Publications by authors named "Thomas Spindler"

6 Publications

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Peanut-induced anaphylaxis in children and adolescents: Data from the European Anaphylaxis Registry.

Allergy 2021 May 3;76(5):1517-1527. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Peanut allergy has a rising prevalence in high-income countries, affecting 0.5%-1.4% of children. This study aimed to better understand peanut anaphylaxis in comparison to anaphylaxis to other food triggers in European children and adolescents.

Methods: Data was sourced from the European Anaphylaxis Registry via an online questionnaire, after in-depth review of food-induced anaphylaxis cases in a tertiary paediatric allergy centre.

Results: 3514 cases of food anaphylaxis were reported between July 2007 - March 2018, 56% in patients younger than 18 years. Peanut anaphylaxis was recorded in 459 children and adolescents (85% of all peanut anaphylaxis cases). Previous reactions (42% vs. 38%; p = .001), asthma comorbidity (47% vs. 35%; p < .001), relevant cofactors (29% vs. 22%; p = .004) and biphasic reactions (10% vs. 4%; p = .001) were more commonly reported in peanut anaphylaxis. Most cases were labelled as severe anaphylaxis (Ring&Messmer grade III 65% vs. 56% and grade IV 1.1% vs. 0.9%; p = .001). Self-administration of intramuscular adrenaline was low (17% vs. 15%), professional adrenaline administration was higher in non-peanut food anaphylaxis (34% vs. 26%; p = .003). Hospitalization was higher for peanut anaphylaxis (67% vs. 54%; p = .004).

Conclusions: The European Anaphylaxis Registry data confirmed peanut as one of the major causes of severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reactions in European children, with some characteristic features e.g., presence of asthma comorbidity and increased rate of biphasic reactions. Usage of intramuscular adrenaline as first-line treatment is low and needs to be improved. The Registry, designed as the largest database on anaphylaxis, allows continuous assessment of this condition.
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May 2021

Risk Factors and Characteristics of Biphasic Anaphylaxis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Nov - Dec;8(10):3388-3395.e6. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Anaphylaxis is an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. However, a biphasic course with the second onset of symptoms can occur hours after the initial phase. Little is known about the causes of biphasic anaphylaxis making the identification of patients at risk difficult.

Objective: To identify factors predisposing for biphasic anaphylaxis for the better understanding of these reactions.

Methods: Data from the Anaphylaxis Registry (from 11 countries) including 8736 patients with monophasic and 435 biphasic anaphylaxis were analyzed.

Results: The rate of biphasic reactions in this large cohort was 4.7%. The identified risk factors were reaction severity (grade III/IV vs grade II: odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.62); multiorgan involvement; skin, gastrointestinal, severe respiratory, and cardiac symptoms; anaphylaxis caused by peanut/tree nut (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.38-2.23) or an unknown elicitor (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.41-2.72); exercise as a cofactor (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17-1.78); chronic urticaria as a comorbidity (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.19-3.78); a prolonged interval between the contact with the elicitor and start of primary symptoms (OR for >30 vs <30 min: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.08-1.76); and antihistamine treatment (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.14-2.02).

Conclusion: A biphasic course of anaphylaxis occurs more frequently in severely affected patients with multiorgan involvement. However, we identified multiple additional predictors, suggesting that the pathogenesis of biphasic reactions is more complex than being a rebound of a severe primary reaction.
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May 2021

ARIA guideline 2019: treatment of allergic rhinitis in the German health system.

Allergol Select 2019 30;3(1):22-50. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Mainz,Mainz, Germany.

Background: The number of patients affected by allergies is increasing worldwide. The resulting allergic diseases are leading to significant costs for health care and social systems. Integrated care pathways are needed to enable comprehensive care within the national health systems. The ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative develops internationally applicable guidelines for allergic respiratory diseases.

Methods: ARIA serves to improve the care of patients with allergies and chronic respiratory diseases. In collaboration with other international initiatives, national associations and patient organizations in the field of allergies and respiratory diseases, real-life integrated care pathways have been developed for a digitally assisted, integrative, individualized treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) with comorbid asthma. In the present work, these integrated care pathways have been adapted to the German situation and health system.

Results: The present ICP (integrated care pathway) guideline covers key areas of the care of AR patients with and without asthma. It includes the views of patients and other healthcare providers.

Discussion: A comprehensive ICP guideline can reflect real-life care better than traditional guideline models.
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December 2019

Secondary prevention measures in anaphylaxis patients: Data from the anaphylaxis registry.

Allergy 2020 04 21;75(4):901-910. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Dermatology Venerology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Patients with a history of anaphylaxis are at risk of future anaphylactic reactions. Thus, secondary prevention measures are recommended for these patients to prevent or attenuate the next reaction.

Methods: Data from the Anaphylaxis Registry were analyzed to identify secondary prevention measures offered to patients who experienced anaphylaxis. Our analysis included 7788 cases from 10 European countries and Brazil.

Results: The secondary prevention measures offered varied across the elicitors. A remarkable discrepancy was observed between prevention measures offered in specialized allergy centers (84% of patients were prescribed adrenaline autoinjectors following EAACI guidelines) and outside the centers: Here, EAACI guideline adherence was only 37%. In the multivariate analysis, the elicitor of the reaction, age of the patient, mastocytosis as comorbidity, severity of the reaction, and reimbursement/availability of the autoinjector influence physician's decision to prescribe one.

Conclusions: Based on the low implementation of guidelines concerning secondary prevention measures outside of specialized allergy centers, our findings highlight the importance of these specialized centers and the requirement of better education for primary healthcare and emergency physicians.
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April 2020

Epinephrine in Severe Allergic Reactions: The European Anaphylaxis Register.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Nov - Dec;6(6):1898-1906.e1. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Current guidelines recommend intramuscular administration of epinephrine as the first-line drug for the emergency treatment of severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis), but no randomized trial evidence supports this consensus.

Objective: We aimed to assess anaphylaxis treatment practices over 10 years, covering several European regions, all allergen sources, and all age groups.

Methods: The European Anaphylaxis Register tracks elicitors, symptoms, emergency treatment, diagnostic workups, and long-term counseling for anaphylaxis incidents through web-based data entry from tertiary allergy specialists, covering information from the emergency respondent, patient, tertiary referral, and laboratory/clinical test results.

Results: We analyzed 10,184 anaphylaxis incidents. In total, 27.1% of patients treated by a health professional received epinephrine and, in total, 10.5% received a second dose. Successful administration was less frequent in German-speaking countries (minimum 19.6%) than in Greece, France, and Spain (maximum 66.7%). Over the last decade, epinephrine administration from a health professional almost doubled to reach 30.6% in 2015-2017, half of which was applied intramuscularly. A total of 14.7% of lay- or self-treated cases were treated with an autoinjector. Of those without treatment, 22.4% carried a device for administration. No change in successful administration by lay emergency respondents was found over the last 10 years. Of the reaction and patient characteristics analyzed, only clinical severity considerably influenced the likelihood of receiving epinephrine, with 66.9% of successful administrations in near-fatal (grade IV) reactions.

Conclusions: Despite clear recommendations, only a small proportion of anaphylaxis incidents are treated with epinephrine. We demonstrated a slight increase in treated patients when handled by professionals, but stagnation in lay- or self-treated anaphylaxis. The reaction circumstances, the respondent's professional background, and patient characteristics did not explain which reactions were treated.
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November 2019

Anaphylaxis in children and adolescents: The European Anaphylaxis Registry.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 Apr 21;137(4):1128-1137.e1. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Anaphylaxis in children and adolescents is a potentially life-threatening condition. Its heterogeneous clinical presentation and sudden occurrence in virtually any setting without warning have impeded a comprehensive description.

Objective: We sought to characterize severe allergic reactions in terms of elicitors, symptoms, emergency treatment, and long-term management in European children and adolescents.

Methods: The European Anaphylaxis Registry recorded details of anaphylaxis after referral for in-depth diagnosis and counseling to 1 of 90 tertiary allergy centers in 10 European countries, aiming to oversample the most severe reactions. Data were retrieved from medical records by using a multilanguage online form.

Results: Between July 2007 and March 2015, anaphylaxis was identified in 1970 patients younger than 18 years. Most incidents occurred in private homes (46%) and outdoors (19%). One third of the patients had experienced anaphylaxis previously. Food items were the most frequent trigger (66%), followed by insect venom (19%). Cow's milk and hen's egg were prevalent elicitors in the first 2 years, hazelnut and cashew in preschool-aged children, and peanut at all ages. There was a continuous shift from food- to insect venom- and drug-induced anaphylaxis up to age 10 years, and there were few changes thereafter. Vomiting and cough were prevalent symptoms in the first decade of life, and subjective symptoms (nausea, throat tightness, and dizziness) were prevalent later in life. Thirty percent of cases were lay treated, of which 10% were treated with an epinephrine autoinjector. The fraction of intramuscular epinephrine in professional emergency treatment increased from 12% in 2011 to 25% in 2014. Twenty-six (1.3%) patients were either admitted to the intensive care unit or had grade IV/fatal reactions.

Conclusions: The European Anaphylaxis Registry confirmed food as the major elicitor of anaphylaxis in children, specifically hen's egg, cow's milk, and nuts. Reactions to insect venom were seen more in young adulthood. Intensive care unit admissions and grade IV/fatal reactions were rare. The registry will serve as a systematic foundation for a continuous description of this multiform condition.
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April 2016