Publications by authors named "Thormod Idsoe"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bullying Victimization and Trauma.

Front Psychiatry 2020 14;11:480353. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Oslo, Norway.

Bullying victimization and trauma research traditions operate quite separately. Hence, it is unclear from the literature whether bullying victimization should be considered as a form of interpersonal trauma. We review studies that connect bullying victimization with symptoms of PTSD, and in doing so, demonstrate that a conceptual understanding of the consequences of childhood bullying needs to be framed within a developmental perspective. We discuss two potential diagnoses that ought to be considered in the context of bullying victimization: (1) developmental trauma disorder, which was suggested but not accepted as a new diagnosis in the DSM-5 and (2) complex post-traumatic stress disorder, which has been included in the ICD-11. Our conclusion is that these frameworks capture the complexity of the symptoms associated with bullying victimization better than PTSD. We encourage practitioners to understand how exposure to bullying interacts with development at different ages when addressing the consequences for targets and when designing interventions that account for the duration, intensity, and sequelae of this type of interpersonal trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.480353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841334PMC
January 2021

Six- and Twelve-Month Follow-up Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of a CBT-Based Group Course.

Prev Sci 2021 May;22(4):409-418

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, P.O. Box 7053, Majorstuen, 0306, Oslo, Norway.

In the current study, we examined the durability of intervention gains over a 6- and 12-month follow-up period after the implementation of a CBT-based group intervention "Adolescent Coping with Depression Course" (ACDC) for adolescents with subclinical or mild-to-moderate depression. Data were collected from 228 youth, 133 of whom were allocated to the 14-week ACDC intervention and 95 to the usual care (UC) control condition. Analyses for the main outcome variable of depressive symptoms were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time on an intention-to-treat basis. Results revealed that the reduction in depressive symptoms achieved during the intervention phase continued across the follow-up period for both ACDC and UC (i.e., depressive symptoms showed a significantly decreasing trend in both groups in intervention and follow-up phases); however, no differential effects between conditions were found during the follow-up phase. The direct and indirect effects of the intervention on the other outcome variables' follow-up results were also presented. ISRCTN registry ISRCTN19700389. Registered 6 October 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN19700389 . Full Protocol: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0954-y.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01160-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Cognitive behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a group course.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 05 22;19(1):155. Epub 2019 May 22.

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, P.O. Box 7053, Majorstuen, 0306, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The group-based CBT intervention, the Adolescent Coping with Depression Course (ACDC), has previously been evaluated within a quasi-experimental design, showing reduction in depressive symptoms compared to a benchmark of similar studies. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of ACDC within a randomized controlled (RCT) design.

Method: Thirty-five course/control leaders randomly assigned to provide ACDC or usual care (UC) recruited 133 adolescents allocated to ACDC and 95 to UC. ACDC participants received eight weekly sessions and two follow-up sessions about 3 and 6 weeks after the last session. UC participants received usual care as implemented at the different sites. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for adolescents (CES-D), perfectionism with the revised version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and rumination with the revised version of the Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS). Attrition was considered missing at random (MAR) and handled with a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) procedure.

Results: Intention to treat analysis (ITT), including baseline scores and predictors of missing data as control or auxiliary variables, showed a small to medium reduction in depressive symptoms for the ACDC group compared to UC (d = -.31). Changes in perfectionism and rumination in favor of the intervention were also significant. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the findings from the ITT analyses.

Conclusions: The current study supports the effectiveness of this group-based CBT intervention. The intervention can hopefully result in clinically significant reductions in symptoms associated with depression among adolescents.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN19700389 . Registered 6 October 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2134-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6532239PMC
May 2019

Behavioral Trajectories During Middle Childhood: Differential Effects of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model.

Prev Sci 2018 11;19(8):1055-1065

University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

The aims of this study were to assess the longitudinal trajectories of externalizing problem behavior during middle childhood among typically developing children and to examine subgroup differences in the effectiveness of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) model, called N-PALS in Norway. Participants were approximately 3000 students, and behavioral assessments were performed by class head teachers at four time points from the 4th or 5th grade through the 7th grade. Using a combination of latent class growth analyses (LCGA) and growth mixture modeling (GMM), four distinct trajectory classes were identified, i.e., persistent low (84.4%), persistent high (2.5%), decreasing (7.9%), and increasing (5.3%). An indication of a significant positive effect of the N-PALS model was found for students with a persistently high-risk trajectory. The current study adds to the evidence that this school-wide prevention model can moderate the development of externalizing behavior problems among children and youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0938-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208577PMC
November 2018

A meta-analysis of group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions for adolescents with depression.

J Adolesc 2018 08 26;67:129-139. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Norway.

The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the short- and long-term effects of group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression and to examine the role of various moderators of the reported effect sizes. A comprehensive literature search of relevant randomized-controlled trials identified 23 studies containing 49 post-intervention and 56 follow-up comparisons. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated both for post-intervention and follow-up. A three-level random effects approach was used to model the dependent effect sizes. Group CBT was more efficacious than control conditions both at post-intervention (SMD = -0.28, 95% CI [-0.36, -0.19]) and at follow-up (SMD = -0.21, 95% CI [-0.30, -0.11]). Having an inactive control group was associated with a larger post-intervention effect size, while having a longer follow-up duration was associated with a smaller follow-up effect size. Even though the effect sizes are low, research suggests that group CBT is a significant treatment for adolescent depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.05.011DOI Listing
August 2018

Hot and Cool Self-Regulation, Academic Competence, and Maladjustment: Mediating and Differential Relations.

Child Dev 2019 11 22;90(6):2171-2188. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development.

This study examined differential and mediating relations between hot and cool self-regulation (M  = 48.2 months; N = 1,155, 48% girls), first-grade (M  = 77.5 months) maladjustment (externalizing [EXT] and internalizing [INT] behavior), and first- and second-grade (M  = 89.5 months) academic competence (AC). Using teacher reported EXT, INT, and AC, partial support for the differential perspective was found in that only hot self-regulation was significantly related to EXT, whereas both hot and cool self-regulation was significantly related to AC. Moreover, hot self-regulation indirectly predicted second-grade AC through first-grade EXT, lending some support for the mediating perspective also. The findings contribute to an understanding of how self-regulation is related to academic and behavioral school adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13104DOI Listing
November 2019

The longitudinal association between internalizing symptoms and academic achievement among immigrant and non-immigrant children in Norway.

Scand J Psychol 2018 Aug 31;59(4):392-406. Epub 2018 May 31.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Oslo, Norway.

The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relation between internalizing symptoms and academic achievement, as two processes of children and youth development, among children in Norway, and whether having an immigrant background moderated this association. Data collected from 4,458 students in Norway in four waves over three years were analyzed with multi-group latent growth curve modeling (LGM). Results showed that internalizing symptoms level remained unchanged over time both for immigrant and non-immigrant children, while levels of academic achievement increased only for children of immigrants with both parents born outside of Norway. Further analyses supported a reciprocal relation between internalizing symptoms and academic achievement and revealed that the initial level of academic achievement predicted the rate of change in internalizing symptoms over time, but not vice versa. Moreover, immigrant background did not moderate the associations in the model, however, children of immigrants with both parents born abroad initially had lower levels of academic achievement, but showed an increase in academic achievement, compared to their non-immigrant peers as well as to peers with one native-born parent after controlling for gender and their grade at the first observation. The implications for policy and practice were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12454DOI Listing
August 2018

The Longitudinal Relation between Daily Hassles and Depressive Symptoms among Unaccompanied Refugees in Norway.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2017 Oct;45(7):1413-1427

Department of Child Development and Mental Health, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403, Oslo, Norway.

The aim of the present longitudinal study is to understand the longitudinal relation between depressive symptoms and daily hassles (i.e., general and acculturation hassles) in a high-risk population of unaccompanied refugees. We investigated the validity of three stress-mental health models: the stress exposure model, the stress generation model, and the reciprocal model. Data were collected from 918 unaccompanied refugees in Norway in three waves. Of the initial sample, the majority (82.1%) were male (M  = 19.01 years, SD = 2.54 years). The data were analyzed with auto-regressive cross-lagged modeling and latent growth curve modeling. The results supported the stress exposure model for the relation between depressive symptoms and acculturation hassles, indicating that acculturation hassles predicted the subsequent levels of depressive symptoms rather than vice versa. On the other hand, the reciprocal model was supported for the relation between depressive symptoms and general hassles indicating a bidirectional, mutual relation. Unconditional latent growth models further showed that depression level remained unchanged over time, while levels of acculturation and general hassles decreased. The implications for clinical practice and immigration policy are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0251-8DOI Listing
October 2017

Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a group cognitive-behavioral course for depressed adolescents.

BMC Psychiatry 2016 07 18;16:246. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, P.O. Box 7053, Majorstuen, 0306, Oslo, Norway.

Background: School dropout is considered a serious problem in high schools in Norway. Despite studies which emphasize the importance of mental health as a unique risk factor for dropout, interventions have only taken this into account to a limited extent. Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health issues. Here we report the study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a group-CBT intervention, "Adolescent Coping with Depression Course" (ACDC) for depressed adolescents in upper secondary school.

Method: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which ACDC can reduce depressive symptoms, prevent dropout and improve academic and social functioning among adolescents in upper secondary school. This study investigates the effectiveness of ACDC through a cluster randomized trial, in which course leaders are randomized to experimental or control conditions where the control groups receive usual care.

Discussion: The intervention is expected to reduce depressive symptoms among adolescents. The study will further investigate whether the intervention can prevent dropout and improve academic and social functioning among adolescents in upper secondary school.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN19700389 . Registered 6 October 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0954-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4950611PMC
July 2016

Depression among unaccompanied minor refugees: the relative contribution of general and acculturation-specific daily hassles.

Ethn Health 2016 24;21(3):300-17. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

a Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Department of Child Development and Mental Health , Oslo , Norway.

Objectives: This study is designed to provide an empirical conceptualization of daily hassles among unaccompanied refugees, and whether they might affect mental health of young refugees after resettlement. First, we examined the underlying structure of daily hassles conceptualized as measuring general and acculturation-specific hassles. Second, we examined whether these two distinct categories of daily hassles significantly contribute to depression above and beyond the impact of premigration trauma.

Design: The study was based on self-report questionnaire data collected from 895 unaccompanied refugees who had been granted residence in Norway.

Results: Using structural equation modeling, the results confirmed the grouping of hassles in two general categories, which explained 43% of the variance in depression.

Conclusion: The findings underscore the importance of current life conditions for unaccompanied refugees' mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2015.1065310DOI Listing
December 2016

The role of social support in the acculturation and mental health of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers.

Scand J Psychol 2015 Apr 22;56(2):203-11. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

Department of Child Development and Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

There is a lack of knowledge about psychosocial resources that may sustain post-resettlement psychological adjustment among unaccompanied minor asylum-seekers. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of social support from family abroad and friends on acculturation, discrimination, and mental health among these vulnerable children and youth. Questionnaire data were collected from a population-based multi-ethnic sample involving 895 unaccompanied minors resettled in municipalities in all regions of the country. They met in groups in their local communities. The informants were on average 18.6 years, and had an average length of stay in Norway of 3.5 years. The findings showed that the participants suffered from high levels of ongoing war related intrusive symptoms and depression. Still, at the same time they engaged in adaptation processes that are normative to youth with immigrant backgrounds, in terms of constructing supportive networks and developing culture competence. In accordance with the main effect hypothesis, social support had direct effects on depression and indirect effects by increasing culture competence that may aid the young refugees in dealing with discrimination. However, there were no effects of social support on symptoms of PTSD. The findings give direction to areas of interventions, beyond dealing with the sequel of the traumas the unaccompanied minors have been exposed to, not only for clinicians, but also social workers and school personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12194DOI Listing
April 2015

Perceived support from healthcare professionals, shock anxiety and post-traumatic stress in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients.

J Clin Nurs 2014 Feb 17;23(3-4):450-60. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Department of Cardiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway; Department of Health Studies, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.

Aims And Objectives: To investigate (1) the extent to which shock anxiety and perceived support from healthcare professionals are related to post-traumatic stress disease (PTSD) symptoms and (2) the extent to which perceived support from healthcare professionals moderates the relationship between shock anxiety and PTSD symptoms in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. An additional aim was to describe the level of PTSD symptoms and perceptions of support from healthcare professionals.

Background: Studies examining PTSD symptoms among implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients are still sparse. In addition, little is known about how perceived support from healthcare professionals is related to PTSD symptoms.

Design: Cross-sectional survey design.

Methods: Recipients (n = 167) with implantable cardioverter defibrillator attending an outpatient device clinic completed questionnaires assessing shock anxiety, PTSD symptoms and perceived support from healthcare professionals.

Results: The results indicated that between ten and 15% of the recipients experienced moderate to severe symptoms of PTSD. Although a majority perceived constructive support from healthcare professionals, 12% perceived nonconstructive support. Regression analysis demonstrated that shock anxiety and perceived nonconstructive support from healthcare professionals had a statistically significant (p < 0·01) association with PTSD symptoms. Moreover, the results suggest that associations between shock anxiety and PTSD symptoms were significantly (p < 0·01) moderated by perceived nonconstructive support from healthcare professionals. Young age, short time since implantation and secondary prevention indication were also significantly associated with PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions: The results indicate that nonconstructive support from healthcare professionals can increase the tendency to develop PTSD symptoms, particularly in those who experience shock anxiety.

Relevance To Clinical Practice: Healthcare professionals should pay more attention to the way in which they communicate information to the recipients during follow-up visits. Clinically based strategies and interventions targeting shock anxiety and PTSD symptoms should be carried out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12200DOI Listing
February 2014

Bullying and PTSD symptoms.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2012 Aug;40(6):901-11

Centre for Behavioural Research, University of Stavanger, 4036, Stavanger, Norway.

PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that boys were 2.27 times more likely to be exposed to frequent bullying than girls. A latent variable second-order model demonstrated an association between frequency of bullying exposure and PTSD symptoms (beta = 0.49). This relationship was not moderated by gender. However, the average levels of PTSD symptoms as well as clinical range symptoms were higher for girls. For all bullied students, 27.6% of the boys and 40.5% of the girls had scores within the clinical range. A mimic model showed that youth who identify as being both a bully and a victim of bullying were more troubled than those who were victims only. Our findings support the idea that exposure to bullying is a potential risk factor for PTSD symptoms among students. Future research could investigate whether the same holds for PTSD through diagnostic procedures, but this will depend on whether or not bullying is decided to comply with the DSM-IV classification of trauma required for diagnosis. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for school interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9620-0DOI Listing
August 2012

School-based intervention programs for PTSD symptoms: a review and meta-analysis.

J Trauma Stress 2011 Apr 18;24(2):155-65. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Centre for Behavioural Research,University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.

This is a review and meta-analysis of school-based intervention programs targeted at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nineteen studies conducted in 9 different countries satisfied the inclusionary criteria. The studies dealt with various kinds of type I and type II trauma exposure. Sixteen studies used cognitive-behavioral therapy methods; the others used play/art, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and mind-body techniques. The overall effect size for the 19 studies was d = 0.68 (SD = 0.41), indicating a medium-large effect in relation to reducing symptoms of PTSD. The authors' findings suggest that intervention provided within the school setting can be effective in helping children and adolescents following traumatic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20622DOI Listing
April 2011

Antecedents and outcomes of intervention program participation and task priority change among school psychology counselors: a latent variable growth framework.

J Sch Psychol 2008 Feb 6;46(1):23-52. Epub 2007 Feb 6.

Center for Behavioral Research, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.

A three-year national intervention program introduced into the School Psychology Service (SPS) in Norway with the aim of increasing systemic level work among SP counselors was investigated. Latent variable growth models based on longitudinal data from 195 SP counselors gave no significant mean level change in systemic level work. This concurred with GLM analyses based on data from a sample of 20 schools. However, retrospective self-reported significant positive mean level change for systemic level work was detected among the SP counselors. Intervention program participation was associated with individual change in systemic level work. Self-efficacy beliefs about systemic level work, and school-related etiology beliefs predicted individual change to a certain degree. Comparison of two rival models gave no support for a hypothesized interaction among intervention program participation and beliefs in their effects on systemic level work. Open-ended questions indicated that individual level workload and the perceived expectations from the schools may have concern for a successful effect of the intervention program in addition to the hypothesized ones. Individual change in systemic level work was positively associated with individual change in job satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2007.01.001DOI Listing
February 2008

Social psychological processes in family and school: more evidence on their relative etiological significance for bullying behavior.

Aggress Behav 2008 Sep-Oct;34(5):460-74

Centre for Behavioural Research, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.

This study looked at students' perceptions of the three socialization processes of connection, regulation, and autonomy with their parents and teachers, and the relation of these issues to bullying peers. Self-reported data were collected from a representative sample of Norwegian eighth graders (N=2,083, 1,010 boys, and 1,073 girls). Findings partially confirm our hypotheses that we generated from earlier research into general antisocial behavior. For both genders, parent regulation and teacher regulation had a direct impact on bullying behavior. Parent connection and teacher connection also had an impact on bullying behavior, but these effects were indirect and were mediated by regulation and autonomy from parents and teachers. Some of the socialization processes had different impacts on bullying behavior for boys and girls. Parent autonomy and teacher autonomy had impact (although weak) on bullying behavior for boys only. In general, the variables related to the parents were of more importance for bullying behavior than the variables related to the teachers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20259DOI Listing
October 2008

Effects of a group-based counselling programme on diabetes-related stress, coping, psychological well-being and metabolic control in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Patient Educ Couns 2004 Jun;53(3):299-308

School of Health and Social Work Education, Stavanger University College, P.O. Box 8002, N-4068 Stavanger, Norway.

This study was designed to determine whether participation in a group-based counselling programme would result in reduced diabetes-related stress, improved coping and psychological well-being as well as achieving glycaemic control closer to an acceptable level. Effects of the programme were evaluated implementing an experimental design with a sample comprising 63 Norwegian adults with both types of diabetes aged between 25 and 70. At the 6-month follow-up, results indicate that the group-based counselling programme tested in the present study has the potential to reduce diabetes-related stress and self-blame as well as to improve coping in adults with diabetes. Moreover, results suggest that the programme can help participants to achieve more acceptable HbA1c levels as well. The present study indicates that this group-based counselling programme is feasible in the sense of suggesting that cognitive restructuring and problem-solving approaches in groups may be useful in helping people adjust to diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2003.10.008DOI Listing
June 2004