Publications by authors named "Tianyu Wang"

255 Publications

DUDA-Net: a double U-shaped dilated attention network for automatic infection area segmentation in COVID-19 lung CT images.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang, China.

Purpose: The global health crisis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a common threat facing all humankind. In the process of diagnosing COVID-19 and treating patients, automatic COVID-19 lesion segmentation from computed tomography images helps doctors and patients intuitively understand lung infection. To effectively quantify lung infections, a convolutional neural network for automatic lung infection segmentation based on deep learning is proposed.

Method: This new type of COVID-19 lesion segmentation network is based on a U-Net backbone. First, a coarse segmentation network is constructed to extract the lung areas. Second, in the encoding and decoding process of the fine segmentation network, a new soft attention mechanism, namely the dilated convolutional attention (DCA) mechanism, is introduced to enable the network to focus on better quantitative information to strengthen the network's segmentation ability in the subtle areas of the lesions.

Results: The experimental results show that the average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE) and area under the curve of DUDA-Net are 87.06%, 90.85%, 99.59% and 0.965, respectively. In addition, the introduction of a cascade U-shaped network scheme and DCA mechanism can improve the DSC by 24.46% and 14.33%, respectively.

Conclusion: The proposed DUDA-Net approach can automatically segment COVID-19 lesions with excellent performance, which indicates that the proposed method is of great clinical significance. In addition, the introduction of a coarse segmentation network and DCA mechanism can improve the COVID-19 segmentation performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-021-02418-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178668PMC
June 2021

Novel Biphenyl Pyridines as Potent Small-Molecule Inhibitors Targeting the Programmed Cell Death-1/Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 Interaction.

J Med Chem 2021 Jun 30;64(11):7390-7403. Epub 2021 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

With the successful clinical application of anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAb), targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction has become a promising method for the discovery of cancer therapy. Due to the inherent limitations of antibodies, it is necessary to search for small-molecule inhibitors against the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. We report the design, synthesis, and evaluation and of a series of novel biphenyl pyridines as the inhibitors of PD-1/PD-L1. 2-(((2-Methoxy-6-(2-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)ethan-1-ol () was found to inhibit the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction with an IC value of 3.8 ± 0.3 nM and enhance the killing activity of tumor cells by immune cells. Compound displays great pharmacokinetics (oral bioavailability of 22%) and significant antitumor activity in a CT26 mouse model. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry data indicated that compound activates the immune activity in tumors. These results suggest that compound is a promising small-molecule inhibitor against the PD-1/PD-L1 axis and merits further development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00010DOI Listing
June 2021

Photoinduced Release of Volatile Organic Compounds from Fatty Alcohols at the Air-Water Interface: The Role of Singlet Oxygen Photosensitized by a Carbonyl Group.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China.

Photoinduced interfacial release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surfactants receives emerging concerns. Here, we investigate the photoreaction of 1-nonanol (NOL) as a model surfactant at the air-water interface, especially for the important role of O in the formation of VOCs. The production of VOCs is real-time quantitated. The results indicate that the oxygen content apparently affects the total yields of VOCs during the photoreaction of interfacial NOL. The photoactivity of NOL is about 8 times higher under air than that under nitrogen, which is mainly attributed to the generation of O. Additionally, the production of VOCs increased by about 4 times with the existence of the air-water interface. Quenching experiments of O also illustrate the contribution of O to VOC formation, which could reach more than 95% during photoirradiation of NOL. Furthermore, density functional theory calculations show that O generated energy transfer of photosensitizers can abstract two hydrogen atoms from a fatty alcohol molecule. The energy barrier of this reaction is 72.3 kJ/mol, and its reaction rate coefficient is about 2.742 s M. O significantly promotes photoinduced oxidation of fatty alcohols and VOC formation through hydrogen abstraction, which provides a new insight into the interfacial photoreaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00313DOI Listing
May 2021

Surface porous poly-ether-ether-ketone based on three-dimensional printing for load-bearing orthopedic implant.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 May 4;120:104561. Epub 2021 May 4.

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150080, China.

Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent biocompatibility and similar elastic modulus as bones but yet suffers from poor osseointegration. In order to balance PEEK's mechanical and osseointegration properties, a novel surface porous PEEK (SP-PEEK) is successfully fabricated by fused deposition modelling three-dimensional printing (FDM 3DP) and characterized by mechanical and osteogenesis in vitro tests. Moreover, the effects of pore diameter and pore layer number on the mechanical behaviors of SP-PEEK are investigated by theoretical model and numerical simulation. Comparison among experimental, theoretical and simulation results show good agreement. As pore diameter decreases, the equivalent strength and modulus become more sensitive to the decrease of pore layer number. In addition, the SP-PEEK exhibits the mechanical properties within the range of human trabecular bone and cortical bone, and thus can be tailored to mimic human bone by adjusting the pore diameter and pore layer number, which is benefit to mitigate stress shielding. The effects of pore diameter on the cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of SP-PEEK are tested by the co-culture of osteoblast precursor cells (MC3T3-E1) and SP-PEEK round discs. Results showcase that porous surface improves the osteogenesis in vitro, and the SP-PEEK group that the pore diameter is 0.6 mm exhibits optimal-performance osteogenesis in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104561DOI Listing
May 2021

The in-plane structure domain size of nm-thick MoSe uncovered by low-momentum phonon scattering.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr;13(16):7723-7734

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Although 2D materials have been widely studied for more than a decade, very few studies have been reported on the in-plane structure domain (STD) size even though such a physical property is critical in determining the charge carrier and energy carrier transport. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be used for studying the in-plane structure of very thin samples, but it becomes more challenging to study few-layer 2D materials. In this work the nanosecond energy transport state-resolved Raman (nET-Raman) technique is applied to resolve this key problem by directly measuring the thermal reffusivity of 2D materials and determining the residual value at the 0 K-limit. Such a residual value is determined by low-momentum phonon scattering and can be directly used to characterize the in-plane STD size of 2D materials. Three suspended MoSe2 (15, 50 and 62 nm thick) samples are measured using nET-Raman from room temperature down to 77 K. Based on low-momentum phonon scattering, the STD size is determined to be 58.7 nm and 84.5 nm for 50 nm and 62 nm thick samples, respectively. For comparison, the in-plane structure of bulk MoSe2 that is used to prepare the measured nm-thick samples is characterized using XRD. It uncovers crystallite sizes of 64.8 nm in the (100) direction and 121 nm in the (010) direction. The STD size determined by our low momentum phonon scattering is close to the crystallite size determined by XRD, but still shows differences. The STD size by low-momentum phonon scattering is more affected by the crystallite sizes in all in-plane directions rather than that by XRD that is for a specific crystallographic orientation. Their close values demonstrate that during nanosheet preparation (peeling and transfer), the in-plane structure experiences very little damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr09099aDOI Listing
April 2021

Applying deep learning in digital breast tomosynthesis for automatic breast cancer detection: A review.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 3;71:102049. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 371 Fairfield Way, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address:

The relatively recent reintroduction of deep learning has been a revolutionary force in the interpretation of diagnostic imaging studies. However, the technology used to acquire those images is undergoing a revolution itself at the very same time. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is one such technology, which has transformed the field of breast imaging. DBT, a form of three-dimensional mammography, is rapidly replacing the traditional two-dimensional mammograms. These parallel developments in both the acquisition and interpretation of breast images present a unique case study in how modern AI systems can be designed to adapt to new imaging methods. They also present a unique opportunity for co-development of both technologies that can better improve the validity of results and patient outcomes. In this review, we explore the ways in which deep learning can be best integrated into breast cancer screening workflows using DBT. We first explain the principles behind DBT itself and why it has become the gold standard in breast screening. We then survey the foundations of deep learning methods in diagnostic imaging, and review the current state of research into AI-based DBT interpretation. Finally, we present some of the limitations of integrating AI into clinical practice and the opportunities these present in this burgeoning field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.102049DOI Listing
July 2021

A patient with end-stage renal disease who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 then received a kidney transplant.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Aug 22;67:101395. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China. Electronic address:

Since its emergence in December 2019 many end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Herein, we describe the case of an ESRD patient who received a kidney transplant after recovering from COVID-19. We described the clinical course of COVID-19 and kidney transplant management, including the patient's symptoms, laboratory results, computed tomography, and antibody profiles. He recovered well, without complications. Chest computed tomography, PCR, and IgG results indicated no recurrence of COVID-19 during the subsequent two weeks. Therefore, kidney transplantation is feasible in an ESRD patient who has recovered from COVID-19, under a normal immunosuppressive regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2021.101395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061181PMC
August 2021

Joint analysis of days to flowering reveals independent temperate adaptations in maize.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 Jun 22;126(6):929-941. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

USDA-ARS, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Domesticates are an excellent model for understanding biological consequences of rapid climate change. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) was domesticated from a tropical grass yet is widespread across temperate regions today. We investigate the biological basis of temperate adaptation in diverse structured nested association mapping (NAM) populations from China, Europe (Dent and Flint) and the United States as well as in the Ames inbred diversity panel, using days to flowering as a proxy. Using cross-population prediction, where high prediction accuracy derives from overall genomic relatedness, shared genetic architecture, and sufficient diversity in the training population, we identify patterns in predictive ability across the five populations. To identify the source of temperate adapted alleles in these populations, we predict top associated genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified loci in a Random Forest Classifier using independent temperate-tropical North American populations based on lines selected from Hapmap3 as predictors. We find that North American populations are well predicted (AUC equals 0.89 and 0.85 for Ames and USNAM, respectively), European populations somewhat well predicted (AUC equals 0.59 and 0.67 for the Dent and Flint panels, respectively) and that the Chinese population is not predicted well at all (AUC is 0.47), suggesting an independent adaptation process for early flowering in China. Multiple adaptations for the complex trait days to flowering in maize provide hope for similar natural systems under climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41437-021-00422-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178344PMC
June 2021

Ca-activated Cl channel TMEM16A inhibition by cholesterol promotes angiogenesis in endothelial cells.

J Adv Res 2021 03 15;29:23-32. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Ion Channel Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China.

Introduction: Ca-activated Cl channel TMEM16A is expressed in endothelial cells, and contributes to many diseases such as hypertension, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension. It remains unclear whether TMEM16A regulates endothelial angiogenesis, which participates in many physiological and pathological processes. Cholesterol regulates many ion channels including TMEM16A, and high cholesterol levels contribute to endothelial dysfunction. It remains to be determined whether cholesterol regulates TMEM16A expression and function in endothelial cells.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether cholesterol regulated TMEM16A expression and function in endothelial angiogenesis.

Methods: Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to record Ca-activated Cl currents in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and HEK293 cells transfected with TMEM16A-overexpressing plasmids. Western blot was used to examine the expression of TMEM16A and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in HAECs. CCK-8 assay, would healing assay, and tube formation assay were used to test endothelial cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, respectively.

Results: TMEM16A mediates the Ca-activated Cl channel in HAECs. Cholesterol treatment inhibited TMEM16A expression via upregulation of DNMT1 in HAECs, and the inhibitory effect of cholesterol on TMEM16A expression was blocked by 5-aza, the DNMT1 inhibitor. In addition, direct application of cholesterol inhibited TMEM16A currents in heterologous HEK293 cells with an IC of 0.1209 μM. Similarly, cholesterol directly inhibited TMEM16A currents in HAECs. Furthermore, TMEM16A knockdown increased tube formation, cell migration and proliferation of HAECs, and TMEM16A overexpression produced the opposite effect.

Conclusion: This study reveals a novel mechanism of cholesterol-mediated TMEM16A inhibition, by which cholesterol reduces TMEM16A expression via DNMT1-mediated methylation and directly inhibits channel activities. TMEM16A channel inhibition promotes endothelial cell angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020148PMC
March 2021

Changes in Degree Centrality of Network Nodes in Different Frequency Bands in Parkinson's Disease With Depression and Without Depression.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:638554. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Depression induces an early onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), aggravates dyskinesia and cognitive impairment, and accelerates disease progression. However, it is very difficult to identify and diagnose PD with depression (PDD) in the early clinical stage. Few studies have suggested that the changes in neural networks are associated with PDD, while degree centrality (DC) has been documented to be effective in detecting brain network changes.

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to explore DC changes between patients with PDD and without depression (PDND) and to find the key brain hubs involved with depression in PD patients.

Methods: One hundred and four PD patients and 54 healthy controls (HCs) underwent brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Data Processing and Analysis of Brain Imaging and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Data Analysis Toolkit were used for processing and statistical analysis. The DC value of each frequency band was calculated. One-way analysis of variance and a two-sample -test for comparison were used to compare the differences of the DC values in different frequency bands among PDD, PDND, and healthy control group. Gaussian random field was used for multiple comparison correction. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between each individual's DC map and clinical indicators.

Results: The DC value of different brain regions changed in PDD and PDND in different frequency bands. The prefrontal lobe, limbic system, and basal ganglia were the main brain regions involved. PDD patients showed a wider range and more abnormal brain areas in the slow-4 frequency band (0.027-0.073 Hz) compared to the HCs. PDD showed a decreased DC value in the medial frontal gyrus, bilateral cuneus gyrus, right lingual gyrus, bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), bilateral superior frontal gyrus, and left paracentral lobule, but an increased DC value in the bilateral brainstem, midbrain, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, cerebellum, left superior temporal gyrus, bilateral insula, left fusiform gyrus, and left caudate nucleus in the traditional frequency band (0.01-0.08 Hz) compared to PDND patients. PDND patients displayed more abnormal functions in the basal ganglia in the slow-4 frequency band.

Conclusion: The DC changes in PDD and PDND are frequency dependent and frequency specific. The medial frontal gyrus, SMA, and limbic system may be the key hubs for depression in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.638554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019799PMC
March 2021

A method for the automatic detection of myopia in Optos fundus images based on deep learning.

Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 26:e3460. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.

Myopia detection is significant for preventing irreversible visual impairment and diagnosing myopic retinopathy. To improve the detection efficiency and accuracy, a Myopia Detection Network (MDNet) that combines the advantages of dense connection and Residual Squeeze-and-Excitation attention is proposed in this paper to automatically detect myopia in Optos fundus images. First, an automatic optic disc recognition method is applied to extract the Regions of Interest and remove the noise disturbances; then, data augmentation techniques are implemented to enlarge the data set and prevent overfitting; moreover, an MDNet composed of Attention Dense blocks is constructed to detect myopia in Optos fundus images. The results show that the Mean Absolute Error of the Spherical Equivalent detected by this network can reach 1.1150 D (diopter), which verifies the feasibility and applicability of this method for the automatic detection of myopia in Optos fundus images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnm.3460DOI Listing
March 2021

Simvastatin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma by targeting TMEM16A Ca-activated chloride channel.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 23;147(6):1699-1711. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 Nanjing Bei Jie, Heping District, Shenyang,, 110002, Liaoning, China.

Purpose: Ca-activated chloride channel TMEM16A has been found to be overexpressed in many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Nevertheless, the role of TMEM16A in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. Although simvastatin is known to produce anti-tumor effect, the mechanisms by which simvastatin inhibits cancer remain unclear.

Methods: In this study, we explored the role of TMEM16A expression in human OSCC tissues using both TCGA dataset and immunohistochemistry. CCK-8 assay was applied to evaluate cell proliferation. Patch clamp technique was applied to record TMEM16A Cl currents.

Results: We found that high TMEM16A expression is related with large tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and poor clinical outcome in patients with OSCC. In addition, TMEM16A overexpression could promote cell proliferation, and inhibition of TMEM16A channel activities could suppress cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Furthermore, simvastatin could suppress TMEM16A channel activities, and inhibited cell proliferation in OSCC cells via TMEM16A.

Conclusion: Our findings identify a novel anti-tumor mechanism of simvastatin by targeting TMEM16A. Simvastatin may represent an innovative strategy for treating OSCC with high TMEM16A expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03575-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Retropharyngeal Abscess in an Adult With Pneumonia During COVID-19 Outbreak.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):691-693

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Background: Retropharyngeal abscesses are rarely reported in adults and occur mostly in patients with immunocompromised or as a foreign body complication. Admittedly, the treatment of retropharyngeal abscesses frequently involves surgical drainage to achieve the best results. However, when retropharyngeal abscesses occurred in a highly suspected patient with COVID-19, the managements and treatments should be caution to prevent the spread of the virus.

Clinical Presentation: On February 13, a 40-year-old male with retropharyngeal abscesses turned to our department complaining dyspnea and dysphagia. In addition, his chest CT scan shows a suspected COVID-19 infection, thus making out Multiple Disciplinary Team determine to perform percutaneous drainage and catheterization through left anterior cervical approach under the guidance of B-ultrasound. Finally, the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital on February 27 after 14 days of isolation. There was no recurrence after half a year follow-up.

Conclusions: By presenting this case, we aim at raising awareness of different surgical drainage methods and summarizing our experience in the management of retropharyngeal abscesses during the outbreak of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007345DOI Listing
March 2021

Functional metabolomics innovates therapeutic discovery of traditional Chinese medicine derived functional compounds.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Aug 2;224:107824. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; Laboratory for Functional Metabolomics Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) produce chemically diverse functional compounds that are importantly chemical resource for facilitating new drug discovery and development against a diversity of diseases. However, modern exploration of TCM derived functional compounds is significantly hindered by the inefficient elucidation of pharmacological functions over past decades, because conventional research methods are incapable of efficiently elucidating therapeutic potential of TCM conferred by multiple functional compounds. Functional metabolomics has the priority-capacity to characterize systems therapeutic actions of TCM by precisely capturing molecular interactions between disease response metabolite biomarkers (DRMB) and functional compounds (secondary metabolites), which underline pharmacological efficiency and associated therapeutic mechanisms. In this critical review, we innovatively summarize systems therapeutic feature of TCM derived functional compounds from a functional-metabolism perspective, then systems metabolic targets (SMT) identified by functional metabolomics method are strategically proposed to better understanding of therapeutic discovery of TCM derived functional compounds. In addition, we propose the perspective strategy as Spatial Temporal Operative Real Metabolomics (STORM) to considerably improve analytical capacity of functional metabolomics method by selectively incorporating the cutting edge technologies of mass spectrometry imaging, isotope-metabolic fluxomics, synthetic and biosynthetic chemistry, which could considerably enhance the precision and resolution of elucidating pharmacological efficiency and associated therapeutic mechanisms of TCM derived functional compounds. Collectively, such critical review is expected to provide novel perspective-strategy that could significantly improve modern exploration and exploitation of TCM derived functional compounds that further promote new drug discovery and development against the complex diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2021.107824DOI Listing
August 2021

Networks Are Associated With Depression in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Resting-State Imaging Study.

Front Neurosci 2020 9;14:573538. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Disturbance of networks was recently proposed to be associated with the occurrence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neurobiological mechanism of depression underlying PD remains unclear.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate whether intra-network and inter-network brain connectivity is differently changed in PD patients with and without depression (PDD and PDND patients, respectively).

Methods: Forty-one PDD patients, 64 PDND patients, and 55 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN), precuneus network (PCUN), and sensorimotor network (SMN) were extracted using independent component analysis (ICA), and then the functional connectivity (FC) values within and between these networks were measured.

Results: PDD patients exhibited abnormal FC values within the DMN, ECN, SN, PCUN, and SMN. In addition, PDD patients demonstrated decreased connectivity between anterior SN (aSN) and bilateral ECN, between posterior SN (pSN) and dorsal DMN (dDMN), and between PCUN and dDMN/SMN/bilateral ECN. Connectivity within the left hippocampus of dDMN and the right medial superior frontal gyrus of aSN was a significant predictor of depression level in PD patients.

Conclusions: Aberrant intra- and inter-network FC is involved in several important hubs in the large-scale networks, which can be a biomarker for distinguishing PDD from PDND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.573538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901489PMC
February 2021

Selective electrosorption of Ca by MXene cathodes coupled with NiAl-LMO anodes through ion intercalation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 27;590:539-547. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Capacitive deionization (CDI), or electrosorption, is a desalination technology that exhibits significant potential; however, its major technical requirement of selective ion separation poses a challenge for its further practical application. Herein, a titanium carbide (MXene)-layered electrosorption electrode with high selectivity for Ca was fabricated. The prepared MXene electrode had many surface hydroxyl functional groups that serve as adsorption sites for Ca. Ca was successfully inserted into the interlayers of the MXene cathode and formed a strong interaction with [Ti-O] bonds during the capacitive deionization process. When a Ni-Al layered metal oxide anion intercalation electrode was employed as the counter electrode, Ca adsorption by the MXene electrode was significantly enhanced due to the valence compensation balance effect. The maximum Ca electrosorption capacity of the MXene electrode reached 1011.82 mg per gram effective MXene material, which is 6.3 times higher than that of Na based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The MXene electrode exhibited prominent selectivity for Ca ions in the presence of Na and Mg. The Ca/Mg selectivity factor for electrosorption reached 2.63, and Ca/Na selectivity factor could achieve 9.84, respectively. After five electrosorption/desorption cycles, the Ca removal rate only decreased from 46.96% to 45.34%, suggesting that the MXene electrode has excellent stability. Our study demonstrated a novel CDI electrode and technical approach for softening water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.01.058DOI Listing
May 2021

Robust Biological Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Framework with Post-Functionalized Rhenium(I) Sites for Efficient Heterogeneous Visible-Light-Driven CO Reduction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 04 9;60(16):8983-8989. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory for Science and Application of Functional Molecular and Crystalline Materials, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.

A robust 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy)-derived biological hydrogen-bonded framework (HOF-25) has been realized depending on guanine-quadruplex with the assistance of π-π interaction, which reacts with Re(CO) Cl to give a post-functionalized HOF-25-Re. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study on HOF-25-Re confirms the covalent attachment of Re(bpy)(CO) Cl segments to this HOF. Robust and recycled HOF-25-Re bearing photocatalytic Re(bpy)(CO) Cl centers displays good heterogeneous catalytic activity towards carbon dioxide photoreduction in the presence of [Ru(bpy) ]Cl and triisopropanolamine in CH CN under visible-light irradiation, with both high CO production rate of 1448 μmol g  h and high selectivity of 93 %. Under the same conditions, the experimental turnover number of HOF-25-Re (50) is about 8 times as that of the homogeneous control Re(bpy)(CO) Cl. The sustainably regenerated HOF-25-Re via crystallization and post-modification processes shows recovered photocatalytic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202016710DOI Listing
April 2021

Revisiting Shadow Detection: A New Benchmark Dataset for Complex World.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 20;30:1925-1934. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Shadow detection in general photos is a nontrivial problem, due to the complexity of the real world. Though recent shadow detectors have already achieved remarkable performance on various benchmark data, their performance is still limited for general real-world situations. In this work, we collected shadow images for multiple scenarios and compiled a new dataset of 10,500 shadow images, each with labeled ground-truth mask, for supporting shadow detection in the complex world. Our dataset covers a rich variety of scene categories, with diverse shadow sizes, locations, contrasts, and types. Further, we comprehensively analyze the complexity of the dataset, present a fast shadow detection network with a detail enhancement module to harvest shadow details, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method to detect shadows in general situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3049331DOI Listing
January 2021

Single-Image Real-Time Rain Removal Based on Depth-Guided Non-Local Features.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 14;30:1759-1770. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Rain is a common weather phenomenon that affects environmental monitoring and surveillance systems. According to an established rain model (Garg and Nayar, 2007), the scene visibility in the rain varies with the depth from the camera, where objects faraway are visually blocked more by the fog than by the rain streaks. However, existing datasets and methods for rain removal ignore these physical properties, thus limiting the rain removal efficiency on real photos. In this work, we analyze the visual effects of rain subject to scene depth and formulate a rain imaging model that collectively considers rain streaks and fog. Also, we prepare a dataset called RainCityscapes on real outdoor photos. Furthermore, we design a novel real-time end-to-end deep neural network, for which we train to learn the depth-guided non-local features and to regress a residual map to produce a rain-free output image. We performed various experiments to visually and quantitatively compare our method with several state-of-the-art methods to show its superiority over others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3048625DOI Listing
January 2021

Distinct Changes in Global Brain Synchronization in Early-Onset vs. Late-Onset Parkinson Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 14;12:604995. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Early- and late-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD and LOPD, respectively) have different risk factors, clinical features, and disease course; however, the functional outcome of these differences have not been well characterized. This study investigated differences in global brain synchronization changes and their clinical significance in EOPD and LOPD patients. Patients with idiopathic PD including 25 EOPD and 24 LOPD patients, and age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects including 27 younger and 26 older controls (YCs and OCs, respectively) were enrolled. Voxel-based degree centrality (DC) was calculated as a measure of global synchronization and compared between PD patients and HC groups matched in terms of disease onset and severity. DC was decreased in bilateral Rolandic operculum and left insula and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and precuneus of EOPD patients compared to YCs. DC was decreased in the right putamen, mid-cingulate cortex, bilateral Rolandic operculum, and left insula and increased in the right cerebellum-crus1 of LOPD patients compared to OCs. Correlation analyses showed that DC in the right cerebellum-crus1 was inversely associated with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) score in LOPD patients. Thus, EOPD and LOPD patients show distinct alterations in global synchronization relative to HCs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the left SFG and right cerebellum-crus1 play important roles in the compensation for corticostriatal-thalamocortical loop injury in EOPD and LOPD patients, whereas the cerebellum is a key hub in the neural mechanisms underlying LOPD with depression. These findings provide new insight into the clinical heterogeneity of the two PD subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.604995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767969PMC
December 2020

Imaging the magnetic field distribution of a micro-wire with the nitrogen-vacancycolor center ensemble in diamond.

Appl Opt 2021 Jan;60(1):125-134

Imaging the high-precision magnetic distribution generated by the surface current of chips and chip-like structures is an important way to measure thermal parameters of core components. Based on a high-concentration nitrogen-vacancy color center ensemble in diamond, the imaging magnetic field distribution is performed in a wide-field microscope. The magnetic vector detection and reduction model is verified first with continuous wave optical detection of magnetic resonance technology. By systematically measuring the distribution of the electromagnetic field generated on the surface of the micro-wire under different microwave power and different laser power conditions, the imaging quality of the wide-field imaging system can be optimized by adjusting the experimental parameters. Then, the electromagnetic field distribution imaging on the wire surface under different current intensities is obtained. In this way, accurate measurement and characterization of the magnetic distribution on the surface of the micro-wire is realized. Finally, at the field of view in the range of 480µ×270µ, the magnetic intensity is an accurate characterization in 0.5-10 Gs, and the magnetic detection sensitivity can be increased from 100 to 20µ/. The results show the accurate magnetic distribution imaging for chips and chip-like structures, which provide a new method for chip function detection and fault diagnosis based on precision quantum measurement technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.411208DOI Listing
January 2021

Characterization and generation of human definitive multipotent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

Cell Discov 2020 Dec 1;6(1):89. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510530, China.

Definitive hematopoiesis generates hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) that give rise to all mature blood and immune cells, but remains poorly defined in human. Here, we resolve human hematopoietic populations at the earliest hematopoiesis stage by single-cell RNA-seq. We characterize the distinct molecular profiling between early primitive and definitive hematopoiesis in both human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation and early embryonic development. We identify CD44 to specifically discriminate definitive hematopoiesis and generate definitive HSPCs from hESCs. The multipotency of hESCs-derived HSPCs for various blood and immune cells is validated by single-cell clonal assay. Strikingly, these hESCs-derived HSPCs give rise to blood and lymphoid lineages in vivo. Lastly, we characterize gene-expression dynamics in definitive and primitive hematopoiesis and reveal an unreported role of ROCK-inhibition in enhancing human definitive hematopoiesis. Our study provides a prospect for understanding human early hematopoiesis and a firm basis for generating blood and immune cells for clinical purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00213-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705709PMC
December 2020

Study of Cement-Based Superhydrophobic Composite Coating: New Option for Water Drainage Pipeline Rehabilitation.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 6;13(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.

A great number of urban underground concrete water drainage systems in China are facing challenges of corrosion, blockage, and leakage. This could result in engineering accidents such as urban inland inundation, pipeline collapse, leakage, and blockage. The common contributing factors for pipeline leakage and blockage are the porous structures and the perishable surfaces of concrete pipes. To address these issues, we synthesized superhydrophobic coating materials such as SiO aerosol, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA), and N-β-aminoethyl-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AEAPTS). Our superhydrophobic coating on cement-based surfaces presents good waterproof ability, mechanical stability, and self-cleaning properties. Test results show that the superhydrophobic coating exhibits higher water discharge capacity and survivability to corrosive underground water drainage pipeline environments. Hence, this SiO aerosol @ bisphenol A diglycidyl ether coating possesses enormous potential in surface modification of pipeline rehabilitation materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13215004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664290PMC
November 2020

Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 10 Protects Against Hepatic Ischaemic/Reperfusion Injury via TAK1 Signalling.

Front Immunol 2020 29;11:506275. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 10 (USP10) protein is a deubiquitination enzyme involved in many important biological processes. However, the function of USP10 in hepatic ischaemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the role of USP10 in hepatic I/R injury. USP10 Heterozygote mice and primary hepatocytes were used to construct hepatic I/R models. The effect of USP10 on hepatic I/R injury was examined via pathological and molecular analyses. Our results indicated that USP10 was significantly downregulated in the livers of mice after hepatic I/R injury and in hepatocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation stimulation. USP10 Heterozygote mice exhibited exacerbated hepatic I/R injury, as evidenced by enhanced liver inflammation via the NF-κB signalling pathway and increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Additionally, USP10 overexpression inhibited hepatocyte inflammation and apoptosis in hepatic I/R injury and . Mechanistically, our study demonstrated that USP10 knockdown exerted its detrimental effects on hepatic I/R injury by inducing activation of the transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-JNK/p38 signalling pathways. TAK1 was required for USP10 function in hepatic I/R injury as TAK1 inhibition abolished USP10 function . In conclusion, our study demonstrated that USP10 plays a protective role in hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting the activation of the TAK1-JNK/p38 signalling pathways. Modulation of USP10/TAK1 might be a promising strategy to prevent this pathological process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.506275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550542PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide association studies and whole-genome prediction reveal the genetic architecture of KRN in maize.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Oct 27;20(1):490. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Background: Kernel row number (KRN) is an important trait for the domestication and improvement of maize. Exploring the genetic basis of KRN has great research significance and can provide valuable information for molecular assisted selection.

Results: In this study, one single-locus method (MLM) and six multilocus methods (mrMLM, FASTmrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, pLARmEB, pKWmEB and ISIS EM-BLASSO) of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were used to identify significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) for KRN in an association panel including 639 maize inbred lines that were genotyped by the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. In three phenotyping environments and with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) values, the seven GWAS methods revealed different numbers of KRN-associated QTNs, ranging from 11 to 177. Based on these results, seven important regions for KRN located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, and 10 were identified by at least three methods and in at least two environments. Moreover, 49 genes from the seven regions were expressed in different maize tissues. Among the 49 genes, ARF29 (Zm00001d026540, encoding auxin response factor 29) and CKO4 (Zm00001d043293, encoding cytokinin oxidase protein) were significantly related to KRN, based on expression analysis and candidate gene association mapping. Whole-genome prediction (WGP) of KRN was also performed, and we found that the KRN-associated tagSNPs achieved a high prediction accuracy. The best strategy was to integrate all of the KRN-associated tagSNPs identified by all GWAS models.

Conclusions: These results aid in our understanding of the genetic architecture of KRN and provide useful information for genomic selection for KRN in maize breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02676-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590725PMC
October 2020

Fabrication of Injectable Micro-Scale Opto-Electronically Transduced Electrodes (MOTEs) for Physiological Monitoring.

J Microelectromech Syst 2020 Oct 12;29(5):720-726. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University in Ithaca, 14853 USA.

, chronic neural recording is critical to understand the nervous system, while a tetherless, miniaturized recording unit can render such recording minimally invasive. We present a tetherless, injectable micro-scale opto-electronically transduced electrode (MOTE) that is ~60m × 30m × 330m, the smallest neural recording unit to date. The MOTE consists of an AlGaAs micro-scale light emitting diode (LED) heterogeneously integrated on top of conventional 180nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuit. The MOTE combines the merits of optics (AlGaAs LED for power and data uplink), and of electronics (CMOS for signal amplification and encoding). The optical powering and communication enable the extreme scaling while the electrical circuits provide a high temporal resolution (<100s). This paper elaborates on the heterogeneous integration in MOTEs, a topic that has been touted without much demonstration on feasibility or scalability. Based on photolithography, we demonstrate how to build heterogenous systems that are scalable as well as biologically stable - the MOTEs can function in saline water for more than six months, and in a mouse brain for two months (and counting). We also present handling/insertion techniques for users ( biologists) to deploy MOTEs with little or no extra training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jmems.2020.2999496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560984PMC
October 2020

Construction and Validation of Nomograms for Predicting the Prognosis of Juvenile Osteosarcoma: A Real-World Analysis in the SEER Database.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1533033820947718

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Osteosarcoma is one of the most common malignant bone tumors, with a high incidence in adolescence. The objective of this study was to construct prognostic nomograms for predicting the prognosis of juvenile osteosarcoma.

Methods: Patients with osteosarcoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2015 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The essential clinical predictors were identified with univariate and multivariate Cox analysis. Nomograms were constructed to predict the 3- and 5-year cancer- specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Concordance index (C-index) and calibration plots were performed to validate the predictive performance of nomograms.

Results: We enrolled 736 adolescents with osteosarcoma from the SEER database, with 516 samples grouped into a training cohort and 220 samples grouped into a validation cohort. In multivariate analysis of the training cohort, predictors including tumor size, surgery treatment and AJCC stage were found to be associated with OS and CSS, while age was only associated with CSS. Construction of nomograms based on these predictors was performed to evaluate the prognosis of adolescents with osteosarcoma. The C-index and calibration curves also showed the satisfactory performance of these nomograms for prognosis prediction.

Conclusion: The developed nomograms are useful tools for precisely predicting the prognosis of adolescents with osteosarcoma, which could enable patients to be more accurately managed in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033820947718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570778PMC
October 2020

Author Correction: Glis1 facilitates induction of pluripotency via an epigenome-metabolome-epigenome signalling cascade.

Nat Metab 2020 Oct;2(10):1179

Bioland Laboratory (Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory), CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Joint School of Life Sciences, Hefei Institute of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00308-0DOI Listing
October 2020

A novel microRNA-based signature predicts prognosis among nasopharyngeal cancer patients.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 01 17;246(1):72-83. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China.

Impact Statement: Nasopharyngeal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the head and neck. Identification of promising miRNA biomarkers might benefit a lot to the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A three-miRNA signature (has-miR-142-3p, has-miR-29c, and has-miR-30e) was obviously associated with the overall survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. The model has better clinical independence and has better clinical prediction effect when combined with clinical characteristics. Our results revealed that a three-miRNA signature was a potential novel prognostic biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370220958680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797999PMC
January 2021

Energy and Charge Transport in 2D Atomic Layer Materials: Raman-Based Characterization.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Sep 10;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

As they hold extraordinary mechanical and physical properties, two-dimensional (2D) atomic layer materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and MXenes, have attracted a great deal of attention. The characterization of energy and charge transport in these materials is particularly crucial for their applications. As noncontact methods, Raman-based techniques are widely used in exploring the energy and charge transport in 2D materials. In this review, we explain the principle of Raman-based thermometry in detail. We critically review different Raman-based techniques, which include steady state Raman, time-domain differential Raman, frequency-resolved Raman, and energy transport state-resolved Raman techniques constructed in the frequency domain, space domain, and time domain. Detailed outlooks are provided about Raman-based energy and charge transport in 2D materials and issues that need special attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10091807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558986PMC
September 2020