Publications by authors named "Thomas R Jeffry Evans"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers Predictive of Survival Benefit with Lenvatinib in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: From the Phase III REFLECT Study.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Purpose: In REFLECT, lenvatinib demonstrated an effect on overall survival (OS) by confirmation of noninferiority to sorafenib in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. This analysis assessed correlations between serum or tissue biomarkers and efficacy outcomes from REFLECT.

Experimental Design: Serum biomarkers (VEGF, ANG2, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in tumor tissues was measured by the nCounter PanCancer Pathways Panel. Pharmacodynamic changes in serum biomarker levels from baseline, and associations of clinical outcomes with baseline biomarker levels, were evaluated.

Results: Four hundred and seven patients were included in the serum analysis set (lenvatinib = 279, sorafenib = 128); 58 patients were included in the gene-expression analysis set (lenvatinib = 34, sorafenib = 24). Both treatments were associated with increases in VEGF; only lenvatinib was associated with increases in FGF19 and FGF23 at all time points. Lenvatinib-treated responders had greater increases in FGF19 and FGF23 versus nonresponders at cycle 4, day 1 (FGF19: 55.2% vs. 18.3%, = 0.014; FGF23: 48.4% vs. 16.4%, = 0.0022, respectively). Higher baseline VEGF, ANG2, and FGF21 correlated with shorter OS in both treatment groups. OS was longer for lenvatinib than sorafenib [median, 10.9 vs. 6.8 months, respectively; HR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.85; interaction = 0.0397] with higher baseline FGF21. In tumor tissue biomarker analysis, VEGF/FGF-enriched groups showed improved OS with lenvatinib versus the intermediate VEGF/FGF group (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.91; = 0.0253).

Conclusions: Higher baseline levels of VEGF, FGF21, and ANG2 may be prognostic for shorter OS. Higher baseline FGF21 may be predictive for longer OS with lenvatinib compared with sorafenib, but this needs confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4219DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantitative Multiplex Immunofluorescence Evaluation of the Tumor Microenvironment in Pretreatment Tumors of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer and Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Treated with Liposomal Eribulin.

Cancer Invest 2021 Jul-Aug;39(6-7):466-472. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Eribulin inhibits microtubule polymerization and suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Conventional pathology approaches have not identified a precise predictive biomarker for Eribulin. We performed qmIF on pre-treatment tissue from 11 patients (6 TNBC, 5 HGSOC) treated with Eribulin-LF. T-lymphocytes were the dominant immune-subset in TME, with higher levels detected in stroma vs tumor (9% vs 2%). Greater density of CD3+ ( = 0.01) and CD3 + CD8+ ( = 0.03) cells and closer proximity between CD3 + CD8+ and tumor cells was observed in the patients with disease control (PR + SD) vs. progressive disease. QmIF identified an association between TIL infiltration and Eribulin-LF sensitivity, which should be evaluated further in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07357907.2021.1938109DOI Listing
July 2021

Analyses of PD-L1 and Inflammatory Gene Expression Association with Efficacy of Nivolumab ± Ipilimumab in Gastric Cancer/Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 29;27(14):3926-3935. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey.

Purpose: In advanced gastric cancer/gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC), there is a need to identify biomarkers of response to therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Patients And Methods: In exploratory analyses from CheckMate 032 (GC/GEJC cohort), we evaluated associations between nivolumab ± ipilimumab (NIVO ± IPI) efficacy and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, defined by tumor cells (% TC) or combined positive score (CPS; sum of PD-L1-staining TCs + immune cells, divided by total viable TCs, × 100) using the Dako PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx assay, or inflammatory gene expression.

Results: There was a trend toward increased efficacy (objective response and overall survival) when PD-L1 expression was determined by CPS compared with % TC at higher cutoffs of ≥5 and ≥10 in the pooled analysis of all treatment regimens. In this analysis, 19% and 26% of patients with PD-L1-positive tumors at a CPS cutoff of ≥5 and ≥10, respectively, had an objective response compared with 8% and 9% of patients at the equivalent % TC cutoffs. Longer survival was demonstrated in patients with PD-L1-positive (defined by CPS cutoffs of ≥5 and ≥10) versus PD-L1-negative status. Similar results were observed in the NIVO 1 mg/kg + IPI 3 mg/kg subgroup. Multiple inflammatory gene signatures/transcripts, including a signature consisting of four genes (, and ), showed associations with response to NIVO ± IPI.

Conclusions: This study suggests a greater association of PD-L1 expression by CPS with NIVO ± IPI efficacy compared with % TC PD-L1 expression in patients with GC/GEJC. Inflammatory signatures were also associated with NIVO ± IPI response, warranting further investigation..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2790DOI Listing
July 2021

Tebentafusp, A TCR/Anti-CD3 Bispecific Fusion Protein Targeting gp100, Potently Activated Antitumor Immune Responses in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 11 18;26(22):5869-5878. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, Yale, Connecticut.

Purpose: Tebentafusp is a first-in-class bispecific fusion protein designed to target gp100 (a melanoma-associated antigen) through a high affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) binding domain and an anti-CD3 T-cell engaging domain, which redirects T cells to kill gp100-expressing tumor cells. Here, we report a multicenter phase I/II trial of tebentafusp in metastatic melanoma (NCT01211262) focusing on the mechanism of action of tebentafusp.

Patients And Methods: Eighty-four patients with advanced melanoma received tebentafusp. Treatment efficacy, treatment-related adverse events, and biomarker assessments were performed for blood-derived and tumor biopsy samples obtained at baseline and on-treatment.

Results: Tebentafusp was generally well-tolerated and active in both patients with metastatic uveal melanoma and patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. A 1-year overall survival rate of 65% was achieved for both patient cohorts. On-treatment cytokine measurements were consistent with the induction of IFNγ pathway-related markers in the periphery and tumor. Notably, tebentafusp induced an increase in serum CXCL10 (a T-cell attractant) and a reduction in circulating CXCR3 CD8 T cells together with an increase in cytotoxic T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, increased serum CXCL10 or the appearance of rash (likely due to cytotoxic T cells targeting gp100-expressing skin melanocytes) showed a positive association with patient survival.

Conclusions: These data suggest that redirecting T cells using a gp100-targeting TCR/anti-CD3 bispecific fusion protein may provide benefit to patients with metastatic melanoma. Furthermore, the activity observed in these two molecularly disparate melanoma classes hints at the broad therapeutic potential of tebentafusp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1247DOI Listing
November 2020

Covariate-adjusted analysis of the Phase 3 REFLECT study of lenvatinib versus sorafenib in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2020 06 8;122(12):1754-1759. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Health Economics and HTA, Purple Squirrel Economics, New York, NY, USA.

Background: In the Phase 3 REFLECT trial in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC), the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lenvatinib, was noninferior to sorafenib in the primary outcome of overall survival. Post-hoc review revealed imbalances in prognostic variables between treatment arms. Here, we re-analyse overall survival data from REFLECT to adjust for the imbalance in covariates.

Methods: Univariable and multivariable adjustments were undertaken for a candidate set of covariate values that a physician panel indicated could be prognostically associated with overall survival in uHCC. The values included baseline variables observed pre- and post-randomisation. Univariable analyses were based on a stratified Cox model. The multivariable analysis used a "forwards stepwise" Cox model.

Results: Univariable analysis identified alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as the most influential variable. The chosen multivariable Cox model analysis resulted in an estimated adjusted hazard ratio for lenvatinib of 0.814 (95% CI: 0.699-0.948) when only baseline variables were included. Adjusting for post-randomisation treatment variables further increased the estimated superiority of lenvatinib.

Conclusions: Covariate adjustment of REFLECT suggests that the original noninferiority trial likely underestimated the true effect of lenvatinib on overall survival due to an imbalance in baseline prognostic covariates and the greater use of post-treatment therapies in the sorafenib arm.

Trial Registration: Trial number: NCT01761266 (Submitted January 2, 2013).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0817-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283323PMC
June 2020

Effects of Subsequent Systemic Anticancer Medication Following First-Line Lenvatinib: A Post Hoc Responder Analysis from the Phase 3 REFLECT Study in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2020 Jan 16;9(1):93-104. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

nGeffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, UCLA Medical Center, Santa Monica, California, USA.

Introduction: Understanding the relationship between subsequent-line therapies and overall survival (OS) is important for maximizing OS for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Objective: In this post hoc analysis, we investigated OS in lenvatinib- and sorafenib-treated patients from the REFLECT study, who then received subsequent anticancer medication during the survival follow-up period.

Methods: The follow-up period commenced at the first off-treatment visit after stopping the study medication and continued until study termination, withdrawal of consent, or death. OS and objective response rate were calculated for patients who did or did not receive poststudy anticancer medication for both treatment arms, as well as for the overall cohort. We investigated the subset of patients who responded to first-line treatment and subsequently received anticancer medication.

Results: The OS for patients initially randomized to first-line lenvatinib (versus first-line sorafenib) and who then received any subsequent anticancer medication was 20.8 vs. 17.0 months (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87; 95% CI 0.67-1.14). The OS for patients who initially received first-line lenvatinib (versus first-line sorafenib) and who did not receive any subsequent anticancer medication was 11.5 vs. 9.1 months (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.75-1.09). Responders to first-line lenvatinib who received subsequent medication had a median OS of 25.7 months (95% CI 18.5-34.6); responders to first line-sorafenib who received subsequent medication had a median OS of 22.3 months (95% CI 14.6-not evaluable).

Conclusions: In this post hoc analysis of all patients in the REFLECT study who received subsequent anticancer medication, OS was increased compared with patients who did not receive any subsequent anticancer medication. In a subset analysis of responders who had received subsequent anticancer medication, use of first-line lenvatinib led to a slightly longer median OS; more research is needed on the benefits of using first-line lenvatinib compared with sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7024884PMC
January 2020

Correction: Urine protein:creatinine ratio vs 24-hour urine protein for proteinuria management: analysis from the phase 3 REFLECT study of lenvatinib vs sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2019 Oct;121(7):625

Tisch Cancer Institute at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

This article was originally published under a standard license to Publish, but has now been made available under a CC BY license. The PDF and HTML versions of the paper have been modified accordingly.An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0534-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889263PMC
October 2019

Urine protein:creatinine ratio vs 24-hour urine protein for proteinuria management: analysis from the phase 3 REFLECT study of lenvatinib vs sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2019 07 28;121(3):218-221. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Tisch Cancer Institute at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Proteinuria monitoring is required in patients receiving lenvatinib, however, current methodology involves burdensome overnight urine collection.

Methods: To determine whether the simpler urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPCR) calculated from spot urine samples could be accurately used for proteinuria monitoring in patients receiving lenvatinib, we evaluated the correlation between UPCR and 24-hour urine protein results from the phase 3 REFLECT study. Paired data (323 tests, 154 patients) were analysed.

Results: Regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between UPCR and 24-hour urine protein (R: 0.75; P < 2 × 10). A UPCR cut-off value of 2.4 had 96.9% sensitivity, 82.5% specificity for delineating between grade 2 and 3 proteinuria. Using this UPCR cut-off value to determine the need for further testing could reduce the need for 24-hour urine collection in ~74% of patients.

Conclusion: Incorporation of UPCR into the current algorithm for proteinuria management can enable optimisation of lenvatinib treatment, while minimising patient inconvenience.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01761266.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0506-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738107PMC
July 2019

Targeting the LOX/hypoxia axis reverses many of the features that make pancreatic cancer deadly: inhibition of LOX abrogates metastasis and enhances drug efficacy.

EMBO Mol Med 2015 Aug;7(8):1063-76

Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute Garscube Estate, Glasgow, UK

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Despite significant advances made in the treatment of other cancers, current chemotherapies offer little survival benefit in this disease. Pancreaticoduodenectomy offers patients the possibility of a cure, but most will die of recurrent or metastatic disease. Hence, preventing metastatic disease in these patients would be of significant benefit. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified a LOX/hypoxia signature associated with poor patient survival in resectable patients. We found that LOX expression is upregulated in metastatic tumors from Pdx1-Cre Kras(G12D/+) Trp53(R172H/+) (KPC) mice and that inhibition of LOX in these mice suppressed metastasis. Mechanistically, LOX inhibition suppressed both migration and invasion of KPC cells. LOX inhibition also synergized with gemcitabine to kill tumors and significantly prolonged tumor-free survival in KPC mice with early-stage tumors. This was associated with stromal alterations, including increased vasculature and decreased fibrillar collagen, and increased infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into tumors. Therefore, LOX inhibition is able to reverse many of the features that make PDAC inherently refractory to conventional therapies and targeting LOX could improve outcome in surgically resectable disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201404827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4551344PMC
August 2015
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