbital procedure: when is it worth repeating?

Epilepsia 2012 Apr 6;53(4):721-7. Epub 2012 Feb 6.

Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

Purpose: Despite the reported diagnostic value of the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) or "Wada test" for determining hemispheric lateralization and memory functioning, it has never undergone formal reliability testing because a prospective test-retest study design is neither feasible nor ethical. However, some patients require repeat testing for clinical purposes, a circumstance that allows for exploration of issues related to reliability. The current investigation sought to: (1) evaluate the frequency of and reasons for repeated IAPs and (2) describe the test-retest reliability of repeated IAPs in a large tertiary epilepsy center.

Methods: A 10-year review (2001-2011) of the New York University Langone Medical Center Comprehensive Epilepsy Center patient registry revealed 630 IAPs. Review of medical records identified 20 individuals who underwent two or more IAPs on separate days. Because IAPs repeated due to technical problems should be considered separate from IAPs repeated for other reasons because these IAPs likely included a change in the procedure (e.g., lower medication dose) in an attempt to ameliorate the complication, patients were grouped accordingly. Six patients underwent repeated IAPs due to technical complication and 14 patients underwent a repeated IAP due to other reasons (e.g., unexpected memory outcome, reconsideration of surgery years after a previous surgical work-up in which no surgery was performed, and/or consideration of a second surgery). Given that data obtained from injections ipsilateral to a seizure focus are sometimes considered in a manner clinically different from data obtained from injections contralateral to the seizure focus, memory outcome was classified relative to the side of identified seizure focus. The degree to which language and memory data were consistent across repeated IAPs was examined.

Key Findings: Language functioning was consistently lateralized across IAPs in all but one case. Among the six patients who experienced technical problems in the first IAP, three were fully participatory in the second procedure such that valid data were obtained. For the other three, the technical problem recurred with no change in outcome across procedures. Among the 14 patients with repeated IAPs due to other reasons, 79% of the available ipsilateral and 73% of the contralateral pass/fail outcomes were consistent across procedures. No difference between ipsilateral or contralateral injections was observed for the likelihood of a change in results (p = 0.57).

Significance: Our data identified overall high reliability for both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides with repeated IAP testing. Results indicated that although patients for whom a correctable technical problem was identified during the IAP may benefit from a repeat study, there is little benefit to repeating the IAP in patients with discordant or unexpected results (i.e., results are not likely to change). These data support the overall reliability of both the language and memory data obtained from the IAP.
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April 2012

Metameric thoracic lesion: report of a rare case and a guide to management.

J Neurosurg Spine 2010 May;12(5):497-502

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, Bellevue Hospital, New York, New York 10016, USA.

Metameric lesions of the spine are rare. The authors present a case of patient with a complex metameric vascular lesion of the thoracic spine and describe a management strategy for this entity.
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May 2010

The vascular anatomy of the vertebro-spinal axis.

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2009 Jul;20(3):259-64

Department of Neurology, New York University, Langone Medical Center, 560 First Avenue Room HE208, New York, NY 10016, USA.

This article discusses the vascular anatomy of the vertebra-spinal axis and covers such topics as vascular supply to the spine, spinal dura, and paraspinal musculature; vascular supply to the spinal cord; and spinal veins.
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July 2009

Stent-assisted Gugliemi detachable coil repair of wide-necked renal artery aneurysm using 3-D angiography.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2007 Dec-2008 Jan;41(6):528-32

Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA.

Purpose: To report a wide-necked renal artery aneurysm treated successfully with stent-assisted Gugliemi detachable coil occlusion, assisted by three-dimensional (3-D) angiography.

Case Report: A 56-year-old woman with history of hypertension presented with a 2.5-cm wide-necked saccular aneurysm involving her distal right renal artery. A balloon-expandable stent was positioned across the neck of the aneurysm and multiple Gugliemi detachable coils were deployed through a microcatheter inserted through the interstices of the stent into the aneurysm sac, guided by 3-D angiography. Follow-up 3-D angiography at 6 months revealed a patent renal artery with continued exclusion of the aneurysm and preservation of renal blood flow.

Conclusion: Stent-assisted coil occlusion assisted by 3-D angiography is a potential renal-sparing endovascular approach to treating wide-necked renal artery aneurysms with complex vascular anatomy.
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February 2008

Recent steps toward a reconstructive endovascular solution for the orphaned, complex-neck aneurysm.

Neurosurgery 2006 Nov;59(5 Suppl 3):S77-92; discussion S3-13

Department of Radiology, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016, USA.

Objective: The purposes of this article are to summarize recent developments and concerns in endovascular aneurysm therapy leading to the adjunctive use of endoluminal devices, to review the published literature on stent-supported coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms, and to describe our experience with this technique in a limited subgroup of problematic complex aneurysms over a medium-term follow-up period.

Methods: Between January 2003 and June 2004, 28 individuals among 157 patients with cerebral aneurysms we evaluated were identified as harboring aneurysms with exceptionally broad necks. Out of these 28 patients, 16 were treated with a combination of stents and detachable coils, preserving the parent artery. Recorded data included patient demographics, the clinical presentation, aneurysm location and characteristics, procedural details, and clinical and angiographic outcome.

Results: Over an 18-month period, 16 patients with large cerebral aneurysms additionally characterized by neck sizes between 7 and 14 mm were treated, using combined coil embolization of the aneurysm with stent reconstruction of the aneurysm neck. Thirteen out of the 16 aneurysms were occluded at angiographic reevaluation between 11 and 24 months (mean angiographic follow-up, 17.5 mo). There were no treatment-related deaths or clinically evident neurological complications. Thirteen patients experienced excellent clinical outcomes, with good outcomes in two patients and a poor visual outcome in one patient (mean clinical follow-up, 29 mo). A single technical complication occurred, involving transient nonocclusive stent-associated thrombus, which was treated uneventfully with abciximab.

Conclusion: Stent-supported coil embolization of large, complex-neck cerebral aneurysms seems to provide superior medium-term anatomic reconstruction of the parent artery compared with historic series of aneurysms treated exclusively with endosaccular coils. In the near future, increasingly sophisticated endoluminal devices offering higher coverage of the neck defect will likely enable more definitive endovascular treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms and further expand our ability to manipulate the vascular biology of the parent artery.
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November 2006