Publications by authors named "Thomas W Griffin"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Modeling the Relationship Between Exposure to Abiraterone and Prostate-Specific Antigen Dynamics in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2017 01;56(1):55-63

Janssen Research & Development, 920 Route 202, Raritan, NJ, 08869, USA.

Background And Objectives: Recent analysis revealed strong associations between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) dynamics and overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and supported PSA dynamics as bridging surrogacy endpoints for clinical benefit from treatment with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone. This analysis aimed to investigate the abiraterone exposure-PSA dynamics relationship in mCRPC.

Methods: Abiraterone pharmacokinetics-PSA models were constructed using data from the COU-AA-301 (chemotherapy-pretreated) and COU-AA-302 (chemotherapy-naïve) trials comparing abiraterone acetate 1000 mg/day plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily with prednisone alone in mCRPC. The drug effect-PSA dynamics relationship was modeled as a function of selected pharmacokinetic measures. The influences of baseline demographic variables, laboratory values, and disease status on PSA dynamics were assessed.

Results: A tumor growth inhibition model best described PSA dynamics post-treatment with abiraterone acetate. Abiraterone acetate treatment in chemotherapy-pretreated and chemotherapy-naïve patients increased the PSA decay rate (k ) to the same extent (1.28-fold, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.58-1.98; and 0.93-fold, 95 % CI 0.6-1.27, respectively). Lower baseline lactate dehydrogenase and higher baseline testosterone significantly increased k . Findings from our analysis suggest a maximum-effect relationship between abiraterone trough concentration and PSA dynamics in both patient populations. The majority of patients had a steady-state trough concentration greater than the estimated half maximal effective concentration.

Conclusion: The model appropriately described the exposure-response relationship between abiraterone and PSA dynamics in chemotherapy-pretreated and chemotherapy-naïve patients following oral administration of abiraterone acetate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-016-0425-0DOI Listing
January 2017

Prior Endocrine Therapy Impact on Abiraterone Acetate Clinical Efficacy in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Post-hoc Analysis of Randomised Phase 3 Studies.

Eur Urol 2016 05 24;69(5):924-32. Epub 2015 Oct 24.

Georges Pompidou Hospital, University René Descartes, Paris, France.

Background: The duration of prior hormonal treatment can predict responses to subsequent therapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Objective: To determine if prior endocrine therapy duration is an indicator of abiraterone acetate (AA) sensitivity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Post-hoc exploratory analysis of randomised phase 3 studies examining post-docetaxel (COU-AA-301) or chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC (COU-AA-302) patients receiving AA. The treatment effect on overall survival (OS), radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response analysed by quartile duration of prior gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) or androgen receptor (AR) antagonist.

Intervention: Patients were randomised to AA (1000mg, orally once daily) plus prednisone (5mg, orally twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone. Prior endocrine therapy was GnRHa (COU-AA-301, n=1127 [94%]; COU-AA-302, n=1057 [97%], 45.1 mo or 36.7 mo median duration, respectively) and/or orchiectomy (COU-AA-301, n=78 [7%] COU-AA-302, n=44 [4%]); castrated patients received prior AR antagonists (COU-AA-301, n=1015 [85%]; COU-AA-302, n=1078 [99%], 15.7 mo or 16.1 mo median duration, respectively).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Cox model was used to obtain hazard ratio and associated 95% confidence interval with statistical inference by log rank statistic.

Results And Limitations: Clinical benefit with AA was observed for OS, rPFS, and PSA response for nearly all quartiles with GnRHa or AR antagonists in both COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-302. In COU-AA-301, patients with a longer duration of prior endocrine therapy tended to have greater AA OS, rPFS, and PSA response benefit, with lead-time chemotherapy bias potentially impacting COU-AA-301 results. Time to castration resistance was not captured. This analysis is limited as a post-hoc exploratory analysis.

Conclusions: In the COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-302 studies, AA produced clinical benefits regardless of prior endocrine therapy duration in patients with mCRPC.

Patient Summary: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients derived clinical benefits with abiraterone acetate regardless of prior endocrine therapy duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465643PMC
May 2016

Efficacy and Safety of Abiraterone Acetate in Elderly (75 Years or Older) Chemotherapy Naïve Patients with Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2015 Nov 4;194(5):1277-84. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Purpose: Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer primarily affects elderly men. In this post hoc analysis we investigated the safety and efficacy of abiraterone acetate in elderly (age 75 years or greater) and younger (less than 75 years) patient subgroups at the prespecified interim analysis (55% of total overall survival events) for the COU-AA-302 (Abiraterone Acetate in Asymptomatic or Mildly Symptomatic Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer) trial.

Materials And Methods: Patients were stratified and randomized 1:1 to abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg plus prednisone/prednisolone 5 mg twice daily (abiraterone-prednisone) vs placebo plus prednisone/prednisolone 5 mg twice daily (prednisone alone). Co-primary end points were radiographic progression-free and overall survival. Median time to event and HR were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox model, respectively.

Results: A total of 350 elderly patients treated with abiraterone-prednisone had significant improvements in overall and radiographic progression-free survival vs those with prednisone alone (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96 vs HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.83), similar to 738 younger patients (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63-1.03 vs HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.59). All secondary end points favored the abiraterone-prednisone arm for both age subgroups. Specific adverse events with abiraterone-prednisone were similar between the age subgroups. Elderly patients in both treatment arms had higher rates of fluid retention and cardiac disorders than younger patients, although rates of dose reduction or treatment interruptions due to adverse events were low in both age subgroups.

Conclusions: Abiraterone acetate demonstrated clinical benefit and was well tolerated in elderly and younger men with chemotherapy naïve, metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Thus, findings support it as a treatment option for elderly patients who may not tolerate other therapies with greater toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129174PMC
November 2015

Food effects on abiraterone pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

J Clin Pharmacol 2015 Dec 23;55(12):1406-14. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Janssen Research & Development, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Food effect on abiraterone pharmacokinetics and safety on abiraterone acetate coadministration with low-fat or high-fat meals was examined in healthy subjects and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Healthy subjects (n = 36) were randomized to abiraterone acetate (single dose, 1000 mg) + low-fat meal, + high-fat meal, and fasted state. mCRPC patients received repeated doses (abiraterone acetate 1000 mg + 5 mg prednisone twice daily; days 1-7) in a modified fasting state followed by abiraterone acetate plus prednisone within 0.5 hours post-low-fat (n = 6) or high-fat meal (n = 18; days 8-14). In healthy subjects, geometric mean (GM) abiraterone area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased ∼5- and ∼10-fold, respectively, with low-fat and high-fat meals versus fasted state (GM [coefficient of variation], 1942 [48] and 4077 [37] ng · h/mL vs 421 [67] ng · h/mL, respectively). In mCRPC patients, abiraterone AUC was ∼2-fold higher with a high-fat meal and similar with a low-fat meal versus modified fasting state (GM [coefficient of variation]: 1992 [34] vs 973 [58] ng · h/mL and 1264 [65] vs 1185 [90] ng · h/mL, respectively). Adverse events (all grade ≤ 3) were similar, with high-fat/low-fat meals or fasted/modified fasting state. Short-term dosing with food did not alter abiraterone acetate safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.564DOI Listing
December 2015

Correlation between Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics and Overall Survival in Abiraterone Acetate-Treated Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 Jul 31;21(14):3170-7. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Janssen Research & Development, Raritan, New Jersey.

Purpose: We constructed a biomarker-survival modeling framework to explore the relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients following oral administration of 1,000 mg/day of abiraterone acetate (AA).

Experimental Design: The PSA-survival modeling framework was based on data from two phase III studies, COU-AA-301 (chemotherapy pretreated, n = 1,184) and COU-AA-302 (chemotherapy naïve, n = 1,081), and included a mixed-effects tumor growth inhibition model and a Cox proportional hazards survival model.

Results: The effect of AA on PSA kinetics was significant (P < 0.0001) and comparable between the chemotherapy-naïve and -pretreated patients. PSA kinetics [e.g., PSA nadir, PSA response rate (≥30%, 50%, and 90%), time to PSA progression, PSA doubling time (PSADT)] were highly associated with OS in both populations. The model-based posttreatment PSADT had the strongest association with OS (HR ∼0.9 in both populations). The models could accurately predict survival outcomes. After adjusting for PSA kinetic endpoints, the treatment effect of AA on survival was no longer statistically significant in both studies, and the Prentice criteria of surrogacy were met for the PSA kinetic endpoints. A strong correlation was also observed between PSA and radiographic progression-free survival.

Conclusions: The analysis revealed a consistent treatment effect of AA on PSA kinetics and strong associations between PSA kinetics and OS in chemotherapy-pretreated and -naïve patients, thereby providing a rationale to consider PSA kinetics as surrogacy endpoints to indicate clinical benefit in AA-treated patients with mCRPC regardless of chemotherapy treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1549DOI Listing
July 2015

Radiographic progression-free survival as a response biomarker in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: COU-AA-302 results.

J Clin Oncol 2015 Apr 26;33(12):1356-63. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Michael J. Morris, Steven M. Larson, and Howard I. Scher, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; Arturo Molina, Thian Kheoh, Shannon L. Matheny, Vahid Naini, and Thomas W. Griffin, Janssen Research & Development, Los Angeles; Eric J. Small and Charles J. Ryan, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Johann S. de Bono, Institute for Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, United Kingdom; Christopher J. Logothetis, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Karim Fizazi, Institut Gustave Roussy, University of Paris Sud, Villejuif, France; Paul de Souza, University of Western Sydney School of Medicine, Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia; Philip W. Kantoff, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Celestia S. Higano, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Jinhui Li, Janssen Research & Development, Raritan, NJ; and Tomasz Burzykowski, International Drug Development Institute, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Purpose: Progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) trials has been inconsistently defined and poorly associated with overall survival (OS). A reproducible quantitative definition of radiographic PFS (rPFS) was tested for association with a coprimary end point of OS in a randomized trial of abiraterone in patients with mCRPC.

Patients And Methods: rPFS was defined as ≥ two new lesions on an 8-week bone scan plus two additional lesions on a confirmatory scan, ≥ two new confirmed lesions on any scan ≥ 12 weeks after random assignment, and/or progression in nodes or viscera on cross-sectional imaging, or death. rPFS was assessed by independent review at 15% of deaths and by investigator review at 15% and 40% of deaths. rPFS and OS association was evaluated by Spearman's correlation.

Results: A total of 1,088 patients were randomly assigned to abiraterone plus prednisone or prednisone alone. At first interim analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) by independent review was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.52; P < .001; abiraterone plus prednisone: median rPFS, not estimable; prednisone: median rPFS, 8.3 months). Similar HRs were obtained by investigator review at the first two interim analyses (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.60; P < .001 and HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.62; P < .001, respectively), validating the imaging data assay used. Spearman's correlation coefficient between rPFS and OS was 0.72.

Conclusion: rPFS was highly consistent and highly associated with OS, providing initial prospective evidence on further developing rPFS as an intermediate end point in mCRPC trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.55.3875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4881370PMC
April 2015

Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (COU-AA-302): final overall survival analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study.

Lancet Oncol 2015 Feb 16;16(2):152-60. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival compared with placebo plus prednisone in men with chemotherapy-naive castration-resistant prostate cancer at the interim analyses of the COU-AA-302 trial. Here, we present the prespecified final analysis of the trial, assessing the effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on overall survival, time to opiate use, and use of other subsequent therapies.

Methods: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised phase 3 study, 1088 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with chemotherapy-naive prostate cancer stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology performance status (0 vs 1) were randomly assigned with a permuted block allocation scheme via a web response system in a 1:1 ratio to receive either abiraterone acetate (1000 mg once daily) plus prednisone (5 mg twice daily; abiraterone acetate group) or placebo plus prednisone (placebo group). Coprimary endpoints were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival analysed in the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00887198.

Findings: At a median follow-up of 49.2 months (IQR 47.0-51.8), 741 (96%) of the prespecified 773 death events for the final analysis had been observed: 354 (65%) of 546 patients in the abiraterone acetate group and 387 (71%) of 542 in the placebo group. 238 (44%) patients initially receiving prednisone alone subsequently received abiraterone acetate plus prednisone as crossover per protocol (93 patients) or as subsequent therapy (145 patients). Overall, 365 (67%) patients in the abiraterone acetate group and 435 (80%) in the placebo group received subsequent treatment with one or more approved agents. Median overall survival was significantly longer in the abiraterone acetate group than in the placebo group (34.7 months [95% CI 32.7-36.8] vs 30.3 months [28.7-33.3]; hazard ratio 0.81 [95% CI 0.70-0.93]; p=0.0033). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events of special interest were cardiac disorders (41 [8%] of 542 patients in the abiraterone acetate group vs 20 [4%] of 540 patients in the placebo group), increased alanine aminotransferase (32 [6%] vs four [<1%]), and hypertension (25 [5%] vs 17 [3%]).

Interpretation: In this randomised phase 3 trial with a median follow-up of more than 4 years, treatment with abiraterone acetate prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone by a margin that was both clinically and statistically significant. These results further support the favourable safety profile of abiraterone acetate in patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Funding: Janssen Research & Development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71205-7DOI Listing
February 2015

Improvements in Radiographic Progression-Free Survival Stratified by ERG Gene Status in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Abiraterone Acetate.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 Apr 15;21(7):1621-7. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Purpose: Gene fusions leading to androgen receptor-modulated ERG overexpression occur in up to 70% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC). We assessed the association between ERG rearrangement status and clinical benefit from abiraterone acetate.

Experimental Design: COU-AA-302 is a phase III trial comparing abiraterone acetate and prednisone versus prednisone in chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC. ERG status was evaluated by FISH on archival tumors. End points included radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), time to PSA progression (TTPP), rate of ≥50% PSA decline from baseline, and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to evaluate association with time-to-event measures and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel for PSA response.

Results: ERG status was defined for 348 of 1,088 intention-to-treat patients. ERG was rearranged in 121 of 348 patients with confirmed ERG status (35%). Cancers with an ERG fusion secondary to deletion of 21q22 and increased copy number of fusion sequences (class 2+ Edel) had a greater improvement in rPFS after abiraterone acetate and prednisone [22 vs. 5.4 months; HR (95% confidence interval, CI), 0.31 (0.15-0.68); P = 0.0033] than cancers with no ERG fusion [16.7 vs. 8.3 months; 0.53 (0.38-0.74); P = 0.0002] or other classes of ERG rearrangement. There was also greater benefit in this subgroup for TTPP.

Conclusions: Both ERG-rearranged and wild-type cancers had a significant improvement in rPFS with abiraterone acetate and prednisone in the COU-AA-302 trial. However, our data suggest that 2+ Edel cancers, accounting for 15% of all mCRPC patients and previously associated with a worse outcome, derived the greatest benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4384987PMC
April 2015

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of abiraterone in chemotherapy-naïve and docetaxel-treated patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2014 Dec;53(12):1149-60

Janssen Research & Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, Beerse, B-2340, Belgium,

Background And Objectives: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the pre- and post-chemotherapy setting as demonstrated by the pivotal phase III studies COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-302. We performed population pharmacokinetic analyses to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of 1,000 mg/day of abiraterone acetate in patients with mCRPC, with or without prior chemotherapy, and after a single 1,000 mg dose in healthy volunteers. The study objectives were to determine consistency between patient populations and to characterize factors that may influence abiraterone pharmacokinetics.

Methods: Studies in this analysis included COU-AA-302 (chemotherapy naïve); COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-006 (chemotherapy pretreated); and COU-AA-008, COU-AA-009, and COU-AA-014 (healthy subjects). A total of 4,627 plasma concentrations from 359 subjects (62 healthy volunteers, 297 patients) were analyzed using non-linear mixed-effects modeling.

Results: An Erlang-type absorption model with first-order elimination and three-transit compartments following sequential zero- and first-order processes was used to characterize abiraterone pharmacokinetics. Absorption-related parameters were affected by food intake. Abiraterone pharmacokinetics were characterized by an extensive apparent clearance, which was lower in patients with mCRPC (1,550 L/h) versus healthy subjects (2,240 L/h), and by large apparent central (5,620 L) and peripheral (17,400 L) volumes of distribution. Abiraterone pharmacokinetics were similar in chemotherapy-pretreated and -naïve patients and were characterized by a high between- and within-subject variability [e.g., between-subject coefficient of variation (CV%) for relative bioavailability for the modified fasting state was 61.1% and the CV% for within-subject variability was 71.3%]. The fat content of food taken with abiraterone acetate affected the bioavailability of abiraterone. No factors beyond food intake and health status (healthy vs. mCRPC) impacted abiraterone pharmacokinetics.

Conclusions: Based on the pharmacokinetics model, the recommended 1,000 mg/day of abiraterone acetate resulted in similar abiraterone exposure for patients with mCRPC regardless of prior chemotherapy. The fat content of food affected relative bioavailability of abiraterone, though the extent of this effect is dependent on health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-014-0178-6DOI Listing
December 2014

Response to subsequent docetaxel in a patient cohort with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after abiraterone acetate treatment.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2014 Oct 28;12(5):e167-72. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Introduction/background: Docetaxel or AA are therapeutic options for mCRPC. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes with subsequent docetaxel in patients with mCRPC after disease progression (DP) with AA to evaluate cross resistance between these therapies.

Patients And Methods: Patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC who were treated with AA in previously reported phase I to III trials, who had DP, and were subsequently treated (not on study) with docetaxel, were included. Acquired AA resistance was defined as: PSA decline > 50% from baseline or radiographically stable disease for ≥ 8 months, with subsequent DP. All other patients were defined as having primary AA resistance. Efficacy outcomes after docetaxel therapy were analyzed.

Results: We identified 23 patients who were treated with docetaxel after DP with AA, including 14 (61%) with acquired and 9 (39%) with primary AA resistance. Median duration between discontinuation of AA and docetaxel initiation was 2.7 months (range, 0.2-14.7 months). Subsequent docetaxel therapy led to ≥ 30% PSA decline in 15 patients (65%) and ≥ 50% PSA decline in 11 patients (48%). Median OS from date of first docetaxel dose was 12.4 months (95% confidence interval, 8.2-19.6). Patients with previous primary versus acquired AA resistance had similar outcomes with subsequent docetaxel therapy.

Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, the type of AA resistance did not appear to affect outcomes with subsequent docetaxel. The PSA response rates observed suggest a lack of cross-resistance between docetaxel and AA, but prospective studies are needed to evaluate for potential cross-resistance and optimize sequences of therapy in patients with mCRPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2014.03.010DOI Listing
October 2014

Updated interim efficacy analysis and long-term safety of abiraterone acetate in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients without prior chemotherapy (COU-AA-302).

Eur Urol 2014 Nov 6;66(5):815-25. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

CRCHUM, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Abiraterone acetate (an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor) plus prednisone is approved for treating patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Study COU-AA-302 evaluated abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with progressive mCRPC without prior chemotherapy.

Objective: Report the prespecified third interim analysis (IA) of efficacy and safety outcomes in study COU-AA-302.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Study COU-AA-302, a double-blind placebo-controlled study, enrolled patients with mCRPC from April 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1088 patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1).

Intervention: Patients were randomised 1:1 to abiraterone 1000mg plus prednisone 5mg twice daily by mouth versus prednisone.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Co-primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS). Median times to event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using the Cox model, and treatment comparison used the log-rank test. The O'Brien-Fleming Lan-DeMets α-spending function was used for OS. Adverse events were summarised descriptively.

Results And Limitations: With a median follow-up duration of 27.1 mo, improvement in rPFS was statistically significant with abiraterone treatment versus prednisone (median: 16.5 vs 8.2 mo; HR: 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45-0.61]; p<0.0001). Abiraterone improved OS (median: 35.3 vs 30.1 mo; HR: 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.95]; p=0.0151) but did not reach the prespecified statistical efficacy boundary (α-level: 0.0035). A post hoc multivariate analysis for OS using known prognostic factors supported the primary results (HR: 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.89]; p=0.0017), and all clinically relevant secondary end points and patient-reported outcomes improved. While the post hoc nature of the long-term safety analysis is a limitation, the safety profile with longer treatment exposure was consistent with prior reports.

Conclusions: The updated IA of study COU-AA-302 in patients with mCRPC without prior chemotherapy confirms that abiraterone delays disease progression, pain, and functional deterioration and has clinical benefit with a favourable safety profile, including in patients treated for ≥24 mo.

Trial Registration: Study COU-AA-302, ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00887198.

Patient Summary: The updated results of this ongoing study showed that disease progression was delayed in patients with advanced prostate cancer who were treated with abiraterone acetate and prednisone, and there was a continued trend in prolongation of life compared with patients treated with prednisone alone. Treatment with abiraterone acetate and prednisone was well tolerated by patients who were treated for >2 yr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.02.056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418928PMC
November 2014