Publications by authors named "Thomas U Ahearn"

37 Publications

Circulating tumor DNA is readily detectable among Ghanaian breast cancer patients supporting non-invasive cancer genomic studies in Africa.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Sep 17;5(1):83. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) sequencing studies could provide novel insights into the molecular pathology of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. In 15 patient plasma samples collected at the time of diagnosis as part of the Ghana Breast Health Study and unselected for tumor grade and subtype, ctDNA was detected in a majority of patients based on whole- genome sequencing at high (30×) and low (0.1×) depths. Breast cancer driver copy number alterations were observed in the majority of patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00219-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448727PMC
September 2021

Discovery of structural deletions in breast cancer predisposition genes using whole genome sequencing data from > 2000 women of African-ancestry.

Hum Genet 2021 Oct 27;140(10):1449-1457. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, TN, 37203-1738, Nashville, USA.

Single germline nucleotide pathogenic variants have been identified in 12 breast cancer predisposition genes, but structural deletions in these genes remain poorly characterized. We conducted in-depth whole genome sequencing (WGS) in genomic DNA samples obtained from 1340 invasive breast cancer cases and 675 controls of African ancestry. We identified 25 deletions in the intragenic regions of ten established breast cancer predisposition genes based on a consensus call from six state-of-the-art SV callers. Overall, no significant case-control difference was found in the frequency of these deletions. However, 1.0% of cases and 0.3% of controls carried any of the eight putative protein-truncating rare deletions located in BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, TP53, NF1, RAD51D, RAD51C and CHEK2, resulting in an odds ratio (OR) of 3.29 (95% CI 0.74-30.16). We also identified a low-frequency deletion in NF1 associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.42). In addition, we detected 56 deletions, including six putative protein-truncating deletions, in suspected breast predisposition genes. This is the first large study to systematically search for structural deletions in breast cancer predisposition genes. Many of the deletions, particularly those resulting in protein truncations, are likely to be pathogenic. Results from this study, if confirmed in future large-scale studies, could have significant implications for genetic testing for this common cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-021-02342-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of germline genetic variants with breast cancer-specific survival in patient subgroups defined by clinic-pathological variables related to tumor biology and type of systemic treatment.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 08 18;23(1):86. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients.

Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15).

Results: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy.

Conclusions: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01450-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371820PMC
August 2021

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611832PMC
August 2021

Mendelian randomisation study of smoking exposure in relation to breast cancer risk.

Br J Cancer 2021 Oct 2;125(8):1135-1145. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk.

Methods: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy.

Results: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect.

Conclusion: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01432-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505411PMC
October 2021

Cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis identifies six breast cancer loci in African and European ancestry women.

Nat Commun 2021 07 7;12(1):4198. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Our study describes breast cancer risk loci using a cross-ancestry GWAS approach. We first identify variants that are associated with breast cancer at P < 0.05 from African ancestry GWAS meta-analysis (9241 cases and 10193 controls), then meta-analyze with European ancestry GWAS data (122977 cases and 105974 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The approach identifies four loci for overall breast cancer risk [1p13.3, 5q31.1, 15q24 (two independent signals), and 15q26.3] and two loci for estrogen receptor-negative disease (1q41 and 7q11.23) at genome-wide significance. Four of the index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lie within introns of genes (KCNK2, C5orf56, SCAMP2, and SIN3A) and the other index SNPs are located close to GSTM4, AMPD2, CASTOR2, and RP11-168G16.2. Here we present risk loci with consistent direction of associations in African and European descendants. The study suggests that replication across multiple ancestry populations can help improve the understanding of breast cancer genetics and identify causal variants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24327-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263739PMC
July 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 07 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322933PMC
July 2021

Tumor-Associated Stromal Cellular Density as a Predictor of Recurrence and Mortality in Breast Cancer: Results from Ethnically Diverse Study Populations.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 07 5;30(7):1397-1407. Epub 2021 May 5.

Integrative Tumor Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Purpose: Tumor-associated stroma is comprised of fibroblasts, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), macrophages, endothelial cells, and other cells that interactively influence tumor progression through inflammation and wound repair. Although gene-expression signatures reflecting wound repair predict breast cancer survival, it is unclear whether combined density of tumor-associated stromal cells, a morphologic proxy for inflammation and wound repair signatures on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections, is of prognostic relevance.

Methods: By applying machine learning to digitized H&E-stained sections for 2,084 breast cancer patients from China ( = 596; 24-55 years), Poland ( = 810; 31-75 years), and the United States ( = 678; 55-78 years), we characterized tumor-associated stromal cellular density (SCD) as the percentage of tumor-stroma that is occupied by nucleated cells. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between SCD and clinical outcomes [recurrence (China) and mortality (Poland and the United States)] were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for clinical variables.

Results: SCD was independently predictive of poor clinical outcomes in hormone receptor-positive (luminal) tumors from China [multivariable HR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.06-3.26); = 0.03], Poland [HR (95% CI) = 1.80 (1.12-2.89); = 0.01], and the United States [HR (95% CI) = 2.42 (1.33-4.42); = 0.002]. In general, SCD provided more prognostic information than most classic clinicopathologic factors, including grade, size, PR, HER2, IHC4, and TILs, predicting clinical outcomes irrespective of menopausal or lymph nodal status. SCD was not predictive of outcomes in hormone receptor-negative tumors.

Conclusions: Our findings support the independent prognostic value of tumor-associated SCD among ethnically diverse luminal breast cancer patients.

Impact: Assessment of tumor-associated SCD on standard H&E could help refine prognostic assessment and therapeutic decision making in luminal breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254774PMC
July 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Survival by Tumor Subtype: Pooled Analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 04 26;30(4):623-642. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype ( > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026532PMC
April 2021

CYP3A7*1C allele: linking premenopausal oestrone and progesterone levels with risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.

Br J Cancer 2021 02 26;124(4):842-854. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry.

Results: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10).

Conclusions: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01185-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884683PMC
February 2021

Germline HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C do not confer an increased breast cancer risk.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9688. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65665-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297796PMC
June 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

A mixed-model approach for powerful testing of genetic associations with cancer risk incorporating tumor characteristics.

Biostatistics 2021 Oct;22(4):772-788

Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg SPH, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine SPH, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA and Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg SPH, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Cancers are routinely classified into subtypes according to various features, including histopathological characteristics and molecular markers. Previous genome-wide association studies have reported heterogeneous associations between loci and cancer subtypes. However, it is not evident what is the optimal modeling strategy for handling correlated tumor features, missing data, and increased degrees-of-freedom in the underlying tests of associations. We propose to test for genetic associations using a mixed-effect two-stage polytomous model score test (MTOP). In the first stage, a standard polytomous model is used to specify all possible subtypes defined by the cross-classification of the tumor characteristics. In the second stage, the subtype-specific case-control odds ratios are specified using a more parsimonious model based on the case-control odds ratio for a baseline subtype, and the case-case parameters associated with tumor markers. Further, to reduce the degrees-of-freedom, we specify case-case parameters for additional exploratory markers using a random-effect model. We use the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to account for missing data on tumor markers. Through simulations across a range of realistic scenarios and data from the Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS), we show MTOP outperforms alternative methods for identifying heterogeneous associations between risk loci and tumor subtypes. The proposed methods have been implemented in a user-friendly and high-speed R statistical package called TOP (https://github.com/andrewhaoyu/TOP).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biostatistics/kxz065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511944PMC
October 2021

Statin Use Is Associated with Lower Risk of PTEN-Null and Lethal Prostate Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 03 21;26(5):1086-1093. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: Statins are associated with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, but lethal prostate cancer is understudied and contributing mechanisms are unclear. We prospectively examined statins and lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), tested associations with molecular subtypes, and integrated gene expression profiling to identify putative mechanisms.

Experimental Design: Our study included 44,126 men cancer-free in 1990, followed for prostate cancer incidence through 2014, with statin use recorded on biennial questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox regression to examine associations between statins and prostate cancer risk overall, by measures of clinically significant disease, and by ERG and PTEN status. In an exploratory analysis, age-adjusted gene set enrichment analysis identified statin-associated pathways enriched in tumor and adjacent normal prostate tissue.

Results: During 24 years of follow-up, 6,305 prostate cancers were diagnosed and 801 (13%) were lethal (metastatic at diagnosis or metastatic/fatal during follow-up). Relative to never/past use, current statin use was inversely associated with risk of lethal prostate cancer [HR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.96] but not overall disease. We found a strong inverse association for risk of PTEN-null cancers (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.87) but not PTEN-intact cancers (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.48; heterogeneity = 0.01). Associations did not differ by ERG. Inflammation and immune pathways were enriched in normal prostate tissue of statin ever ( = 10) versus never users ( = 103).

Conclusions: Molecular tumor classification identified PTEN and inflammation/immune activation as potential mechanisms linking statins with lower lethal prostate cancer risk. These findings support a potential causal association and could inform selection of relevant biomarkers for statin clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-2853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056554PMC
March 2020

Family history of prostate cancer and the incidence of ERG- and phosphatase and tensin homolog-defined prostate cancer.

Int J Cancer 2020 05 27;146(10):2694-2702. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Family history is among the strongest known risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa). Emerging data suggest molecular subtypes of PCa, including two somatic genetic aberrations: fusions of androgen-regulated promoters with ERG and, separately, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss. We examined associations between family history and incidence of these subtypes in 44,126 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. ERG and PTEN status were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multivariable competing risks models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between self-reported family history of PCa and molecular subtypes of disease. Thirteen percent of men had a positive family history of PCa at baseline. During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 5,511 PCa cases were diagnosed. Among them, 888 were assayed for ERG status (47% ERG-positive) and 715 were assayed for PTEN loss (14% PTEN null). Family history was more strongly associated with risk of ERG-negative (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.71-2.70) than ERG-positive (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95) disease (p : 0.04). The strongest difference was among men with an affected father (HR : 2.09; 95% CI: 1.64-2.66; HR : 1.30; 95% CI: 0.96-1.76; p : 0.01). Family history of PCa was positively associated with both PTEN null (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.26-3.49) and PTEN intact (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.39-2.13) PCa (p : 0.47). Our results indicate that PCa family history may be positively associated with PCa in all ERG and PTEN subtypes, suggesting a role of genetic susceptibility in their development. It is possible that ERG-negative disease could be especially associated with positive family history.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905843PMC
May 2020

Detectible mosaic truncating PPM1D mutations, age and breast cancer risk.

J Hum Genet 2019 Jun 8;64(6):545-550. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Mosaic protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+dependent 1D (PPM1D) gene in blood-derived DNA have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We analyzed PPM1D PTVs in blood from 3817 breast cancer cases and 3058 controls by deep sequencing of a previously defined region in exon 6 of PPM1D. We identified 50 of 6875 (0.73%) participants having a mosaic PPM1D PTV. We observed a higher frequency of mosaic PPM1D PTVs with increasing age (P = 2.9 × 10). We did not observe an overall association between PPM1D PTVs and increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.84-2.71). Evidence for an association was observed in a subset of cases with DNA collected 1-year or more before breast cancer diagnosis (OR = 3.44, 95% CI = 1.62-7.30, P-value = 0.001); however, no significant association was observed for the larger series of cases with DNA collected post diagnosis (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.51-2.01, P-value = 0.98). Our study indicates that the PPM1D PTVs are present at higher rates than previously reported and the frequency of PPM1D PTVs increases with age. We observed limited evidence for an association between mosaic PPM1D PTVs and breast cancer risk, suggesting mosaic PPM1D PTVs in the blood likely do not influence risk of breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0589-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211387PMC
June 2019

Molecular mechanisms linking high body mass index to breast cancer etiology in post-menopausal breast tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019 Feb 1;173(3):667-677. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Dana 517B, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose: In post-menopausal women, high body mass index (BMI) is an established breast cancer risk factor and is associated with worse breast cancer prognosis. We assessed the associations between BMI and gene expression of both breast tumor and adjacent tissue in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) diseases to help elucidate the mechanisms linking obesity with breast cancer biology in 519 post-menopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII.

Methods: Differential gene expression was analyzed separately in ER+ and ER- disease both comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 to < 30) or obese (BMI ≥ 30) women to women with normal BMI (BMI < 25), and per 5 kg/m increase in BMI. Analyses controlled for age and year of diagnosis, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and hormone therapy use. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed and validated among a subset of post-menopausal cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (for tumor) and Polish Breast Cancer Study (for tumor-adjacent).

Results: No gene was differentially expressed by BMI (FDR < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with increased cellular proliferation pathways, particularly in ER+ tumors, and increased inflammation pathways in ER- tumor and ER- tumor-adjacent tissues (FDR < 0.05). High BMI was associated with upregulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ER+ tumor-adjacent tissues.

Conclusions: This study provides insights into molecular mechanisms of BMI influencing post-menopausal breast cancer biology. Tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues provide independent information about potential mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-018-5034-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391202PMC
February 2019

A Prospective Study of the Association between Physical Activity and Risk of Prostate Cancer Defined by Clinical Features and TMPRSS2:ERG.

Eur Urol 2019 07 6;76(1):33-40. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Growing evidence shows that clinical and molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa) have specific risk factors. Observational studies suggest that physical activity may lower the risk of aggressive PCa. To our knowledge, the association between physical activity and PCa defined by TMPRSS2:ERG has not been evaluated.

Objective: To prospectively examine the association between physical activity and risk of PCa defined by clinical features and TMPRSS2:ERG.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We studied 49160 men aged 40-75 yr in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2012. Data was collected at baseline and every 2 yr with >90% follow-up. Total and vigorous physical activity were measured in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/wk.

Outcome Measures And Statistical Analysis: Advanced PCa was defined as stage T3b, T4, N1, or M1 at diagnosis and lethal PCa as distant metastases or death due to disease over follow-up. Presence of TMPRSS2:ERG was estimated by immunohistochemistry of ERG protein expression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of subtype-specific PCa.

Results And Limitations: During 26 yr of follow-up, 6411 developed PCa overall and 888 developed lethal disease. There were no significant associations between total physical activity and risk of PCa in the overall cohort. In multivariable-adjusted models, men in the highest quintile of vigorous activity had a significant 30% lower risk of advanced PCa (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92) and 25% lower risk of lethal PCa (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94) than men in the lowest quintile of vigorous activity. The association was independent of screening history. Vigorous activity was not associated with total PCa in the overall cohort but was inversely associated among highly screened men (top vs bottom quintile, HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97). Of all cases, 945 were assayed for ERG (48% ERG-positive). Men with higher vigorous activity had a lower risk of ERG-positive PCa (top vs bottom quintile, HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52-0.97). There was no significant association with the risk of ERG-negative disease (p heterogeneity=0.09).

Conclusions: Our study confirms that vigorous physical activity is associated with lower risk of advanced and lethal PCa and provides novel evidence for a lower risk of TMPRSS2:ERG-positive disease.

Patient Summary: The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors for prevention of clinically important prostate cancer (PCa) is needed. In this report, we compared risk of PCa in men with different levels of physical activity. Men with higher vigorous activity had a lower risk of developing advanced and lethal PCa and PCa with the common TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.09.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451672PMC
July 2019

Expression of IGF/insulin receptor in prostate cancer tissue and progression to lethal disease.

Carcinogenesis 2018 12;39(12):1431-1437

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is consistently associated with prostate cancer risk. IGF-1 binds to IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) and insulin receptor (IR), activating cancer hallmark pathways. Experimental evidence suggests that TMPRSS2:ERG may interact with IGF/insulin signaling to influence progression. We investigated IGF1R and IR expression and its association with lethal prostate cancer among 769 men. Protein expression of IGF1R, IR and ERG (i.e. a surrogate of ERG fusion genes) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for clinical characteristics. Among patients, 29% had strong tumor IGF1R expression and 10% had strong IR expression. During a mean follow-up of 13.2 years through 2012, 80 men (11%) developed lethal disease. Tumors with strong IGF1R or IR expression showed increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis and a higher prevalence of ERG. In multivariable models, strong IGF1R was associated with a borderline increased risk of lethal prostate cancer (HR 1.7; 95% CI 0.9-3.1). The association appeared greater in ERG-positive tumors (HR 2.8; 95% CI 0.9-8.4) than in ERG-negative tumors (HR 1.3; 95% CI 0.6-3.0, p-heterogeneity 0.08). There was no association between IR and lethal prostate cancer (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.9). These results suggest that tumor IGF1R expression may play a role in prostate cancer progression to a lethal phenotype and that ERG-positive tumors may be more sensitive to IGF signaling. These data may improve our understanding of IGF signaling in prostate cancer and suggest therapeutic options for disease subtypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgy112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314328PMC
December 2018

A Prospective Study of Aspirin Use and Prostate Cancer Risk by Status.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2018 10 14;27(10):1231-1233. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Program, Bethesda, Maryland.

In a case-control study, aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of a common prostate cancer molecular subtype, the gene fusion. We sought to validate this finding in a prospective cohort. In the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 49,395 men reported on aspirin use on biennial questionnaires and were followed for prostate cancer incidence over 23 years. status was assessed by IHC for presence of ERG on archival tumor specimens for 912 patients with prostate cancer, of whom 48% were ERG-positive. In multivariable models, we found no association between regular use of aspirin and risk of -positive prostate cancer (HR, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.23), nor any association with duration or frequency of aspirin use. In restricting to cases with either high Gleason grade or advanced stage disease, there remained no association with aspirin use. Data from this prospective study with repeated assessments of aspirin use do not support the hypothesis that aspirin use is associated with a lower risk of -positive prostate cancer. Aspirin use is unlikely to lower the risk of this common molecular subtype of prostate cancer. However, there is emerging data supporting the role of other lifestyle and genetic factors underlying the development of the fusion. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170677PMC
October 2018

Height, Obesity, and the Risk of -Defined Prostate Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2018 02 22;27(2):193-200. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

The largest molecular subtype of primary prostate cancer is defined by the gene fusion. Few studies, however, have investigated etiologic differences by status. Because the fusion is hormone-regulated and a man's hormonal milieu varies by height and obesity status, we hypothesized that both may be differentially associated with risk of -defined disease. Our study included 49,372 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants reported height and weight at baseline in 1986 and updated weight biennially thereafter through 2009. Tumor ERG protein expression (a marker) was immunohistochemically assessed. We used multivariable competing risks models to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of ERG-positive and ERG-negative prostate cancer. During 23 years of follow-up, we identified 5,847 incident prostate cancers, among which 913 were ERG-assayed. Taller height was associated with an increased risk of ERG-positive disease only [per 5 inches HR 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.50; = 0.07]. Higher body mass index (BMI) at baseline (per 5 kg/m HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91; = 0.02) and updated BMI over time (per 5 kg/m HR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.00; = 0.07) were associated with a reduced risk of ERG-positive disease only. Our results indicate that anthropometrics may be uniquely associated with -positive prostate cancer; taller height may be associated with greater risk, whereas obesity may be associated with lower risk. Our study provides strong rationale for further investigations of other prostate cancer risk factors that may be distinctly associated with subtypes. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809280PMC
February 2018

Weight change, obesity and risk of prostate cancer progression among men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

Int J Cancer 2017 09 8;141(5):933-944. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI < 25. Weight change and obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5518616PMC
September 2017

Circulating Antioxidant Levels and Risk of Prostate Cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG.

Prostate 2017 May 19;77(6):647-653. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Few studies have considered etiological differences across molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, despite potential to improve opportunities for precision prevention of a disease for which modifiable risk factors have remained elusive. Factors that lead to DNA double-strand breaks, such as oxidative stress, may promote the formation of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer. We tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of pre-diagnostic circulating antioxidants, which may reduce oxidative stress, are associated with lower risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG positive prostate cancer.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study, including 370 cases and 2,470 controls, to evaluate associations between pre-diagnostic α- and β-carotene, α- and γ-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, retinol, and selenium with the risk of prostate cancer by ERG protein expression status (a marker of TMPRSS2:ERG). Multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

Results: We did not find any of the antioxidants to be significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer according to ERG status.

Conclusions: The results do not support the hypothesis that circulating pre-diagnostic antioxidant levels protect against developing TMPRSS2:ERG positive prostate cancer. Additional studies are needed to explore mechanisms for the development of TMPRSS2:ERG positive disease. Prostate 77: 647-653, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354965PMC
May 2017

Calcium-Sensing Receptor Tumor Expression and Lethal Prostate Cancer Progression.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 06 26;101(6):2520-7. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

Departments of Epidemiology (T.U.A., K.M.W., E.N., H.D.S., E.G., L.A.M., I.M.S.) and Department of Nutrition (E.G.), Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Medical Oncology (R.L., M.L.), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Divisions of Preventive Medicine (H.D.S.), and Channing Division of Network Medicine (K.M.W., E.G., L.A.M.), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; Department of Histopathology Research (N.T., S.F.), Trinity College, Dublin 8, Ireland; and Public Health Sciences Division (I.M.S.), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109.

Context: Prostate cancer metastases preferentially target bone, and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) may play a role in promoting this metastatic progression.

Objective: We evaluated the association of prostate tumor CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer.

Design: A validated CaSR immunohistochemistry assay was performed on tumor tissue microarrays. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor status were previously assessed in a subset of cases by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and pathological tumor node metastasis stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer.

Setting: The investigation was conducted in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study.

Participants: We studied 1241 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009.

Main Outcome: Participants were followed up or cancer-specific mortality or development of metastatic disease.

Results: On average, men were followed up 13.6 years, during which there were 83 lethal events. High CaSR expression was associated with lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical and pathological variables (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Additionally, there was evidence of effect modification by VDR expression; CaSR was associated with lethal progression among men with low tumor VDR expression (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.3) but not in cases with high tumor VDR expression (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.0).

Conclusions: Tumor CaSR expression is associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer, particularly in tumors with low VDR expression. These results support further investigating the mechanism linking CaSR with metastases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-1082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891799PMC
June 2016

Pre-diagnostic circulating sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer by ERG tumour protein expression.

Br J Cancer 2016 Apr 17;114(8):939-44. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Background: Experimental studies have shown androgen receptor stimulation to facilitate formation of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cell lines. No study has tested whether higher pre-diagnostic circulating sex hormone levels in men increase risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer specifically.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 200 prostate cancer cases and 1057 controls from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined associations between pre-diagnostic circulating levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, DHT, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and SHBG and risk of prostate cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG status. TMPRSS2:ERG was estimated by ERG immunohistochemistry. We used multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of ERG-positive (n=94) and, separately, ERG-negative (n=106) disease.

Results: Free testosterone was significantly associated with the risk of ERG-positive prostate cancer (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-1.77), but not ERG-negative prostate cancer (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.86-1.38) (Pdiff=0.17). None of the remaining hormones evaluated showed clear differential associations with ERG-positive vs ERG-negative disease.

Conclusions: These findings provide some suggestive evidence that higher pre-diagnostic free testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2016.61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4984801PMC
April 2016

Dietary lycopene intake and risk of prostate cancer defined by ERG protein expression.

Am J Clin Nutr 2016 Mar 27;103(3):851-60. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Departments of Epidemiology, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;

Background: There is limited evidence that supports etiologically distinct molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, the identification of which may improve prevention. Given their antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that lycopene and tomato sauce may be especially protective against diseases harboring the common gene fusion transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG).

Objective: We aimed to examine associations between estimated lycopene and tomato sauce intake and the risk of prostate cancer defined by ERG protein expression subtype.

Design: Our study population consisted of a prospective cohort of 46,719 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. TMPRSS2:ERG was assessed by ERG immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue microarrays constructed from radical prostatectomy specimens. We used multivariable competing risk models to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for the risk of ERG-positive and, separately, ERG-negative disease. We implemented inverse probability weighting to account for evaluating ERG status only in surgically treated cases.

Results: During 23 y of follow-up, 5543 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, among whom 884 were assayed for ERG (426 ERG-positive). With inclusion of only the latter cases, increasing cumulative average tomato sauce intake was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer overall (≥2 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/mo; multivariable HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.95; P-trend = 0.002). With respect to molecular subtypes, cumulative average tomato sauce intake was associated with a decreased risk of ERG-positive disease (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.81; P-trend = 0.004) but not with ERG-negative disease (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.50; P-trend = 0.10) (P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Increasing quintiles of lycopene intake were associated with a decreased risk of both subtypes (P-heterogeneity = 0.79). Inverse probability weighting did not materially change the results.

Conclusions: Our results lend some support to the hypothesis that prostate cancers that harbor TMPRSS2:ERG may be etiologically distinct from fusion-negative cancers. In particular, tomato sauce consumption may play a role in reducing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.118703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763492PMC
March 2016

Overexpression of the Long Non-coding RNA SChLAP1 Independently Predicts Lethal Prostate Cancer.

Eur Urol 2016 10 24;70(4):549-552. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

The long noncoding RNA SChLAP1 is overexpressed in a subset of prostate cancers (PCa), and high SChLAP1 expression by in situ hybridization (ISH) independently predicts biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Importantly, although biochemical recurrence is a significant clinical outcome, it is not a validated surrogate for PCa-related mortality. Thus, we evaluated the association between SChLAP1 expression and development of lethal PCa in a large cohort of American men with PCa and long-term follow-up. SChLAP1 ISH was performed on tissue microarrays containing representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PCa tissue from all patients and scored using a semiquantitative method (ISH score range 0-400). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between SChLAP1 expression and time to development of lethal PCa were estimated using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Of the 937 patients evaluated, 89 (9.5%) had high SChLAP1 expression (ISH score ≥100), which in patients treated with radical prostatectomy was strongly associated with development of lethal PCa independent of age, Gleason score, pathologic stage, and PTEN status (HR 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.1). These results suggest that SChLAP1 may be a useful tissue-based biomarker for identifying PCa patients at higher risk of lethal progression.

Patient Summary: We examined expression of the RNA molecule SChLAP1 in a large group of prostate cancer patients with long-term follow-up and found that patients with high SChLAP1 expression had a significantly higher chance of developing lethal disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4919276PMC
October 2016

A Prospective Investigation of PTEN Loss and ERG Expression in Lethal Prostate Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2016 Feb 27;108(2). Epub 2015 Nov 27.

Department of Epidemiology (TUA, AP, EME, TG, REG, KMW, JRR, HDS, ELG, MJS, LAM) and Department of Nutrition (ELG, MJS), Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (AP); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (REG); Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (CLM, JLH, AMDM, TLL); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (JRR, ELG, MJS, LAM, KMW); Divisions of Preventive Medicine and Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (HDS); Pathology Unit, Addarii Institute, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy (MF); Department of Histopathology Research, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland (RF, SF); Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (ML); Department of Oncology (AMDM, TLL) and Department of Urology (ADMD), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background: PTEN is a tumor suppressor frequently deleted in prostate cancer that may be a useful prognostic biomarker. However, the association of PTEN loss with lethal disease has not been tested in a large, predominantly surgically treated cohort.

Methods: In the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study, we followed 1044 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1986 and 2009 for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. A genetically validated PTEN immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was performed on tissue microarrays (TMAs). TMPRSS2:ERG status was previously assessed in a subset of cases by a genetically validated IHC assay for ERG. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and clinical or pathologic TNM stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with lethal disease. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: On average, men were followed 11.7 years, during which there were 81 lethal events. Sixteen percent of cases had complete PTEN loss in all TMA cores and 9% had heterogeneous PTEN loss across cores. After adjustment for clinical-pathologic variables, complete PTEN loss was associated with lethal progression (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.9). The association of PTEN loss (complete or heterogeneous) with lethal progression was only among men with ERG-negative (HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.7) but not ERG-positive (HR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7 to 2.2) tumors.

Conclusions: PTEN loss is independently associated with increased risk of lethal progression, particularly in the ERG fusion-negative subgroup. These validated and inexpensive IHC assays may be useful for risk stratification in prostate cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862436PMC
February 2016

The expanding role of body mass in active surveillance for prostate cancer.

Eur Urol 2014 Nov 15;66(5):849-50. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.06.043DOI Listing
November 2014

Transforming growth factors and receptor as potential modifiable pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.

Mol Carcinog 2015 Sep 9;54(9):821-30. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Increased colorectal epithelial cell proliferation is an early, common event in colorectal carcinogenesis. We conducted a pilot, colonoscopy-based case-control study (n = 49 cases, 154 controls) of incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma to investigate endogenous cell growth factors and receptor, as well as the balance of growth factors, as potential modifiable pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms. We measured transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), TGFβ(1), and TGFβ receptor II (TGFβRII) expression in normal-appearing mucosa from the rectum, sigmoid colon, and ascending colon using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Diet and lifestyle were assessed via questionnaires. The mean ratio of rectal TGFα to TGFβ(1) expression and mean rectal TGFα expression were, respectively, 110% (P = 0.02) and 49% (P = 0.04) higher in cases than in controls, and associated with a more than two-fold (OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.85-6.87) and a 62% (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.63-4.19) higher risk of colorectal adenoma. TGFβ(1) and TGFβRII expression were 6.7% (P = 0.75) and 7.2% (P = 0.49), respectively, lower in cases than in controls. The TGFα/TGFβ(1) expression ratio was 105% higher among smokers than among non-smokers (P = 0.03). These preliminary data suggest that the balance of TGFα and TGFβ(1) expression, and to a lesser extend TGFα alone, in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa may be directly associated with risk for incident, sporadic colorectal neoplasms, as well as with modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22152DOI Listing
September 2015
-->